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COPYBtGHT, 1893 

The Open Court Publishing Co. 







Alien's Fourth of July, An. Hermann Lieb 3727 

American Moralist, An. L. M. Billia 3583 

Animals, Man and the Lower. Edmund Noble 3575 

Animals, The Rights of. Thomas C. Laws 3791 

Anti-Semitism, The Mask ot. Felix L. Oswald 3907 

Apocrypha, Ciiapters from tlie New Hudor Genoiie 

3772. 3776. 3820, 3827, 3836, 3884, 3901 

Arms, On Swinging the. Is It a Vestige of Quadrupedal Locomotion ? 

Louis Robinson 3730 

Atavism. Felix L. Oswald ' 3705 

Atheism, Epicurism, i. e., the Crown of Creeds and Philosophies. R. 

Lewins 3544 

Autos-da-fe. Felix L. Oswald 3567 

Beginning. In the. Hudor Genone m^ 

Blind Man, The Parable of the, Hudor Genone 3901 

Boston Marriages. Susan Channing 3801 

Box. The Little. Hudor Genone ._? 3820 

Brahman, The Redemption of. Richard Garbe .' 

3S04, 3818, 3832, 3S42, 3848, 3857, 3866. 3874 

Catastrophe, The Final. Mary Proctor 

Catholic World's Congi'^ss at Chicago. rTogramme of. G. Koeriier . 

Cellular Genesis Explains Heredity. T B. Wakeman 

Centennial, Cornell's Quarter-. Theodore Stanton 

Chapters from the New Apocrypha. Hudor Genone 

3772, 3776. 3820. 3S27. 3S36, 3ti84, 

Christian Faith ? What Is. Charles S. Pence 

Christmas, The Dog's. Hudor Genone 

Clergymen, Union of Liberal. Jenkin Lloyd Jones 

Columbian Exposition, Fine Art at the. Eugene Parsons 

Cornell's Liberal Spirit. Theodore Stanton 

Cornell's Quarter-centennial. Theodore Stanton 

Creation. Hudor Genone 1 

Crisis, The Lesson of Our Financial Hermann Lieb ■ 

Critical Remarks on Weismannism. George J. Romanes 

Crown of Creeds and Philosophies, Epicurism, i. e. Atheism the. R. 

Current Topics ; Increasing the Presidential Term. — A Single Term for 
the President.— Shutting the Gates. — Vivisection. ^The Rights of Ani- 
mals, 3515 ; Peace and Submission, — Industry Made Criminal. — The 
Decay of Liberty in Wyoming, 3525 ; Keep Out the Rags.— Educa- 
tional Clubs.— Albert (ouvrier). — A Revolution That Went Backwards. 
— Party Higher than the Commonweal.- Altgeld on Magna Charta, 
3532 ; The Humor of a Politician. — The Ethics of Larceny. — The 
Chief Executive.— Diplomas for Statesmen, 3539 ; Was the Monroe 
Doctrine Bribed ?— Rich Men for the Senate. — Diplomas for Judges. — 
The Cronin Case and the Anarchist Case. — Spurious Americanism. — 
Natural Allegiance and Political Allegiance. 3547 ; Annexing Hawaii. 
— International Piracy. — Sunday Closing of the Fair. — A Divorce 
Court.— Gambling Suppressed, 3555 ; Partisan Funerals. — Not Quite 
so "Aggressive." — The Strike of the Preachers. — Shall the World's 
Fair Be Opened with Prayer ? — Oblique Impeachment. — What Are 
Psychical Phenomena? 3565; Fads in the Public Schools. — The 
Causes of Rtpublican Defeat. — The Sale of the Monroe Doctrine. — 
Law and Justice Dispensed With. — Who Are " Worshippers " ? 3572 ; 
American Laureates. — Hero Worship. — Imperial Spoons. — Pensions 
for Votes.— Washington Shorn.— Say Nothing About the American 
Revolution.— Raise the Standard of the Bench, 3581 ; The Inaugura- 
tion and the Prize-Fight. — The Science of Municipal Corruption. — 
Americans Nominated by Mistake. — A Distinguished Communicant. — 
Shall We Annex the Tonga Islands ?— Congress and the Bear Garden. 
— Mohammedan Missionaries in America, 3589 ; Legislative Integrity. 
—A Sectarian Penitentiary. — The Ingratitude of Presidents. — A Vic- 
tory Without Spoils. — Buying Clothes Abroad, 3597 ; Prematurely An- 
nexing Canada.— Side Shows at the Fair. — Tolerant Construction of 
the Laws.— Saving Funeral Expenses. — National Boasting, 3605 ; Hu- 
man Vengeance and Divine Forgiveness. — High Castes and Low 
Castes.— The Levelling Power of the Ballot.— The Divine Blessing.— 
The Broken Hope of an Extra Session.— Presidential Sovereignty, 
3612; "Corn-Bread" Murphy.— Pulpit Electioneering —The Oblique 
March to a Direct Point.— The Right to Reform.— Office as a Thera- 





peutic Agent.— Excursion Rates and Cheap Admission. 3620; Choose 
What Office Thou Wilt in the Land.— A Man VVno Refuses Office.— 
The Small Fee at the World's Fair.— Mr. liarnum s Sliglit Advance. 
—The Duplicity of Politicians.— How to Elect a Man by Reviling Him, 
362s; Degenerate Sons of the Prophet —Too Frightfully Much Ora- 
tory.— Calling Time on the Speakers.— Arbitration Instead of Guns, 
3637: The Flag Lowered. — Backing Out.- National Pet Names.— 
Convening a City by Contract —Western Taste for Art.— .\ Carnival 
of Buttons.— Stimulating Vanity, 3644 ; The Measure of a Conscience. 
—The Treaty with Russia.— Russian Methods in Illinois,— The Right 
to Wear Whiskers.— The Office Seeks the Man. — Special Studies in 
the Schools, 3652; The Lesson of the Liberty Bell.— Worshipping the 
President.- Theological Deportment.— The Spirit of Smithfieid — 
Should the Russian Treaty Be Confirmed i* —Assassin tion as apo- 
litical Remedy, 3674; The Ministers on Sunday Closing.— A Sunday 
Fourth of July.— A Prayer for Cyclones and Cholera.- The Geary 
Law.— Mohammedanism in America.— Conference of Editors, 3684; 
Brimstone Sermons.— Pretended Reverence for the Law.— Decoration 
Day.— The Gettysburg Reunion —What Would Grant Have Done? — 
Civil and Constitutional Liberty, 3692: The Trial of Dr. Briggs.- 
The Despotism of Party.— Nu New Thing Under the Sun -The Anti- 
Trust Convention.— Larceny as a Political Remedy, 3700 ; Don't You 
Know You Mustn't Think ? — Candidates for Martyrdom.— An Un- 
known Hero.— The Financial Situation. — Imitating i\Ionarchy.— For- 
feiting a Name, 3708; Censure for Murder.— How Judges Differ. — 
Fossil Theology.— The Tariff on Frogs.— Ancestral Pride. 3717 : The 
Loss of the Victoria, — The Cabinet on the Silver Question— The Par- 
don of the Anarchists.— Mock Reverence for the Courts 3724; Un- 
derrated Man. — Artificial Rain.— Excepting the Anarchists.— Too 
Much Prosperity.— The Gospel of Scarcity.— The Etiquette of Sa- 
lutes, 3732: Afraid of Congress. — Raising the Price of Justice. — A 
New Rebellion. — Modern Chivalry.— Theologv in the Sctiools.— A 
Judge Rings the Alarm-Bell, 3741 ; A Dangerous Art.— The Gospel of 
Realities.— A Non-Partisan Ticket.— Kansas Politics. —The Party 
Chameleon, 374S ; Herbert Spencer on Tips. — Tip-Taking in Amer- 
ica.— Dear Money for the Workingman.—" Guilty," But Didn't In- 
tend to Do It —A Scarcity of Schools, 3756 ; " The Watch-Dog of the 
Treasury. "—Equal Representation in the Senate.— The Fiat Power. 
— Advertising Bank Presidents. — The Comedy of Prayer. — The Elec- 
tion Circus, 3772 ; Rejecting Silver.— The Distinguished Gentleman. 
—The Birthday of Oliver Wendell Holmes.— The ParliamenL of Re- 
ligions. ^A Blending of Creeds. 3797 ; Mixing Theologies, — Dwelling 
Together in Unity.— Are All Men Equal Before the Law ^ 3821 ; Mr. 
Gladstone and the Lords.— The New Liberty Bell.— The Money 
Power.— The Van Alen Case. 3828; Injustice to the Jews.— Buying 
and Selling Offices. — Office as a Social Distinction, 3S36 ; Lecturing 
by Substitute.— Chicago Day at the Fair.— Barnum at the Exposition. 
—The Tournament in the Senate, 3845 ; Sitting on Kegs of Powder.— 
The Senate and the House of Lords.— Shall the Minority Ru'e ?— 
Lucy Stone Blackwell. 3S53 ; The Sherman Law as a Scapegoat. — 
Will Prices Rise or Fall ? — Ithuriel's Spear.— The Patronage Ques- 
tion.— A Converted Missionary —Hope for Heathen and Chrisfan, 
3860; The Assassination and Its Lessons. 3869; "Personal Men- 
tions" in Newspapers. — The Glorification of the Past— The Statue 
of General Shields.— Mr. Stead's Conundrums, 3909 , The Cold Wave 
Stimulates Charity.— The Moral Character of Charity.— Meat and 
Potato Religion. — The Jenkins Case, — A " Town-Meeting Verdict." 
3917; Feeding Tramps. —Saving the Rich.— The " United States .A,re.'' 
— Taxing the Foreigners, 3921,. M. M. Trumbull. 

Darwin, Weismann and. George J. Romanes 3721 

Days. Holy. Perry Marshall 3gg_, 

Dec4ine of the Senate. The. M. ^L Trumbull 3895 

Deceptions, Psychological. M.M.Trumbull 3639 

Democratic Ideal in Literature. The. Charlotte Porter 3560 

Dog's Christmas, The. Hudor Genone -,911 

Do Not Force Your Religion on Others. Edward C. Hegeler ^799 

Economy, Individualism and Political. Victor Varros 3591 

Education ? What is a Liberal. F. M. Holland 3631 

Etifeminisation of Man. The. E. U. Cope 3847 

THE OPEN COURT.-Index to Volume VIL 



Epicurism, i. e. Atheism. The Crown of Creeds and Philosophies. R. 

Lewins 3544 

Ethics of Greece, The. W. L. Sheldon 3521 

Ethics of Legal Tender. The. M.M.Trumbull 3760 

Faith ? What is Christian. Charles S. Peirce 3743 

Father and Mother. Heavenlv. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 3765 

Faust. The Salvation of. F.M.Holland 3»3i 

Final Catastrophe, The. Mary Proctor 3562 

Financial Crisis. The Lesson i f Our. Hermann Lleb 3767 

Fine Art at the Columbian Exposition. Eugene Parsons 3841 

Force Your Religion on Others. Do Not E. C. Hegeler 3799 

Fourth of July, An Alien's. Hermann Lieb 3727 

Free Schools, The Pope's Pontifical Letter on. G, Koerner 3728 

French University Students. Theodore Stanton 3839 

Future of Religion, The. M. M. Snell 3823 

Genesis. Cellular. Explains Heredity. T. B. Wakeman 3871 

George's Perplexed Philosopher. Mr. Henry. Louis Behose, Jr 3665 

God " He." Why We Call. Merwin-Marie Snell ... 37G4 

God in Man, Worship of. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 3850 

Gods. Mothers and Sons of. Moncure D. Conway 3671, 3687, 3703 

God's Presence with His People. Hudor Genone 3827 

Goethe's Poem on a Child's Development 3878 

Good Luck to All. Hudor Genone 3745 

Gospel of Work. Happiness and the. Victor Yarros 3807 

Great Parliament of Religions, The. Allen Pringle 3855, 3863 

Greece. The Ethics of. W. L. Sheldon 3521 

Happiness and the Gospel of Work. Victor Yarros 

Hawaiian Treaty and the Monroe Doctrine, The. G. Koerner... 

"He." Why We Call God. Merwin-Marie Snell 

Heavenly Father and Mother. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 

Heaven. The Kingdom of, Hudor Genone . 

Heredity, Cellular Genesis Explains. T. B. Wakeman 

Higher Spiritualism, The. — Space and Matter. John E. Purdon. 

Holy Days. Perry Marshall 

How Did He Use His Opportunities ? Morrison L Swift 

Ideal in Literature, The Democratic. Charlotte Porter 

Individualism and Political Economy, Victor Yarros 

Inquiries, An Early Society for Political. A Historical Document. 

cure D. Conway 

Is Reincarnation a Natural Law ? Thomas Williams 





Jesus' Sake, For. Hudor Genone 3884 

Jhering's View of Shylock's Case, Professor Von 3860 

Justice and Labor. Victor Yarros 3647 

Labor, Justice and. Victor Yarros 

Lamor on Mount Sinai. Hudor Genone 

Large Numbers. Hermann Schubert 3903, 

Last Summer's Lesson. F. M. Holland 

Ledge, The View From My. Alice Bodington 3881, 

Legal Tender, The Ethics of. M. M. Trumbull 

Legerdemain. The Psychology of. Max Dessoir 3599, 3608, 3616, 3626. 

Lesson of Our Financial Crisis, The. Hermann Lieb 

Liberal Clergymen, Union of. Jenkin Lloyd Jones 

Liberal Education? What Is a. F. M. Holland 

Liberty. A Historical Study. Moncure D.Conway 3887,3905, 

Literature. The Democratic Ideal in. Charlotte Porter 

London Society, Story of an Old. Moncure D. Conway 

- 3751. 3762, 3768. 3777. 3786, 

Lore, Vampire. L. J. Vance 

Loss of Faith in Science, Renan's. John Dewey 

Lower Animals. Man and the. Edmund Noble 

Luck to All. Good. Hudor Genone 




Natural Law? Is Reincarnation a. Thomas Williams 3898 

New Apocrypha, Chapters From the. Hudor Genone 

^^ ■■ 3772. 3776. 3820, 3827, 3836, 3884, 3901 

Numbers, Large. Hermann Schubert 3903, 3914 

Open Still. F. M. Holland 3695 

Maccall, William. Amos Waters 

Man and the Lower Animals. Edmund Noble 

Man, The Efteminisation of. ED. Cope ^ 

Marriage of Religion and Science, The. Charles S. Peirce 

Marriages, Boston. Susan Channing 

Mask of Anti-Semitism, The. Felix L. Oswald 

Men and Women as Social Beings. Irene A. Safford 

Meteorology in the Universities. Theodore Stanton 

Method, The Monistic. W. Stewart Ross .' 

Modern Psychology. Th. Ribot and. Edward Sokal 

Monistic Method, The. W. Stewart Ross 

Monroe Doctrine, The Hawaiian Treaty and the. G. Koerner 

Moralist. An American. L. M. Biilia 

Mother, Heavenly Father and. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 

Mother ? Who Is His. Hudor Genone 

Mothers and Sons of Gods. Moncure D. Conway '. . .3671, 3687, 

Mothers, Not Politicians, Wanted. Hermann Lieb 


Opportunities ? How Did He L^se His. Morrison I. Swift ;. 3640 

Others. Do Not Force Your Religion on. Edward C. Hegeler 3799 

Pardoning Power, The. M. M. Trumbull 3879 

Parliament of Religions, The Great. Allen Pringle 3855, 3863 

Penology. Two Systems of. M. M. Trumbull 3747 

Perplexed Philosopher, Mr. Henry George's. Louis Belrose, Jr. . ." 3665 

Political Economy, Individualism and. Victor Yarros 3591 

Political Inquiries, An Early Society for. A Historical Document. Mon- 
cure D. Conway 3815 

Pontifical Letter on Free Schools, The Pope's G. Koerner 3728 

Pope's Pontifical Letter on Free Schools. The. G. Koerner / 3728 

Power. The Pardoning. M.M.Trumbull 3879 

Programme of the Catholic World's Congress at Chicago. G. Koerner.. 3825 

Prophecy. Volney's. Cora Linn Daniels. . . 3707 

Psychological Deceptions. M. M. Trumbull 3639 

Psychology of Legerdemain. The. Max Dessoir 3599. 3608, 3616, 3626, 3633 

Psychology. Th. Ribot and Modern. Edward Sokal 3655 

Quarter-Centennial, Cornell's. Theodore Stanton ^ 3719 

Reciprocity and South America. M. M. Trumbull 

Redemption of the Brahman. The, Richard Garbe 

3S0.1 , 381S, 3832. 3842, 3848. 3857, 3866. 

Reincarnation a Natural Law ? Is. Thomas Williams 

Religion and Science. The Marriage of. Charles S. Peirce 

Religion of Science as a Basis lor a Universal Religious Union, The. 

Merwin-Marie Snell 

Religion on Others. Do Not Force Your. Edward C. Hegeler 

Religion, The Future of. M. M. Snell 

Religions, The Great Parliament of. Allen Pringle 3855, 

Renan's Loss of Faith in Science. John Dewey 

Reviews be Signed ? Should. Calvin Thomas 

Ribot and Modern Psychology. Th. Edward Sokal 

Rights of Animals, The. Thos. C. Laws 

Rousseau. John Sandison 

Salvation of Faust. The. F. M. Holland 

Sawing and Splitting. Hudor Genone .' 

Scheme, A Socialistic. (With Remarks by M. M. Trumbull.) Morrison 
L Swift 

Science. The Religion of. as a Basis for a Universal Religious Union. 
Merwin-Marie Snell 

Science, Renan's Loss of Faith in. John Dewey 

Science, The Marriage of Religion and. Charles S. Peirce 

Senate, The Decline of the. M. M. Trumbull 

Should Reviews be Signed ? Calvin Thomas 

Shylock's Case. Professor Von Jhering's View of 

Social Beings. Men and Women as. Irene A. Safford 

Socialistic Scheme, A. {With Remarks by M. M. Trumbull.) Morrison 
I.Swift , 

Society for Political Inquiries, An Early. A Historical Document. Mon- 
cure D. Conway 

Society, Story of an Old London. Moncure D. Conway 

3751. 3762, 3768, 3777. 3786, 

Sons of Gods, Mothers and. Moncure D. Conway 3671, 3687, 

South America, Reciprocity and, M. M. Trumbull 

Splitting, Sawing and. Hudor Genone 

Spiritualism, Mas Dessoir 

Spiritualism. A Reply. J, C. F. Grumbine 

Spiritualism, The Higher. — Space and Matter. John E. Purdon. 

Still, Open. F. M. Holland 

Story of an Old London Society Moncure D. Conway 

3751. 3762.3768.3777. 3786, 

Students, French University. Theodore Stanton 

Swinging the Arms, On. Is It a Vestige of Quadrupedal Locomotion? 
Louis Robinson 

Synthesis, The Universal. F. De Gissac 












Thought-Conception. C. Staniland Wake 36S2 

Union of Liberal Clergymen, Jenkin Lloyd Jones 3580 

Union, The Religion of Science as a Basis for a Universal Religious. 

Merwin-Marie Snell 3799 

Universal Religious Union. The Religion of Science as a Basis for a. 

Merwin-Marie Snell 3799 

Universal Synthesis, The. F. De Gissac 3629 

Universities. Meteorology in the. Theodore Stanton 3923 

University Students, French. Theodore Stanton 3839 

Vampire Lore. L. J. Vance 3607 

View From My Ledge. The. Alice Bodington 3881, 3888 

Volney's Prophecy. Cora Linn Daniels 3707 

W^anted, Mothers, Not Politicians. Hermann Lieb 3816 

Weismannism. Critical Remarks on. George J. Romanes 3721 

Weismann and Darwin. George J. Romanes 3775 

What Is a Liberal Education ? F., M. Holland 3631 

What Is Christian Faith ? Charles S. Peirce 3743 

Why We Call God •• He." Merwin Marie Snell 3764 

Women as Social Beings, Men and. Irene A. Safford 3615 

Worship of God in Man. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 3850 



Absolute. The 3594 

Abstraction 3569 

Aliens Wanted , 3759 

Annexation and International Stealing 3557 

Association Philosophy. The 361 1 

Axioms 3752 

Catechism, A, The Religion of Science 

3634. 3640. 3649. 3658, 3668, 3672 

Christ, A Modern 3545 

Christ and the Christians : A Contrast 3696 

Christians: Christ and the, A Contrast 3696 

Confession of Faith, Professor Haeckel's 3528 


Consolation of Errors, The. {In Reply to Mrs. 

Alice Bodington.* 3891 

Contrast, Christ and the Christians : A 3696 

Destiny, Ideas, Their Origin and 3529 

Dimensions of Space, TheProblem of theThree 3721 

THE OPEN COURT.-Index to Volume VII. 

EDITORIALS— Continued. 


•Ego as Identity of Self. The 3900 

Errors, The Consolation of. (In Reply to Mrs. 

Alice Bodington.) 3891 

Ethics of Evolutionism, The 3886 

Evolutionism, The Ethics of 38S6 

Experience 3602 

Faith. Professor Haeckel's Confession of 352S 

Formal, The 3^79 

Grasshopper, The 3663 

-Grief at Unbelief 3579 

Haeckel's Confession of Faith. Professor 3528 

Harmony of Science and Religion, The 3553 

Ideas. Their Origin and Destiny 3529 

Identity of Self, The Ego as — 3900 

Idolatry 3619 

International Stealing, Annexation and 355; 

Is Religious Truth Possible ? (Reply to Mrs. 

Alice Bodington.) 3883 

Justice 1 3535 

Knowledge ..~ ._ 3588 

Modern Christ. A 3545 

Need of Philosophy, Our. 
American People 

An Appeal to the 

Origin and Destiny. Ideas, Their 3529 

Our Need of Philosophy 3783 

Philosophy of the Tool, The 3735 

Philosophy, Our Need of 37^3 

Philosophy. Rosmini's 3585 

Philosophy, The Association 3611 

Problem of the Three Dimensions of Space, 

The 3721 

Psycholpgical Terras 3712 

Reason 3688 

Religion, Do Not Force Your on Others. 

E. C. Hegeler 3799 

Religion Inseparable from Science 3560 

Religion of Science, The 3511 

Religion of Science, The, A Catechism 

3634. 3640. 3649. 3658. 3668, 3672 

Religious Revelation. Science a 3809 

Religion, The Harmony of Science and 3553 

Religious Truth Possible ? Is. (Reply to Mrs. 

Alice Bodington.) 3883 

Revelation, Science a Religious 3809 

Ribot's Psychology L. 3661 

Rosmini's Philosophy 3585 


Science 3520 

Science a Religious Revelation 3809 

Science and Religion. The Harmony of 3553 

Science, Religion Inseparable from 3560 

Science, The Religion of 3511 

Science, The Religion of. A Catechism 

3634. 3640, 3649. 3658, 3668. 3672 

Self. The Ego as identity of 3900 

Space, The Problem of the Three Dimen- 
sions of 3721 

Stealing, Annexation and International 3557 

Suffrage, Woman's 3822 

Terms. Psychological 3712 

Thought-Conception, C. S. Wake on. Note.) 3694 
Three Dimensions of Space. The Problem of 

the 3721 

Tool, The Philosophy of the 3735 

Truth 3596 

Truth Possible? Is Religious. (Reply to Mrs. 

Alice Bodington.) 3883 

Unbelief, Grief at 35791 

Wanted, Aliens .' .^. 3759 

Woman's Suffrage ^ 3822 



Absolute. The. Horace P. Biddle 3614 

Analogy Between Recent Changes in Theology and Psychology. Henry 

H. Higgins 3702 

Arm-Swinging as Survival. Hiram M. Stanley 3774 

Arms in Walking as Survival, Swinging the. Hiram M. Stanley 3645 

Can the Superpersonal Be Called He ? J. H. Cook 3726 

Capitalists to Solve the Labor Question, A Convention of. Morrison I. 

Swift 3701 

Capitalists to Solve the Labor Question, A Convention of. M. M. Trum- 
bull 3709 

Cerebral Activities ? Is Knowledge a Product of. E. S. Moser. [With 

Editorial Remarks.] 3622 

Cogito Ergo Sinn. C. S. Peirce 3702 

Dualism, The Basis of. Dr. Eugen Dreher. (With Editorial Remarks.] . 3670 

French Degenerate ? Do the. F. De Gissac. [With Editorial Remarks.] 3854 

Hoist, H. von. on General Trumbull's Article 3924 

Knowledge a Product of Cerebral Activities ' Is. E, S. Moser. [With 

Editorial Remarks.] 3622 

Labor Question, A Convention of Capitalists to Solve the. Morrison I. 

Swift 3701 

Labor Question, A Convention of Capitalists to Solve the. M. M. Trum- 
bull' 3709 

Legerdemain and Spiritualism. C. M. Williams. J. C. F. Grumbine. 

[With Editorial Remarks. ] 3653 

Legerdemain and Spiritualism. J. C. F. Grumbine. [With Editorial 

Remarks.] 3686 

Letter to The Open Court, A. Ednah D. Cheney 35r7 

Lynching at Paris, Texas, The. E. D. Cope 3606 

New South Wales, Protection in. J. Stanley Adam 

No Tribunal for Religion. B. Rother Plymouth. [With Editorial Com 
ments.] -^ 

O/eK C<?!/;-i, A Letter to 77;^. Ednah D. Cheney 

Paris, Tesas, The Lynching at. E. D. Cope 

Political Economy Condemned by the Facts ? Are the Principles of. Cle- 

mence Royer 

Political Economy. Individualism and. Victor Yarros 

Psychology, Analogy Between Recent Changes in Theology and. Henry 

H. Higgins 






Religion, No Tribunal for. 

B. Rother Plymouth. (With Editorial Com- 

Senate Question. The. Frederick W. Peabody 

Socialistic Scheme of Mr. Morrison Swift. The. Hermann Lieb 

Space, Time and. Horace P. Biddle. (With Editorial Note.] 

Space, Time and. L.T.Ives. F. H. S. [With Editorial Remarks.) .. . 
Spiritualism, Legerdemain and. C. M. Williams. J. C. F. Grumbine. 

[With Editorial Remarks.) . . 

Spiritualism, Legerdemain and. J. C. F. Grumbine. [With Editorial 


Spiritualism Not Spiritism. ]. C. F. Grumbine. (With Editorial Note.). 

Superpersonal Be Called He ? Can the J. H. Cook 

Swift. The Socialistic Scheme of Mr. Morrison. Hermann Lieb 

Swinging the Arms in Walking as Survival. Hiram M.Stanley 

Theology and Psychology, Analogy Between Recent Changes in. Henry 

H. Higgins 

Thought-Conception. C. Staniland Wake 

Time and Space. Horace P. Biddle. [With Editorial Note.) 

Time and Space. L.T.Ives. F. H. S. (With Editorial Remarks.) 





View from My Rock, The. John Maddock. 




Afloat. Hiram H. Bice 3630 

Aunt Hannah on the Parliament of Religions. 

Minnie Andrews Snell 3838 

Barcarolle. Charles Alva Lane 3893 

Durgha. Viroe 3908 

Heredity. Alvan F. Sanborn 3830 



Intimations. Charles A. Lane 3822 

John P. Altgeld. Voltairine De Cleyre 37i^2 

Longing for Freedom. Mary Morgan (Gowan 

Lea) 3614 

Moses. Arthur A. D. Bayldon 3574 


The Dear Old Hand. G.L.Henderson 3549 

The New Laureate. Louis Belrose. Jr 3661 

The Old Mother's Christmas. Minnie An- 
drews Snell 3917 

The Sphinx. Arthur Edgerton 373-* 

SchopenhauL-r. Charles A. Lane 3814 

Selfhood. Charles A. Lane 3806 



Agnostic Annual, The. Charles A. Watts 3526 

Alexander, James B. The Dynamic Theory of Life and Mind 3534 

Baets, I'Abbe Maurice de. Les bases de la morale et du droit. L'ecole 
d'anthropologie criminelle. Un voeu du congr&s de la ligue demo- 

'~" cratique 39^6 

Bemmelen. M. P. Le nihilisme scientifique, correspondance entre 

' T I'eiudiant Ti et le professeur de philosophie Ousia 3870 

Block, Loms James. El Nuevo Mundo 3870 

iBrinton, Daniel. The Pursuit of Happiness 3862 

Caihrein, Victor, Socialism Exposed and Refuted 

Century. The. Christmas Number 

Century. The. Preliminary Glimpses of the Fair 

Childs. George W, Monument to Richard Proctor 

Church. Alfred J. Stories from the Greek Comedians .- 

Clark. John S. Suggestions for a Course of Instruction in Color for 
Public Schools ■ •. 

Cohn. Morris M. An Introduction to the Study of the Constitution, A 
Study Showing the Play of Physical and Social Factors in the Crea- 
tion of Institutional Law ■ 




THE OPEN COURT.-Index to Volume VIL 


Conway, James. A Chapter from the Author's Moral Philosophy 3550 

Crawford. F. Marion. The Novel ; What It Is 3662 

Dodel's (Arnold) Moses and Darwin 3902 

Fads in Chicago Schools 3606 

Froebei Letters. Arnold H. Heinemann 3750 

Jarbe. Richard. The Redemption of the Brahman 3806 

Gizvcki, George Von. Ethische Kultur 355° 

Gladden, Washington. Tools and the Man 3926 

Goethe's Faust. Calvin Thomas 3573 

Goethe's Poem on a Child's Development 3^78 

Gould, F. J. A Concise History of Religion 3894 

Grey on Reciprocity and Civil Service Reform, Earl. With Comments 

by M. M. Trumbull 3630 

Hall, Edward H. The New L'nitarianism 3846 

Hand, The Dear Old ^ 35^2 

Harrison, Carter, Assassination of ^^62 

Heinemann, Arnold H. Froebei Letters 375° 

Heinzen, Karl. The Rights of Women and the Sexual Relation 3557 

Henderson, G. L. The Dear Old Hand 3582 

Hicks. Mary Dana. Suggestions for a Course of Instruction in Color for 

Public Schools 3670 

Hume's Treatise of Morals; and Selections from the Treatise of the 

Passions, With an Introduction by James H. Hyslop 3638 

Hyslop, James H. Hume's Treatise of Morals : and Selections from the 

Treatise of the Passions 3638 

Instead of a Book. By a Man Too Busy to Write One 3654 

JodI, Frederick. Ueber das Wesen des Naturrechtes und seine Bedeu- 

tung in der Gegenwart 3870 

Kerr, Alexander, and Herbert Gushing Tolman. The Gospel of Matthew 
in Greek 3526 

Laing, S. Human Origins 3540 

MacDonald, Arthur. Essays on Criminology 3894 

Maxson. Henry Doty. Sermons 3766 

Molinari, G. De. Precis d'economie politique et de morale 3541 

New England Magazine 3558 

Oriental Review. The. Merwin-Marie Snell ' 3646 


Peirce, Charles S. Christian Faith 3750- 

Prang Course in Art Education for Primary, Intermediate, and Grammar 

Schools, The , 3894 

Prang, Louis. Suggestions for a Course of Instruction in Color for Pub- 
lic Schools 3670 

Proctor, Monument to Richard, by George W. Childs 3734 

Purdon, John E. Spiritualism 3774 

Rawlinson, Canon. Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament 3870 

Reciprocity and Civil Service Reform, Earl Grey on. With Comments 

by M. M. Trumbull 3630 

Remsburg, John E. Abraham Lincoln : Was He a Christian ? 3838 

Renan, Letter of Madame 3574 

Ribot's Psychology. (Editorial Note.) 3661 

Royer, Clemence. L'origine des mondes et les impossibilites phy.^iques 

de I'hypothfese de Laplace 3838 

Royer, Clemence. Les variations seculaires des saisons et leur causes 

astronomiques 3646 

Scaife, Walter B. America. Its Geographical History 

Selinger, Joseph. Agnosticism, New Theology, and Old Theology on 
the Natural and Supernatural 

Senate (Question, The 

Sinclair, Brevard D. The Crowning Sin of the Aye 

Snell, Merwin-Marie. Farewell Address 

Snell, Merwin-Marie. The Oriental Review 

Sprague, F. M. Socialism from Genesis to Revelation 

Stallo, J, B, Essays and Lectures 

Suggestions for a Course of Instruction in Color for Public Schools. 
Louis Prang. Mary Dana Hicks, and John S. Clark 

Sunderland, Jabez Thomas. The Bible, Us Origin, Growth, and Char- 





'f^hcosophic Thinker 3822 

Thomas, Calvin, Goethe's Faust 3573 

Tolman, Herbert Cashing, and Alexander Kerr. The Gospel of Matthew 

in Greek 3526 

Trumbull, Comments by M M,. on Earl Grey on Reciprocity and Civil 

Service Reform 3630 

Tyler, J. G Fainting of Columbus's Caravels in Sight of Land 3814 

Unitarianism, Tlie New. Edward H. Hall 3846 

University Extension. University of Chicago ,.,.. .'.'.. . . 3926 

^Vake, C. Staniland, on Thought-Conception. (Editorial Note.) 3694 

Ward, Lester F. The Psychic Factors of Civilisation 3734 

Watts, Charles A. The Agnostic Annual 3526 

Week, The 351S 

Weismann, August. The Germ-Plasm 3766 

Wettstein, Richard Von. Leitfaden der Botanik 3638 

Woman's Suffrage ; 3822 

The Open Court. 



No. 280. (Vol. VII. — I.) 


J Two Dollars per Year, 
/ Single Copies, 5 Cents, 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 


The publisher and editor of The Open Court call 
their readers' attention to the new wording in the head- 
line, which briefly characterises the aim aspired after 
in the columns of this journal. The old headline reads, 
"Devoted to the work of Conciliating Religion with 
Science " ; the new one uses the terser expression, 
"Devoted to the Religion of Science." The change 
is not a change of principle ; but we believe that the 
basic idea which prompted the foundation and supplies 
the motives for the further continuance of this journal 
will thus be the more readily understood. 

The headline of a journal is a shibboleth, a motto, 
and as such it possesses a special significance to 
those who know what it stands for. It is like a small 
basin built below the spout of a spring. The waters 
that are constantly being poured into it, are more 
abundant than it can hold. They overflow and become 
a living stream to fertilise the meadows and fields 
through which their course will lead. So the term 
" Religion of Science " is a fruitful idea which has a 
deeper significance to those who understand the pur- 
pose which it is to serve. 

Science is above all the search for truth. Our scien- 
tists apply the best methods of observation and the 
most rigorous criticism, in order to make, in their di- 
verse fields of inquiry, a correct and systematically ar- 
ranged statement of facts. The importance of science 
as the basis of human civilisation in its largest scope 
and as the condition of further progress is now well- 
nigh universally recognised. It is not doubted for in- 
dustrial invention, nor for art, nor for politics, nor econ- 
omics. It is doubted only for the most important pro- 
vince of human life — viz. for religion. 

Religion is the basis of conduct. All those ideas 
are religious which regulate man's actions and support 
us in the vicissitudes of life. Religion is the ethical 
power in humanity, being the norm of human aspira- 
tions, the authority of rules and laws and injunctions, 
and the lofty ideal that sanctifies existence with its joys 
and griefs, consecrating every single individual to a 
higher purpose than himself. 

It is a very strange fact that the importance of 
science, which is admitted in every other field, could 

have been doubted for religion. The reason is obvious 
to him who is familiar with the history of the various 
religions. Religious truths are such valuable posses- 
sions that their keepers wanted to shelter them from all 
danger ; they were an.xious to guard them as a sacred 
inheritance and hand them down to future generations 
inviolate. They wanted to protect the holy treasures 
from the vagaries of the scientist groping about after 
the truth and often failing to find it. So they declared 
that religion was independent of science and had noth- 
ing whatever to do with it. They did not see that 
scientists are not always identical with science, exactly 
as priests are not always the true prophets of truth. 
Thus they founded religion upon the authority of tradi- 
tion instead of upon the rock of ages, which is truth — 
provable truth. They went so far as to call human 
tradition a divine revelation and to discredit that grand 
apocalypse which lies open to everyone of us — nature. 
The absurd was sanctified; and reason, the divine spark 
in man that kindles the torch to enlighten his path, 
was scorned as an ignis fatuits. 

Yet after all, what is religion but the trust in truth, 
the search for truth, and living the truth ! Shall we, 
indeed, use the best methods of searching for the truth 
in all domains except in the most important domain, 
in religion. To suppress the truth where it is our duty 
to speak it out, is regarded as equivalent to a lie ; 
and rightly so ! Shall we suppress the search for truth 
in religion, the essence of which is, or rather ought to 
be, truth and which is transformed into abject super- 
stition when errors are enshrined upon the altar of 
truth? Religion is to us inseparable from truth; and 
the search for truth is our holiest duty. 

We might simply state that The Open Court is de- 
voted to religion, for there is but one true religion, 
which is the religion of truth : all the other religions 
are superstitions. But we wish to indicate that our 
idea of truth is different from the ideas of those who 
believe in the duality of truth. Truth is no Janus-head 
with two faces. It is an error that something might 
be true in science which is untrue in religion, that 
"twice two is four" only in the multiplication tables 
but not in the catechism, that there are other methods 
of finding out or proving the truth for the religious 



prophet than for the savant— in short that science is 
human truth, while religion is divine truth. 

Truth is truth. There is but one truth and that 
truth is divine. Man is divine in so far as he partakes 
of the truth, and science, the methodical search for 
truth, is the most important vehicle to aid man to pro- 
gress, to grow, to develop, and to become more and 
more divine. 

Science is holy. It is a religious duty of the scien- 
tist to search for truth in all fields, philosophy, eccle- 
siastical history, and biblical research not excepted. 
And it is a religious duty of the clergy to respect science. 
They need not accept the hypotheses of scientists, but 
they have to revere truth whenever proven to be truth, 
for truth is sacred whatever it be. There is a divinity 
in mathematics, of which the modern idolater of dog- 
matic Christianity has no idea. 

All our religions have been founded as religions of 
truth. Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah and Christ that 
made the new covenant with mankind upon the foun- 
dation of love, has nowhere, so far as our maturest 
biblical criticism can pierce, established any dogma, 
and least of all the absurd theory that above the truth 
there is another truth, and that this higher truth stand- 
ing in contradiction to scientific truth must be believed 
because it appears, and even because it is, absurd. 

So long as the scientist doubts, he inquires, but as 
soon as he has found the truth, he proclaims it and 
solicits the criticism of his fellow-workers. This same 
method is applicable to religion. He who doubts, must 
inquire ; and he who believes he has found the truth 
must allow his fellowmen to criticise him, to point out 
what they regard as errors, and to let his views be 
tested by criticism. 

Is it not pusillanimous to be afraid of criticism ? 
And is it true that we have to protect truth against 
criticism ? If our religion is true why prevent investi- 
gation ? 

It is said that the scientist may err, and that his 
critics may err, and that errors are more powerful 
than the truth. Yet we answer with Milton : 

"Whoever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open 
encounter ?" 

Those who err may be more powerful than those 
who speak the truth. Those who speak the truth may 
be put to death ; nay, they have often been put to 
death ; and errors are more plentiful and fertile than 
the truth. Nevertheless, truth is more powerful and 
will always prevail in the end. 

Science is calm, impartial, rigorous, and many 
warm-hearted men and women have a dislike for science 
because of its austerity. They should know, that while 
the search for truth must be made by cool-headed 
thinkers, the application of truth demands enthusiasm 

and fervid zeal. The religion of science is the most 
elevating and noble ideal of mankind. 

The old religions have become dear to their ad- 
herents, and justly so. For all the religions upon earth 
are intended to be religions of truth — the same truth 
that scientific truth is made of. And they are the more 
orthodox (that is, possessing the right doctrines) and 
the more catholic (that is, universally valid) and the 
freer from superstitions (that is, freer from absurdities 
believed to be exempt from scientific criticism), the 
nearer they come to their common ideal, which is the 
religion of science. 

We do not preach the religion of science in order 
to destroy the old religions ; we preach it that the old 
religions may avoid false dogmatism, and that they may 
adopt the method of science which is a systematic 
search for truth without reserve and open to criticism. 
This will widen the narrowest sectarianism into a cos- 
mical religion, as broad as the universe, as reliable as 
the revelations of God in the book of nature and as sa- 
cred as the truths of science. 

We expect that all the various sects of mankind 
will by and by acknowledge this principle of the reli- 
gion of science. Indeed, they will have to ! For how 
can they otherwise stand the bracing air of progress? 
They need not give up the peculiarities which are not 
in contradiction to truth. They can, and let us hope 
they will, preserve their character, their organisation, 
their brotherly love, their zeal for their special tradi- 
tion and form of religion. Only, let them drop the 
pagan features of their worship as soon as, in the light 
of science, they recognise them as pagan. 

This is our confession of faith : We trust in truth, 
and claim that truthfulness (i. e., fidelity to truth gen- 
erally and especially also to exact, provable, scientific 
truth) is the condition of all religion. And this religious 
ideal is holy to us. We cling to it with enthusiasm and 
leave it as the most sacred inheritance to future gen- 
erations. Editor. 



The fundamental conception of Ernest Renan's 
work "The Future of Science" is that science is 
both subjectively and objectively social : that its ma- 
terial, in its most important respects, is to be found 
in the history of humanity, and that its aim is further- 
ing the organisation of humanity. The relation of 
science to the welfare of man is the true text of the 
book ; and this in no limited definition of welfare, but 
in a sense so broad as to include his religious attitude, 
as well as his intellectual and artistic enjoyments. "As 
for myself," he says at the outset, "I recognise only 
one result of science: namely the solution of the enigma, 
the final explanation to mankind of the meaning of 



things,— the explanation to man of himself,— giving him 
in the name of the sole legitimate authority (the whole 
of human nature) the creed which religion gave him 
ready-made." And if Renan conceives the theoretical 
outcome of science to be this revelation of man to him- 
self, his conception of its practical resultant is no less 
broad: " The whole march of Europe for four cen- 
turies is summed up in this practical conclusion : to 
elevate and ennoble the people, and to let all men have 
a share in the delights of intelligence." 

I intend to quote, at some length, a passage from 
the beginning of the fifth chapter of the "Future of 
Science," which sums up his idea both of the nature 
and the end of science, and afterwards I shall go over 
some of the main points one by one. 

"It is not altogether inadvertently that I designate by the 
name of scieme that which is ordinarily called philosophy. To phi- 
losophise is the word by which I would most willingly sum up my 
life; nevertheless, seeing that the popular use of the word still ex- 
presses only a partial form of the inner life, that besides it only 
implies the subjective fact of the individual thinker, we must em- 
ploy the more objective word ; To know when assuming the stand- 
point of humanity. Yes, the day will come when humanity shall 
no longer believe ; but when it shall know ; the day when it shall 
know the metaphysical and moral world as it now knows the phys- 
ical ; tUe day when the government of humanity shall no longer be 
given to accident and intrigue, but to the rational discussion of 
what is best, and to the most efficacious means of attaining what 
is best. If such be the aim of science, if its object be to teach man 
his final aim and law, to make him grasp the true sense of life, to 
make up with art, poetry, and virtue, the divine ideal which alone 
lends worth to human existence, if such be its aim, then is it pos- 
sible that it should have its serious detractors ? But, it will be 
asked, will science accomplish these marvellous destinies ? All I 
know is that if science does not accomplish them, nothing else 
will, and that humanity will forever be ignorant of the significance 
of things." 

The definition of science, then, is to know from the 
standpoint of humanity ; its goal is such a sense of life 
as will enable man to direct his conduct in relation to 
his fellows by intelligence and not by chance. It is to 
this that I would direct special attention — Kenan's 
faith in '48 in the social basis and aim of science. 

According to Renan the present era is marked by 
intelligence coming to consciousness of its social func- 
tion. Up to, say the French Revolution, the function 
of science had been analytic — mainly negative and dis- 
solving. All science is criticism, but criticism in the 
past has been equivalent to an analysis of existing 
conceptions, sentiments, and habits which resulted in 
destroying their validity. Reason has thus appeared 
to have no positive and constructive function ; its work 
is to be exhausted in analysis, in disintegration of the 
given. But science, having carried its analysis, its 
tearing apart, to the end, finally comes upon the under- 
lying unity ; the destruction of the preconceived ideas 
and institutions only serves to reveal the basic whole. 
Thus analytic science finally came upon humanity as 

that unity to which all is to be referred. The work of 
science is henceforth predominantly synthetic. The 
unity reveals the law and end ; theory must pass over 
into practice ; knowledge into action. This is the final 
significance of the French Revolution. Humanity 
finally became conscious of itself as one whole ; "after 
having groped for centuries in the darkness of infancy 
without consciousness of itself, and by the mere motor 
force of its organism, the grand moment came when, 
like the individual, it took possession of itself." The 
French Revolution is the first conscious attempt to 
make action, the practical affairs of life, the expres- 
sion of reason. It presents a scene hitherto unknown 
in history : " the scene of philosophers radically chang- 
ing the whole of previously received ideas and carrying 
out the greatest of all revolutions on deliberate faith 
in system." That the outward, the apparent, result 
should have been in many regards unsatisfactory is no 
cause for wonder. The Revolution interpreted its idea, 
the control of life by reason, in the light of a narrow 
conception of reason ; it did not recognise the reason 
already embodied in institutions, simply because that 
reason had not been inserted by itself; it interpreted 
reason in a sense which made it opposed to instinct. 
The inevitable temporary result was the substitution 
of instability and upheaval for an established order. 
The outcome was such as to discredit with many the 
whole attempt. But this is to confuse the application 
of the principle, at first necessarily imperfect, with the 
principle itself. In reality, "the principle involved 
admits of no controversy. Intelligence alone must 
reign, intelligence alone. Sense is to govern the world." 
And again Renan says : " The doctrine which is to be 
maintained at all hazards is that the mission of intel- 
lect is the reforming of society according to its own 
principles." And once more : " Hence by every way 
open to us we are beginning to proclaim the right of 
reason to reform society by means of rational science 
and the theoretical knowledge of existing things." 

What, then, is to be the effect of this development 
of science when it gets to the point of recognising the 
unity of humanity, upon art — including poetry — and 
religion ? Upon these points Renan had no more doubt 
than upon the social mission of science. When science 
gets to the comprehensive synthesis of humanity, 
poetry and science must flow together. Just because 
science, in its fulness, is the science of humanity, its 
highest development must mean, to give the whole of 
human nature full play — to give the sympathies their 
due place. But, on the other hand, since it is the 
business of science to rev.eal in its truth the unity, 
sympathy and admiration can have their full (free) 
chance only as science does its work, tearing down 
false idols in order to make plain the truth. "The pre- 
tended poetic natures who imagined that they could 



get to the true sense of things without science will then 
turn out to be so many chimera-mongers, and the au- 
stere savants who shall have neglected the more deli- 
cate gifts. . . . will remind us of the ingenious myth of 
the daughters of Minyas, who were changed into bats 
because unable to get beyond argument in presence 
of signs to which a more generous method of explana- 
tion should have been applied." If, indeed, there is 
no meaning in the world, then science can only destroy 
poetry ; but only on this condition. How shall we 
limit the real universe b}' supposing that the paltry 
dreams which we have been able up to this time to in- 
vent are superior in grandeur and splendor to the real- 
ity which science shall reveal to us? " Has not the 
temple of our God been enlarged since science revealed 
to us the infinity of the worlds ? . . . . Are we not sim- 
ilarly justified in supposing that the application of 
scientific method to the metaphysical and moral re- 
gion .... will also simply shatter a narrow and paltry 
world to open another world of infinite marvels ? " The 
truth is that either there is no ideal, naught but a de- 
ceiving dream, or else this ideal is embodied in the 
universe and is to be found and drawn thence by 
science. "The ideal is near everyone of us." 

So with religion ; whatever science takes away, it 
is onlj' because it presents us with deeper truth. This 
conception is, indeed, the animating spirit of the book ; 
it is so interwoven with the whole treatment that I 
shall only select one or two quotations. The man of 
science is the real "custodian of the sacred deposit"; 
"real religion is the culmination of the discipline and 
cultivation of the intelligence " ; " social and religious 
reform will assuredly come .... but it will come from 
enlarged science common to all, and operating in the 
unrestricted midst of human intelligence"; "hence, 
science is a religion, it alone will henceforth make the 
creeds, for science alone can solve for men the eternal 
problems, the solution of which his nature impera- 
tively demands." In the course of his discussion. Re- 
nan brings out at length the point only suggested in 
the above — that this religious outflowering of science 
is to be expected when, on one hand, its scope has 
been extended to take in humanity, and when, on the 
other, its practical outcome, if not its abstruse results, 
has been made the possession of all men. " It is not 
enough for the progress of human intelligence that a 
few isolated thinkers should reach very advanced posts, 
and that a few heads shoot up like wild oats above the 
common level. ... It is a matter of great urgency to 
enlarge the whirl of humanity ; otherwise a few indi- 
viduals might reach heaven, while the mass is still 
dragging along upon the earth. . . . The moment in- 
tellectual culture becomes a religion, from that moment 
it becomes barbarous to deprive a single soul of it." 

I may sum up by saying that Kenan's faith in '48 

was that science was to become universalised — uni- 
versalised in its range' by coming to include humanity 
as its subject-matter ; universalised in application by 
being made, as to its salient outcome, the common 
possession of all men. From this extension, Renan 
expected further results to flow : he expected that 
science was to become a "social motor," the basis of 
ordering the affairs of men ; he expected that it was 
to find expression in a wonderful artistic movement, 
and that, above all, it was to culminate in a great re- 
ligious outburst. How was it in 1890? 

In one sense Renan stands where he stood forty 
years before. He still believes that he was right at 
the outset of his "intellectual career in believing firmly 
in science and in making it the object of his life." He 
even says that after all he was right in '48 ; "save a 
few disappointments, progress has travelled on the 
lines laid down in my imagination." And yet when we 
come to examine Renan's later position in more detail, 
these few disappointments seem of more importance 
than the successes attained. Science in the abstract, 
science as the most worthy end of the few capable 
ones, Renan undoubtedly still believes in as firmly as 
ever. But the faith in the social career of science, of 
a wide distribution of intelligence as the basis of a 
scientificall}' controlled democracy, has all but van- 
ished ; the idea of science as lending itself to art, to a 
wide idealistic interpretation of the universe, and as 
flowering in a religious outburst, the conception of 
an appropriation of truth by all men has become to 
him the dream of a youthful enthusiasm. He has 
learned through the experience of mature years that 
"intensive culture constantly adding to the sum total 
of human knowledge, is not the same as extensive cul- 
ture disseminating that knowledge more and more for 
the welfare of the countless human beings in exist- 
ence. The sheet of water in expanding continues to 
lose in depth." Thus it is that "enlightenment, mo- 
rality, art will always be represented among mankind 
by a magistrac}', by a minority, preserving the tradi- 
tions of the true, the good, and the beautiful." Instead 
of science becoming a social motor and thus giving a 
basis for social organisation at once free and saturated 
with law, tliere is now disbelief in the power of science 
to make its own way and realise its truth in practice : 
"We have to pay dearly, that is in privileges, the 
power that protects us against evil." " While, through 
the constant labor of the nineteenth century, the knowl- 
edge of facts has considerably increased, the destiny of 
mankind lias become more obscure than ever." Could any 
retraction be imagined more complete, I had almost 
said more abject, than this when compared with his 
constant proclamation of '48 that the business of science 
is just to reveal to man his destiny — that any other con- 
ception of science makes it but an elaborate trifling ? 



As against the faith of '4S that science is to reveal 
the meaning incorporate in reality, and that this is the 
only true idealism, we have the constant identification, 
in his later writings, of the ideal with certain fond 
dreams which the cultured man will always cherish 
for himself, yet without hope of verification. The ideal 
is no longer the aim indicated by the universe itself, 
and to be followed as laid bare b}' inquiry ; " it is very 
clear that our doctrine affords no basis for z. practical 
polic}' ; on the contrary, our aim must be carefully dis- 
simulated." As for science and religion, we must give 
up all hope of attaining, so far as the mass is concerned 
at least, any faith and enthusiasm based on knowl- 
edge. In his "Intellectual and Moral Reform," al- 
ready alluded to, Renan virtually proposes to the ruling 
powers a concordat : the ecclesiastic authorities are 
to allow the savants complete freedom of thought and 
inquiry, provided the savants, in turn, leave the masses 
to their existing faith without attempting to extend to 
them the enlightenment which they themselves have 
gained. In his preface of iSgo to the "Future of 
Science " he seriously doubts whether any consensus 
of belief is open to mankind at large, except upon con- 
dition of return to primitive credulity. "It is possible 
that the ruin of idealistic beliefs is fated to follow hard 
upon the ruin of supernatural beliefs ; that the real 
abasement of the morality of humanity is to date from 
the day when it has seen the reality of things. . . . 
Candidly, I fail to see how the foundations of a noble 
and happy life are to be relaid without the ancient 

While a study of the reasons which have induced 
this apparent loss of faith in the larger and social func- 
tion of science would be even more interesting than 
the fact itself, I do not propose here to enter at length 
upon the discussion. Renan himself indicates one rea- 
son when he says that at present science seems to be 
made for the schools rather than the schools for science. 
So far as much of its spirit and aim is concerned, 
science is the legitimate successor of the old scholasti- 
cism. The forty years since Renan wrote have not 
done much to add the human spirit and the human in- 
terpretation to the results of science ; they have rather 
gone to increase its technical and remote character. 
Furthermore, Renan does not seem to have realised 
sufficiently the dead weight of intrenched class interest 
which resists all attempt of science to take practical 
form and become a "social motor." When we re- 
member that every forward step of science has involved 
a readjustment of institutional life, that even such an 
apparently distant and indifferent region as the solar 
system could not be annexed to scientific inquiry with- 
out arousing the opposing force of the mightiest po- 
litical organisations of the day ; when we recall such 
things it is not surprising that the advance of scientific 

method to the matters closest to man — his social rela- 
tionships — should have gone on more slowly than was 
expected. The resistance from the powers whose ex- 
istence is threatened b}' such advance has not become 
less effective in becoming more indirect and subtle. 
One thing is certain ; this decrease of faith cannot be 
explained as a personal idiosyncrac}' of Renan's ; it 
lies deep in the life of the last half centur)'. 

I confess to surprise that this partial retraction of 
Renan's has not been exploited by the reactionaries. 
It is certainly spoils for those, who, in their assumed 
concern for the moral and spiritual affairs of humanity, 
take every opportunity to decry science and proclaim 
its impotence to deal with serious matters of practice. 
I cannot but think that the Renan of '48 was wiser 
than he of 'go in the recognition of the fact that man's 
interests are finally and prevailingly practical ; that if 
science cannot succeed in satisfying these interests it 
is hardl}' more than an episode in the history of hu- 
manity ; that the ultimate meaning and control will 
always be with the power that claims this practical re- 
gion for its own — if not with science, then with the 
power of the church from which Renan was an early 
apostate. It is a continual marvel that so many men 
of science who have abandoned and even attacked all 
dogmatic authority, should take refuge for themselves 
in agnosticism — that they should not see that any last- 
ing denial of dogmatic authority is impossible save as 
science itself advances to that comprehensive syn- 
thesis which will allow it to become a guide of con 
duct, a social motor. 


A JOINT resolution brim fall of good intentions has been offered 
in Congress by Mr. Springer of Illinois. It proposes to amend the 
Constitution so as to make the President's official term six years 
long, and to declare him ineligible to re-election. The plan has 
met with almost unanimous approval by the press ; and the pre- 
vailing sentiment is well expressed in the following sentence which 
I quote from one of the great newspapers: " It is probable — in- 
deed it is nearly certain — that if a proposition extending the term to 
six years and making the President thereafter ineligible to the of- 
fice were submitted to the popular vote it would be ratified by an 
overwhelming majority of the voters." No doubt of it, because it 
is in the direction of toryism, the Dead Sea of politics, whither 
the American people are hurrying with innocent fatuity. Within 
the resolution is concealed a scheme to strengthen the .\meric?.n 
monarchy and weaken the American republic; to increase the 
kingly powers of the President and lessen the democratic authority 
of Congress. It is not progress ; it is not even stagnation ; it is a 
reaction toward the substance, if not the form of monarchy. It is 
an attempt to steal thirty-three per cent, from the value of the 
maxim "of the people, 'oy the people, and for the people." Better 
would it be to amend the Constitution by reducing the President's 
term to two years, and thus bring the Executive and the Legisla- 
tive elements closer together, instead of wrenching them farther 
apart by the adoption of a six years term. The people are to es- 
tablish it in their organic law that the term of one President shall 
be equal to that of three Congresses, and the President all the time 




holding in his hands the veto power. That the people welcome 
the scheme proves nothing ; they like a novelty, a makeshift, and 
a change. I have heard a prisoner thank the sheriff because he 
fitted him with a stronger and more elaborate pair of handcuffs as 
a Christmas gift ; and there are times in the lives of every people 
when " they know not what they do." They have lucid intervals, 
of course, but these are few. 

* * 

XIr. Springer's proposition in its present form is an artful bit 
of statecraft, confusing two separate and independent purposes in 
such a very ingenious way that the voter must indorse both of 
them or get nothing. In the language of the lawyers " it is bad, 
for duplicity " ; it includes two changes within one question, mak- 
ing them stand or fall together, which is in the nature of a cheat. 
If the proposition is an honest one why not make two questions of 
it, each to be decided on its own merits, thus : Shall the Presi- 
dential term be six years ? And, Shall the President be ineligible 
to re-election ? One of these might be adopted, and the other not ; 
or both might be adopted, or defeated ; but at least, the voter 
would have a fair chance to declare his will. Even in the form of 
separate propositions the people have nothing to gain, for the af- 
firmative of either encroaches upon freedom, and diminishes the 
share of democracy in the government ; a share which ought not 
to be contracted, but enlarged. .\ four years reign conferred by 
one election is long enough for any American king ; and why should 
the people handcuff themselves, that they may not vote for him a 
second time, or a third time, or a fourteenth time if they choose 
to do so ? Has it come to this, that we are afraid of our own bal- 
lots ? Or, are we afraid of our own elected President ? If we are, 
that fact itself is evidence that his term of office is already too 
long, and it is a very good reason why we should not lengthen but 
shorten his reign. At every presidential election the great parties 
bet a four years tenure of all the offices in the government, and 
the magnitude of the stake accounts for the turmoil, strife, struggle, 
and corruption of the campaign. Mr. Springer would increase the 
stakes, pleading as an excuse for doing so that the game would not 
be so often played. The compensation is not valuable enough to 
justify the sacrifice. 

* * 

" Wide open and unguarded stand our gates, and through them 
passes a wild motley throng, men from the Volga and the Tartar 
steppes, featureless figures of the Hoang Ho, Malayan, Scythian, 
Teuton, Kelt, and Slav, flying the old world's poverty and scorn ; 
these bringing with them unknown gods and rites, those tiger pas- 
sions, here to scratch their claws. In street and alley what strange 
tongues are these, accents of menace alien to our air, voices that 
once the Tower of Babel knew. O, Liberty! white goddess, is it 
well to leave the gates ungarded ? " This hysterical apostrophe to 
Liberty, the "white goddess," and all the- rest of it, passes for 
poetry in the original ; and although I have written it in the form 
of prose, it can be resolved into poetry again by the easy legerde- 
main of breaking it up into convulsive lines and thereby giving it 
the appearance of Miltonian blank verse. Any sort of rhetorical 
delirium, if put into that shape claims the rank and dignity of 
poetry. The above specimen is by Mr. Thomas Bailey Aldrich, 
the American poet, and a very fine poet he is, in spots, but this 
effort shows that poetry will not lend itself to narrow, inhospitable, 
and ungenerous things. In this example the scream "O, Liberty!" 
is a dyspeptic spasm, not poetry. It is not in the power of genius 
to refine into poetry this offering to the "shut the gate" craze, 
now raging as an epidemic among the .\merican people, and ap- 
pealing to our littleness of spirit. Much elevating poetry has been 
inspired by hospitality ; by inhospitality, none. The rudest phrases 
that express welcome are poetry, as for instance this, " the latch 
string hangs outside." " Open the gates to the stranger," is poetry 
and religion too, while " shut the gates, " is dull and gloomy prose . 

If the threatened scheme to shut the gates is to be carried out it 
will be a calamity to the American people, greater than the cholera 
which is drafted into the service as an apology and an excuse. Our 
character for generosity will be forfeited, our Eagle will droop his 
crest, and our fame will diminish among men. 'We shall acquire 
the reputation of Lord Bacon, and win historic renown as the 
"greatest, wisest, and meanest " of the nations ; which indeed ap- 
pears to be the ambition of our statesmen. Then we may say of 
the -American republic what Corin the shepherd says in the play 
of "As You Like It " : 

" My master is of churlish disposition. 

And little recks to find the way to heaven. 

By doing deeds of hospitality." 

* * 

Last week it was my privilege to attend the banquet of the 
Evolution Club ; and the after dinnei subject of debate was " Vi- 
visection." Many of the members present were physicians, or col- 
lege professors of biology, physiology, and kindred sciences, so 
that the learning shown was rather technical, and redolent of med- 
icine. This was to be expected ; and as all those doctors and pro- 
fessors were experimenters, using vivisection to increase their 
knowledge, they were of course defenders of the practice. There 
was only one man present who took the moral side of the question 
in opposition to the purely materialistic or utilitarian side, and he 
was a lawyer. In a speech bristling with horrors collected from 
the report of a royal commission appointed to investigate the sub- 
ject, he condemned vivisection as cruel, useless, irreligious, and 
immoral. He maintained that the lower animals have rigkls, not 
merely claims upon kindness, but rights which impose correspond- 
ing duties upon men ; rights which are not at all dependent on the 
whim, profit, or pleasure of the human race. At the dinner table, 
this lawyer happened to be " the gentleman on my right," and in 
the course of conversation, he fired a few psychic puzzles at me. 
" How do you know," he said, " that there are not invisible teings 
of a superior order practising vivisection upon you with a spiritual 
scalpel ? How do you know that they have not been testing you 
with supernatural poisons for their own profit ? How do you know 
that your headaches, rheumatisms, and lumbagos ; your pains and 
penalties, your losses, trials, and disappointments, are not the re- 
sults of their experiments upon you ? As I deny the right of any 
superior beings on the earth, above the earth, or under the earth, 
to inflict pain upon you in the interest of their own science, there- 
fore I deny that you have any right to inflict scientific suffering 
upon those creatures who are below you in the scale of life." All 
that was too metaphysical for me, and so I laugh at his riddle as 
wierd and mystical, because I am not able to solve it ; a plan which 
I find excellent in every case of ignorance, and which I can heart- 
ily recommend. We have been so busy about the rights of men' 
that the rights of horses and dogs have been forgotten. Vivisection 
is now forcing the following question upon conscience, "May 
physiologists cut up healthy animals for the speculative benefit of 
unhealthy men ? " 

* * 

It was no trouble for the Evolution Club to analyse the subtle 
spirit of the universe, and to resolve the Cosmos into its constitu- 
ent elements, assigning to each ingredient its proper place and 
duty. It was easy to claim that vivisection was not merely a prac- 
tice, but a principle of high rank in the religion of Evolution, for 
the very first commandment in the decalogue of science tells us 
that "the fittest shall survive." That phrase has been overrated 
and underrated, and sometimes it has been inversely understood. 
It has been perverted to the uses of injustice, and the torture not 
only of the lower animals but also of the lower men. It has be- 
come the cant of science, and we apologise for the sufferings of 
others by pleading that their unhappy fate is only a punishment 
ordered by the law of Nature in its flippant formula " the fittest 



shall survive." When Herbert Spencer spelled energy with a 
capital "E,"and made it Energy he thought he had created a new 
deity and given to it a divine potentiality and substance. When 
we spell nature with a big " N," we think that we have done so 
too ; but I cannot believe that nature or Nature is anything more 
than a method by which things arrange themselves according to 
their conditions, neither can I believe that Nature has any author- 
ity to create a law of injustice, nor any law at all. Every living 
creature has an equal right with every other, to say, "I am the 
fittest; and the world was made for me." That appears to have 
been the opinion of Pope, who also thought that he had made a 
divinity of nature by spelling the word with a big " N." He lived 
before the discovery of Evolution, and he thought that his divinity 
in conferring life had included within the gift the absolute right 
to live. 

" Know, Nature's children all divide lier care ; 
The far that warms a monarcli, warm'd a bear. 
While man exclaims, ' See all things for my use ! ' 
' See man for mine ! ' replies a pampered goose." 

A claim was made that vivisection is forbidden in the gospels, 
and perhaps it is, but no evidence to that effect appeared. How- 
ever that may be, strong testimony on the other side is offered 
by the book of Genesis in the bill of sale given to Adam, granting 
him " dominion over the tish of the sea, and over the fowl of the 
air, and over every living thing that raoveth upon the earth." 
Under this comprehensive title the sons of Adam have declared 
and do now declare that they have despotic power over the lower 
animals and the unconditional right to do whatever they like with 
their own. Fortified by this authority, Pius the Ninth proclaimed 
that it was " error to say that man owed any duty to the lower ani- 
mals." He did not mean to assert the duty of men to be cruel, but 
he did assert the theological right of man to dominion unqualified 
over the brute creation. This religious view of it has great in- 
fluence over the peasantry of Italy, as appears from the testimony 
of an American traveler in that country, who remonstrated one 
day with a peasant for cruelly beating a donkey. The man re- 
plied, "What of it; the donkey has never been Baptised." Had 
the donkey been baptised, his owner would have regarded him as 
a fellow Christian, and perhaps have given him better treatment, 
although it must be admitted that even Christians do not always 
treat their fellow Christians as mercifully as they might. And this 
reminds me of a story which I got from that same " gentleman on 
my right," the lawyer aforesaid An Irish priest who had never 
been outside the rural parish in which he lived, went up to Lon- 
don, and while there visited the Zoological Gardens and became 
greatly interested in the monkeys, especially in one patriarchal 
monkey who appeared to take an equal interest in the priest. 
Whatever his reverence did, the monkey imitated him, and at last 
the priest became so much delighted at the intelligence and feel- 
ing displayed by the simian that he exclaimed, "See here, there's 
nobody looking now, and if ye'll just hand me that cup of water 
there beside ye, I'll baptise ye this minute." Why not? Surely 
monkeys need spiritual grace as much as any of us. It may not 
be an orthodox belief, but I will cherish it, that whether baptised 
or not, a good monkey has a better chance in a future state of 
existence than a bad man. M. M. Trumbull. 



To the Editor of The Open Court : 

It is so long since I have written anything for The Open Court, 
that I think it would be a not undeserved penalty, if I were stricken 
from the roll of correspondents ; and yet I should be sorry to find 
myself entirely out of relation with a journal so brave and unique. 

But as according to the beautiful French custom, at New 
Year's time, friends however long separated, may make a social 
call without questions asked, or apologies offered, so I feel disposed 
to sit down for a little chat, trusting for my welcome, to that love 
of gossip in human nature, which never deserts us in the last ex- 
tremity of life. 

A paragraph in the morning paper recalls to me a subject of 
which I have often thought as deserving public recognition. A 
young lady of twenty-four years of age, having formed a friendship 
with a lady of similar tastes, remains with her in her home, and 
her father appeals to legal authority, to bring her back to his house, 
and others resort to the violent explanation of hypnotism to ex- 
plain the strength of the new relation. 

This seems very strange to one, who for many years has been 
accustomed to the existence of ties between women so intimate and 
persistent, that they are fully recognised by their friends, and of 
late have acquired, if not a local habitation, at least a name, for 
they have been christened "Boston Marriages." This institution ' 
deserves to be recognised as a really valuable one for women in 
our present state of civilisation. With the great number of women 
in our state, in excess of the men, and with the present independ- 
ence of women, which renders marriage, merely for a home, no 
longer acceptable, the proportion of those who can enter into that 
relation is diminished, and the "glorious phalanx of old maids" 
must find some substitute for the joys of family life. These rela- 
tions so far as I have known, and I have known many of them, are 
not usually planned for convenience or economy, but grow out of 
a constantly increasing attachment, favored by circumstances, 
which make such a marriage the best refuge against the solitude 
of growing age. 

In some cases women of the medical or other professions form 
a partnership ai once social and professional ; or frequently a phy- 
sician finds comfort for her leisure hours in the society of one of 
literary tastes or possessing the fine art of housekeeping.. Some- 
times a wealthy but solitary woman is delighted to share heart and 
home with one less favored by fortune. 

In some cases where family ties still have their claims, the 
parties do not live together, but are constant companions in the 
summer excursions or the winter studies and engagements, in which 
they are mutually interested. As far as I have known, these 
" Marriages" are of long continuance, and I can hardly recall an 
instance where a decided rupture has occurred. Of course I do 
not include in this statement those girlish intimacies which are 
only what flirtations are to serious matrimonial attachments. Nat- 
urally these relations are generally between women of middle age, 
who have learned much from the duties and sorrows of life, and 
perchance have known the pleasure, or more often the pains and 
disappointments of love. To such the tie affords a home for the 
heart, intellectual companionship, and often help in the pecuniary 
support, which gives value and worth to a period of life, too often 
very sad and lonely. As such I must look upon them as a great 
blessing which should not be interfered with or unduly fostered. ' 
but recognised in all simplicity and friendliness. 

There is one danger attending such unions, when they are en- 
tered into by those who are not destitute of family ties, and the 
married woman and the mother, even sometimes the aunt and sister 
should be cautious of assuming a relation which may make her 
less faithful to the natural ties of family life. I rejoice to say that 
instances of such mistakes are rare, and that in many cases the 
friend becomes also one of the family, and helps to preserve and 
deepen the family affection. 

I do not propose that we should formally adopt the Boston 
Marriage into our civil code, and celebrate it with ceremonies and 
festivities, for simplicity and privacy especially become it, but I 
do think it is good to think of it with respect, and welcome it as 



one of the helps to human welfare, and not let any jealous feelings 
mar the happiness of those concerned in it. 

The approaching festival (in February) of the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of the New England woman's club naturally leads the 
mind to consider the wonderful development of the woman's club 
in the last twenty-five years. It is primarily' due to the fact that 
the club was not the cr ;ation of one person or even clique but evi- 
dently came from the recognition of a need widely felt, so soon as 
a means of meeting it was suggested. 

The two oldest clubs, the New England and Sorosis, sprang 
into being quite independently and yet within two days of each 
other, and the movement has known no retiring ebb but gone 
steadily on to its present high tide of success. The woman's club 
is now a powerful and recognised agent in all intellectual reform 
and educational work, as well as in social enjoyment, and is bind- 
ing women together in organised life in a way that will enable 
them to act unitedly and effectually, if ever an emergency occurs 
which calls upon them to do so. 

Looked at in this way. the club well deserves the attention of 
those who are forecasting the future of America. If united with 
universal suffrage, and general co-education of the sexes, this move- 
ment will strengthen the best forces of the state, and combining 
moral considerations with political interests, may lead to purer 
pclitics and higher statesmanship than we have ever known. But 
if the separation of the sexes be enforced in political and educa- 
tional life, a power may grow up, unknown to the state, and per- 
haps narrow but intense, which may thwart many of the most 
beneficent purposes of legislation. 

I think it is undeniable that the late school election in Boston 
was carried by a party of women closely banded together, and ruled 
by one or two dominating motives. By their help the entire school 
ticket of the Republican party, which had failed to elect its candi- 
dates in other elections, was chosen, and the portion of the board 
elected this year strongly represents the views of a particular clique. 
Although I happen not to sympathise wholly with this party, yet 
I believe them to be sincere in their opinions, and I am glad that 
the power of woman's vote is thus shown, and that politicians will 
e : that they must be considered in the nomination of candidates 
for the school-board, and that they are equally important in all 
political matters. But women should work in consultation and on 
equal terms with men, to prevent the preponderance of one set of 
opinions, to the exclusion of others perhaps equally true and im- 

An item of interest in this connection is, that the school com- 
mittee of Boston are about to name a new primary school-house 
of handsome proportions, in the Jamaica Plain district, on the 
%ery land where she formerly lived: the Margaret Fuller School. 
The School Suffrage Association asked for this favor, which re- 
quest was warmly endorsed by the representative on the board, 
and the gentlemen of the neighborhood spontaneously offered a 
United States flag to be placed on the school- house, with a streamer 
floating to the breeze, on which is the honored name. 

Is not this a prophecy that "The Great Lawsuit" will soon 
be settled and that " Woman in the nineteenth century " will find 
justice and recognition before its close ? 

One word more and my long letter shall come to an end. I 
wish to recommend to your readers a new book by Elizabeth H. 
Botume called " My First Days among the Contrabands." 

Miss Botume has been for about thirty years working for and 
with the freedmen of the South, and she has given her experiences 
with them as they first came out of slavery. It is a perfectly truth- 
ful, intelligent record of this wonderful time, and is told with such 
conciseness, simplicity, and humor that one reads every word. It 
is a valuable contribution not only to our history, but to the study 
of human nature and ethnical peculiarities. As the publisher said 
to me " It is a book that will be worth even more fifty years hence 

than it is now." It should be real by every American citizen who 
has to help in solving the great question of how to secure justice 
to the negro, and enable the two races to live in harmony. It is a 
small book and is published by Lee and Shepard of Boston. 

■With warm wishes to all friends of The Open Coiirl for a 

Happy New Year, 

I remain yours, 

Ednah D. Cheney. 
P. S. It is said that Harvard College has at last consented to 
open its doors to women, as the old miser Trapbois would do any- 
thing "for a consideration"! Cannot Harvard remember the 
large sums already lavished on Harvard by women, and the mothers 
and sisters who have toiled to support their young men there, and 
if lagging behind other colleges at last " rise to the height of this 
great argument" and open its doors with a welcome to women 
without a bribe ! We would promise its management that they 
would be no losers by the step. 


The foremost Canadian Journal of Politics, Literature, Science, 
and Art is TJw \]'cek of Toronto. This magazine has recently 
changed its shape ; so that it now much resembles in external form 
as well as literary purposes the Atheiucuiii and Saturday Review. 
The tone of The Week is of the highest. Its pages are everywhere 
marked by calmness and evenness of judgment. To all who take 
an interest in Canadian affairs, in fact to all who wish to keep 
abreast with current matters generally, we may confidently recom- 
mend this magazine. (Toronto; C. B. Robinson.) 

More might be said on the topics touched upon by General 
Trumbull in this number. The six years' term of the presidency 
is not necessarily an infringement of popular liberty, nor is anti- 
vivisection, because of its sentimental foundation, more moral than 





Dr. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


All communications should be addressed to 

THE oiE'Eisr co-cri^i', 

(Nixon Building, 175 La Salle Street,) 




Dewey 3512 

CURRENT TOPICS : Increasing the Presidential Term. 

A Single Term for the President. Shutting the Gates. 

■Vivisection. The Rights of Animals. Gen. M. M. 

Trumbull 3515 


A Letter to " The Open Court." Ednah D Cheney... 3517 
NOTES 3518 

.1, ^ 

The Open Court. 



No. 281. (Vol. VII. 


I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



If 2 men working one day of 8 hours can saw and 
split 32 cords of firewood, how many cords can 3 men 
working one day of 10 hours saw and spHt ? 

The Illogical Seminary of Inquirendo Island had 
gone on for a very long time adhering to what they 
termed the faith of their fathers. The professors taught 
dogmatically, and the students received weekly the 
engrafted word of the Arithmetic, reverencing Mathe- 
matics as the only true god. 

But in the course of time Providence, or Provident 
Nature, or the Divine Harmony of things raised up, 
or lowered down (as one may think) a certain Dr. Hyer 
Kritik to teach what the orthodox called erroneous and 
strange doctrine. Dr. Kritik was learned, poetic, elo- 
quent, masterful, plausible, and captivating in his man- 
ner ; and in his newer light drew after him much more 
than the third part of all the students. 

It would be quite beyond the limits of an article 
such as this to go into minute details concerning all 
the new doctrines or new interpretations of old ones. 
I shall therefore confine myself to a consideration of 
one single text above quoted, taken from the Rule of 

There had been a time in the history of the church 
when there was a great conflict as to this portion of 
Scripture ; many having been found to say that it was 
quite enough for them to live under the rule of one. 
In the end, however, after a deal of controversy and 
much bloodshed, the book was admitted to be canon- 
ical ; since which time the faithful have never doubted 
that it contained a true revelation of the Almighty 

As to the exact character of this '"revelation" il- 
logicians were much divided, even among those who 
professed and called themselves orthodox. Some held 
that this text justified the believer in undertaking to 
saw and split 16 cords of wood in one day of 8 hours, 
provided only he had the faith. These pointed out 
the manifest fact that 1/2 men could saw and split 32 
cords in 8 hours, i man could do at least half as 

Another school of thought, perceiving that no man 
of ordinary muscle could by any possibility do so much 
claimed that the inspired word must not be taken lit- 
erally. Here again opinions divided ; some claiming 
that the " day " referred to was longer in ancient times ; 
while others insisted that for this especial purpose and 
occasion only, the day had been miraculously length- 
ened. Another branch of the church took strenuous 
ground that the word "split" in the authorised ver- 
sion was an interpolation, and that the parties really 
had to saiv the wood only, without splitting it. Here 
again discord crept in, for while a portion held that 
under mathematical guidance and with due faith, the 
wood could be sawed, others, no less learned and prom- 
inent in church circles, denied it, asserting that, even 
if angels split the wood, the task of sawing alone was 
beyond human power. 

An irreverent outsider suggested that the wood 
ought to be piled as well as sawed and split, and that 
while Mathematics was about it he might as well have 
made a clean job of the matter. 

It is perhaps needless to say that this party did not 
claim to be orthodox. 

At this very hour the great heresy trial is going 
on ; Dr. Kritik having been called before the assem- 
bled church has re-enunciated his famous thesis — that 
instead of 32 cords the rendering should be 3 cyr 2, 
which he claims would ampl}' suffice to bring revela- 
tion and reason into full harmony. 

In the mean time there are those (including my- 
self) who hold to the opinion that in this and cognate 
matters there exists absolutely no room for opinion ; 
that mathematical truth exists in the quoted text as in 
a multitude of others in the sacred arithmetic, alto- 
gether independent of the form of statement. 

We hold that the truth of the relations of numbers 
would be the same no matter what values were em- 
ployed — whether of men, or days, or hours, or cords, 
or whether they sawed and split, aye and even piled. 
We hold, in short, that errancy in fact may exist, and 
in the text does exist, quite compatible with inerrancy 
of truth ; that there is a truth higher than single facts, 
and that no text and no book is or can be of more 
value than the principles it contains. 



Alas ! how few agree with us. The great heresy 
trial, as I say, is now on, and both sides (the iUiberals 
and the illiberally liberal) sawing and splitting words 
of whose use and value both sides are wofully ignorant. 


We propose the following five definitions of sci- 
ence : (i) Knowledge, i. e., a description of facts. (2) 
Truth, i. e., a correct description of facts. (3) The 
search for truth. (4) The methodical search for truth. 
(5) The methods of searching for the truth. 

The Latin scientia, from which the word "science " 
is derived, bears a similar etymological relation to 
scire (^\. e., " to know " ) as the German Wissenscliaft 
to wissen and the English noun knoivledge to its verb 
to knoziK* It means, originally, the stock of knowledge 
we have, and knowledge is "a description of facts." 

Knowledge, it must be understood, has to be a 
correct description of facts ; it must be true. The 
facts must be well ascertained and unmistakably 
stated. Knowledge means, eo ipso, correct knowl- 
edge; and correct knowledge is called "truth." 

Science, however, as the term is commonly used, 
is not only the stock of knowledge on hand, but also 
and especially our endeavor to acquire knowledge : it 
is "the search for truth." 

Science, as the search for truth, presupposes our 
desire for truth and includes the way to reach it. The 
methods of science demand : (i)The exact observa- 
tion of phenomena; (2) the tracing out of their deter- 
minative factors ; (3) a discriminate statement of the 
phenomena under observation in comprehensive form- 
ulas, called natural laws; (4) a systematising of nat- 
ural laws; (5) if possible, tests by experiments; and 
(5) the application of the results of science to prac- 
tical life. 

The amount of matter and energy remaining con- 
stant in the whole system of the entire universe, sci- 
ence, in order to trace the determining factors, has to 
deal with changes of form, which in their succession 
are called causes and effects. 

Science, above all, widens the range of experience 
by the discovery of new facts ; it further purifies our 
knowledge by the elimination of contradictions and 
errors ; it also systematises the description of facts, so 
as to survey them with the greatest economy possible ; 
moreover, it aims at completeness, so as to exhaust 
the subject and comprehend in its formulas all possi- 
ble cases ; finally, it makes its statements serviceable 
to practical ends. 

It is the methods of searching which make the 

* The ending "ledge" is a distorted form of M. E. leche or lac, which ap- 
pears also in wedlock. Its root, like that of lay, a song, denotes sporting or 
playing. It is connected with Germ. Leich, a song of irregular construction, 
the root of which is found in Goth, laikan, to dance, and Anglo-S. Idcan, to 

search for truth truly scientific, and when we wish to 
emphasise this, we define science as "the methodical 
search for truth." 

The methods of science have come to be called 
"science" themselves, because of their importance in 
the search for truth, as forming the essential charac- 
teristicum of that which is to be regarded as scientific. 
In this sense we say: Science is "the methods of 
searching for the truth ; " and these methods consist 
(according to Mach) in an "economy of thought." 

The purpose of science is and remains truth, i. e. , 
correct knowledge or an accurate and exhaustive 
statement of facts. And the purpose of truth is its 
application to practical life in the various fields of in- 
dustry, of art, and of moral conduct. 


The basis of science is experience. Experience 
being the effect of events upon sentient beings, is a 
psychical act, and thus it is obvious that all science 
has a psychical basis. This, however, does not imply 
the conclusion that all sciences are mere branches of 

Every single science investigates one special prov- 
ince of facts, and the limits of this province are arti- 
ficially established by abstraction. Chemistry investi- 
gates the chemical qualities of things, physics the 
physical, psychology the psychical, botany collects 
and systematises all knowledge concerning plant life, 
zoology concerning animal life, etc. But there are no 
things in the world which consist of chemical qualities 
only. The chemist confines his attention only to the 
chemical qualities of his objects of investigation, and 
leaves out of sight their psychical or any other prop- 
erties. The domains of the different sciences overlap 
one another and their barriers are erected simply for 
the sake of order and arrangement. We have to build 
up our knowledge piecemeal by limiting our attention 
now to this and now to that fact, and the limitation of 
each special science is a wholesale act of abstraction. 

Thus psychology, although psychic facts are the 
basis of all experience, is quite a special province of 
its own. Psychology is the science which deals with 
the functions of the soul, i. e., it investigates the prov- 
ince of meaning-freighted feelings. The domain, for 
instance, of the physicist is limited to the physical 
qualities of things; so he excludes all the rest and 
accordingly also neglects the fact, that all our physical 
knowledge is possible only because we are sentient 
beings. He takes the whole state of things which 
make physics as a science possible for granted, and 
leaves their investigation to other men, or, if he desires 
to do it himself, defers it to another occasion. If this 
were not so, a general confusion would prevail and we 
might consider any science as a part of any other 
science. We might regard astronomy as a branch of 



logic, because the astronomer has to think in words 
(mathematical symbols being here included under the 
term "word") or, vice versa, logic as a branch of 
astronomy, because the logician exists only as an in- 
habitant of one of the celestial bodies. 

Thus every science possesses a domain of its own, 
the limits of which are drawn by abstraction. 

The world being thus divided among the sciences, 
must not philosophy, like the poet in Schiller's poem, 
'^Die Tlieiliing der Erde," leave the throne of Zeus 
empty-handed? There is seemingly nothing left; in- 
deed, according to the Comtean idea of positivism, 
philosophy is nothing but a hierarchy of the sciences. 
Comte, in order to elaborate a positive philosophy, 
thought it necessary to present in a very voluminous 
work abstracts of the various sciences. This was a 
mistake, for, first, abstracts of the various sciences are 
better made by specialists, and, secondly, philosophy 
has other duties than that of dabbling in the spheres 
of the different sciences. 

What, then, is the domain of philosophy ? 

Although all the different sciences have taken away 
their parts, there are left some very important objects 
for investigation : (i) The relations among the sci- 
ences, which make of them a systematic whole, so 
that their unity is conceived as a consistent world- 
conception ; (2) the basis of all the sciences and the 
scientific method, including the tools of scientific in- 
quiry, which are such ideas as cause and effect, nat- 
ural law, knowledge and cognition, experience, reason, 
truth, the criterion of truth, etc.; and (3) the practical 
application of the sciences as a world-conception to 
our own existence, with the view of gaining an insight 
into the nature of being and the duties which it im- 

An investigation of these subjects is of great im- 
portance and constitutes an abstract domain of its 
own. Yet as all the sciences are inseparable from each 
other, so philosophy is inseparable from the sciences. 
Its field is not outside them, but within them. A phi- 
losopher must also be a scientist ; he must be imbued 
with the spirit of exact scientific inquiry, as, vice versa, 
the scientist must be a philosopher ; he must under- 
stand the relation of his specialty not only to the other 
specialties, but also to the whole system of their com- 
mon philosophical world-conception. Editor. 




Philosophy begins with the query -v/ia/ ? Ethics begins with 
-i'hy'^. The Greek people were really the first, in the true and deep 
sense of the word, to make use of these two interrogatives. There 

* Address before the Ethical Society of St. Louis, April, 1892. 

had been opinions before ; but they had been only sentiments or 
traditions, suggestions or analogies from nature : they had not come 
from the direct application of the mind to human life, to nature, or 
to God. 

The Egyptian people, for example, had had an architecture and 
a religion ; but they had founded them largely on certain vague and 
striking analogies which they drew from the natural conditions of 
that country. The river Nile with its remarkable peculiarities, 
actually gave them the basis tor their interpretation of nature, and 
the elements of their religion. The Hebrew people, on the other 
hand, in their splendid theocracy had a basis of truth, great and 
impressive, but also not philosophical, not scientifically ethical, be- 
cause it simply tended to answer all questions with the one reply, 
— the ~ivi// of God. But the people of Greece went beyond analogies 
in nature, beyond even inferences from the will of the Deity. They 
gave reasons and developed principles. They sought by their own 
minds to find a definite, positive answer to the -to/iy and the whal. 
As the first rationalists, they were the first philosophers. 

We cannot help feeling a certain sense of awe at the majesty 
of the work of that particular race, or we might more especially 
say, of that one city of Athens. We do not forget that that one 
place in the short interval of about two centuries, established a 
greater influence on the world than any other city or race or 
country in any thousand years. 

The Hebrews gave us theology and the Bible ; the Romans gave 
us laws and political and social institutions ; but the Greeks gave us 
ideas ; with them was born the intellectual life, from them came 
science and philosophy. What shall we say when we remember that 
that one city in that short time has taken the permanent lead in five 
if not six of the greatest spheres of human work : literature, sculp- 
ture, architecture, ethics, and philosophy — I was almost going to 
add, statesmanship. We do not forget that never has there been a 
single instance of a building which for beauty of architecture could 
even be regarded as the parallel of the Parthenon. Only two poets, 
Shakespeare and Goethe, could be accepted at any time as the equal 
of three of their great dramatists, jEschylus, Sophocles, and Eurip- 
ides. Even Michael Angelo stands-second in sculpture to Phidias. 
There has not been one solitary mind, in the last twenty-three hun- 
dred years, equal in depth to three of the great minds of that people, 
— Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. I give these facts not as personal 
opinions, but as the accepted standpoint of the average scholar and 
student of the present day. 

It is a settled fact that probably three quarters of the best and 
deepest thought we meet in literature and philosophy, can be traced 
to those writers of Greece. Again and again it has come over me 
how extensively we could refer the opinions of Spinoza, Hume, Kant, 
John Stuart IVIill, Descartes, St. Augustine, Marcus Aurelius, even 
Thomas a Kempis to those first three writers and thinkers : Soc- 
rates, Plato, and Aristotle. We might even say the same in the 
branch of statesmanship. Many of the most profound thoughts in 
politics and economics can be traced to those minds of Athens. 
What shall we say of an individual who could be a great general 
in war and at the same time have the versatility to write the " Me- 
moirs of Socrates," and a volume on " Social Economics," as was 
true of Xenophon ? Where too is the parallel, unless it be in the 
. case of the Medicis, of a statesman matchless in his own science 
and at the same time so appreciative of all the great arts ? For my 
own part I remember nothing in the addresses of statesmen, superior, 
it indeed -equal, to the one celebrated funeral address of Pericles. 
Much of the deepest thought on questions of state are to be found 
in this short but magnificent oration. The utterances would be al- 
most as suggestive for us now, as they were at that time. We quote 
some of those sentences that were reported as coming from that 
great statesman ; 

" Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with the institutions 
of others. We do not copy our neighbors, but are an example to them. It is 



true that we are called a democracy, for the administratioD is in tlie hands of 
the many and not of the few. But while the law secures equal justice to all 
alike in their private disputes, the claim of excellence is also recognised ; and 
when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is preferred to the public ser- 
vice, not as a matter of privilege, but as the reward of merit. Neither is pov- 
erty a bar. but a man may benefit his country whatever be the obscurity of his 
condition. There is no exclusiveness in our public life, and in our private in- 
tercourse we are not suspicious of one anotlier. nor angry with our neighbor ; 
if he does what lie likes we do not put on sour looks at him, which, though 
harmless, are not pleasant. While we are thus unconstrained in our private 
intercourse, a spirit of reverence pervades our public acts ; we are prevented 
from doing wrong by respect for authority and for the laws, having a special 
regard for those which are ordained for the protection of the injured, as well 
as those unwritten laws which bring upon the transgressor of them, the repro- 
bation of the general sentiment." 

" We are lovers of the beautiful, yet simple in our tastes, and we cultivate 
the mind without loss of manliness. Wealth we employ not for talk and osten- 
tation, but when there is a real use for it. To avow poverty with us is no dis- 
grace : the true disgrace is in doing nothing to avoid it. An Athenian citizen 
does not neglect the state because he takes care of his own household ; and 
even those of us who are engaged in business have a very fair idea of politics. 
We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harm- 
less, but as a useless character; and if few of us are originators, we are all 
sound judges of a policy. The great impediment to action is. in our opinion, 
not discussion, but the want of that knowledge which is gained by discussion 
preparatory to action. For we have a peculiar power of thinking before we 
act, and of acting, too ; whereas other men are courageous from ignorance, but 
hesitate upon reflection." 

"We alone do good to our neighbors not upon a calculation of interest, 
but in the con6dence of freedom and in a frank and fearless spirit." 

" I would have you day b\' day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, 
until you become filled with the love of her ; and when you are impressed by 
the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men 
who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict 
had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who. if ever they failed 
in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but 
freely gave their lives to her as the .fairest oftering they could present at her 

" The whole earth is the sepulcher of famous men ; not only are they com- 
memorated by columns and inscriptions in their own country, but in foreign 
lands there dwells also an unwritten memorial of them, graven not on stone 
but in the hearts of men." 

We may be told that this was said to please the populace of 
Athens. No, it was a great deal more than that. The people knew 
perfectly well that what he had said of them was only partially true. 
He had shown the wonderful tact of a statesman in suggesting to 
them what that people might actually become, by apparently telling 
them what they were. He saw the germs, the possibilities of that 
ideal among those people and in their institutions. He sketched 
there for all future time the elements of an ideal democracy which 
should have respect for law, treat all men equally, and yet pay 
recognition to superior excellence. Individuality and fraternity 
were combined. Loyalty to the social organism is suggested. As 
I read that speech over and over, it ceases for me to be an address 
on political science, it is no longer a mere funeral oration ; it is a 
master-piece in the science of ethics. It suggests what a state otiglu 
to be. It holds aloft a magnificent ideal. It suggests a universal 
Athens. Amid certain elements that were imperfect and crude, but 
in keeping with his own time, there is probably as much if not 
more of the universally true and ideal for the science of politics to 
be found there, than in any other address of any other statesman 
of human history. 

It may be said, however, that the greatness of their sculpture 
and their architecture has nothing to do with the science of ethics. 
What does the Parthenon have to tell us about evil and good, wrong 
and right ? JJ^at shall we gather there about the idea of jus- 
tice ? I recogitise a certain propriety in the question, if it were 
with reference to the arts of other nations. But the Parthenon 
does preach one everlasting sermon. Ask ourselves for a moment 
what is the one supreme contrast between that building and the 
edifices of our modern world. It lies in the fact that there was not 
a single block of stone in the entire structure that did not do some- 
thing or serve some purpose in the building. If there was a column. 
It bore a weight. If there was an ornament, it filled in a natural 

vacancy ; indeed we might almost have said, that to have taken 
out a single stone would have pulled down the whole edifice ; whereas 
in modern times, we might often take out a large part of a building 
and leave the structure standing. The main thought in their ar- 
chitecture was, that if beauty was to be there, it was not to be put 
on, but just to grow as it were from the normal proportions of the 
temple. It was a magnificent discovery which brought out the truth, 
first, that simplicity could be beautiful ; and secondly, that beauty 
itself was something that must come from within and be an essential 
part of the structure. The Parthenon is simple almost to the point 
of being tame. We take it all in with a single glance. One look, 
and we see the building. But the effect of it on the mind is ever- 
lasting. Beauty has to be an essential part of the thing it adorns, 
else it is no lasting beauty at all. That was the great lesson in ethics 
that came from the Parthenon! 

Precisely in the same way we can draw a like truth or dis- 
covery from their sculpture. It had been so much the effort of the 
Assyrians and Egyptians and other people to express greatness by 
means of the colossal. A king or an emperor was indicated by the 
huge size of his figure in comparison with those around him. Statues 
were usually made vastly greater in size than the person they rep- 
resented. The Greek, on the other hand, was able to portray great- 
ness by having it indicate itself in the mere form or position of the 
figure or in the lines of the face. We could see a Greek statue of 
ordinary life size, and be able to say, this was the statue of a 
king. It was an extraordinary discovery in the science of ethics, 
that greatness did not consist in size or dimensions, but in quality 
of form and texture of character, — that it was an essential part of a 
person, coming as it were by itself, without being sought after or 
put on. Such was the greatness of Pericles. We look at the figure 
and look at the face as it has come down to us carved in marble, 
scarcely more than life size, contrasting it with thecolossal heads 
of the kings of the Orient, Assyria, or Egypt, and it appears of itself 
to say, "I am a king." 

It may be asked in the same way, how is it possible that the 
poetry or drama should teach ethics ? They belong to the sphere of 
art ; surely it should not be expected that they should preach ser- 
mons. It is commonly admitted that art loses its power when it 
begins to moralise. Poetry should be poetry, and nothing else ; it 
should appeal to the sentiments, to the higher feelings, but surely 
it should not express thoughts and principles ! 

This may all be very true. Nevertheless it is perfectly possible 
that under certain conditions we might be able to discover the ele- 
ments of ethics in the drama. It is not uncommon that an individual 
soul in a great emotional crisis, when giving utterance to his feel- 
ings, should in a sudden outburst let those emotions crystallise in 
some one great universal thought or principle. This would not be 
moralising. It would be only a spasmodic illumination of the feel- 
ings, as the intellect in one wide grasp appreciates the true meaning 
or significance of the crisis. Great trial, sudden calamity, will now 
and then have the effect of making the individual suddenly look 
deep into philosophy. We not only feel deeply, but we think in- 
tensely, in such emergencies. It is in this way, I assume, we are 
to explain the occasional profound thoughts that are expressed in 
the characters of the dramas of Shakespeare and Goethe. Like- 
wise it was with the equally great, if not greater, poets of Athens. 
Probably the deepest and most profound utterance in the whole 
sphere of ethics was an outburst from Antigone in the play of 
Sophocles. We are all familiar with her magnificent appeal to the 
"unwritten law which knows no change." It is now a common- 
place in literature ; 

" It was not Zeus who gave them forth, 
Nor Justice dwelling with the Gods below. 
Who traced these laws for all the sons of men ; 
Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough, 
That thou, a mortal man, should'st over-pass 
The unwritten laws of God that know no change. 



They are not of to-day nor yesterday, 

But live forever, nor can man assit;n 

When first they sprang to being. Not through fear 

Of any man's resolve was I prepared 

Before the Gods to bear the penalty 

Of sinning against these." 

When that speech was uttered ethics as a science was born. Until 
that truth had been discovered, there could have been no such 
science. But when the heroine defies the law of the state, and says 
that there is a higher right, an ideal law with which the edicts of 
the state should square themselves, that that higher law should 
prevail over the authority of the state, )'es, over even the King of 
Heaven, — at that moment human intellect pierced the veil of au- 
thority which had rested on custom and tradition. It brought mo- 
rality within the sphere of knowledge. That proclamation of an 
unwritten, universal law, was the foundation of the science of ethics. 
Was Antigone a philosopher ? Not in the least. It was the heroic 
nature rising above present conditions, conscious that her position 
was right, and, in the emergency, seeking to explain itself in thought. 
It is in that way that the greatest moral truths have been discovered. 
We call them prophetic utterances, as though they had come by 
inspiration ; and it is true, in a way they are an inspiration, which 
the mind gives to the deeper instincts or feelings by venturing to 
put its interpretation upon them. It is not a question whether the 
particular defiance of Antigone was right or wrong ; but the truth 
she discovered in the crisis of her emotions was as valuable to the 
world as the discovery by Newton of the law of gravitation. Justice 
and right were there laid down as resting on deeper foundations 
than the state, custom, tradition, or even the will of God. 

We could offer a still more pleasing illustration of the form in 
which the science of ethics may be said to have its origin in the 
drama of the Greeks. It may be found not only in philosophical 
utterances, but in types of character. There could also be no true 
science of ethics until it had been discovered that there was an ac- 
tual, positive obligation on the part of the individual to human so- 
ciety. It was essential that men should understand that the human 
soul had to live for something else, than itself and its God. It was 
necessary that truth should be expre.ssed both in thought and ex- 
ample. We recall, for instance, the play of Iphigenia by Euripides. 
There too is a heroine. In this case, however, there is no appeal 
to the unwritten law, but to a sense of human obligation. 

We remember the story. It was a question whether the daugh- 
ter of the king should be sacrificed on the altar to propitiate the 
Deity. We do not question now whether it was the true method 
of understanding religion. It is simply the issue whether if the 
welfare of the people demanded it, an individual ought to make 
the sacrifice. I know of nothing in literature finer than the speech 
of Iphigenia : 

" Mother do you hear my words, for I perceive that thou art vainly wroth 
with thy husband. But it is not easy for us to struggle with things impos- 
sible. It is meet, therefore, to praise our friend for his willingness, but it 
behooves thee also to see that you do not be an object of reproach to the army, 
and we protit nothing more, and he meet with calamity. But hear me, mother, 
thinking upon what has entered my mind. I have determined to die and this I 
would fain do gloriously, I mean, by dismissing all ignoble thoughts. Come 
hither, mother, consider with me how well I speak. Greece, the greatest of 
states, is now all looking at me, and there rests in me both the passage of ships 
and the destruction of Troy, and, for the women hereafter, if the barbarians 
do them aught of harm, to allow them no longer to carry them off from pros- 
perous Greece, having avenged the destruction of Helen whom Paris bore 
away. All these things I, dying, shall redeem, and my renown for that I have 
freed Greece will be blessed. Thou hast brought me forth for the common 
good of Greece, not for thyself only. But shall ten thousand men armed with 
bucklers and ten thousand oars in hand, their country being injured, dare do 
some deed against the foes, and perish on behalf of Greece, while my life, 
being but one, shall hinder all these things ? Have we a word to answer ? .\nd 
let me come to this point : it is not meet that this man should come to strife 
with all the Greeks for the sake of a woman, nor lose his life. But if Diana 
should wish to receive my body, shall I, being mortal, become an opponent to 
the Goddess ? But it cannot be ! I give my body for Greece. Sacriiice it and 
sack Troy, For this for a long time will be my memorial, and this my children. 

my wedding, and my glory. It is meet that Greeks should rule over barbarians 
O mother, but not barbarians over Greeks; for the ones are slavish, but the 
others are free." 

It might be said that this was superstition, that they ought to 
have had a different idea of their God. But that is not the question 
for consideration. What Iphigenia was thinking of, was, not her 
debt to the Deity, bat what she owed to her people. It was the 
consciousness that the welfare of all Greece was of more impor- 
tance than her personal life. It was all expressed in that one mag- 
nificent utterance, "Thou hast brought me forth, not for thyself 
alone, but for the common good of Greece." This tells the whole 

We have there the second truth essential to the birth of the 
science of ethics. It was the distinct recognition that society had 
a direct claim on the individual, that we make sacrifices for the 
good of our fellow-men, not only because we care to do it, or be- 
cause we must do it, but also because the law of right and justice 
exacts it from us. The more crude, half-developed nature would 
have taken the contrary standpoint. It would have stood up in de- 
fiance. Iphigenia's appeal was not merely to sentiment, but to a 
clear and final principle. That is what makes so striking and re- 
markable this play of Euripides. 

It is interesting, in passing, to observe also that the two char- 
acters in that literature uttering these profound intellectual truths 
were women. We may only half appreciate the significance of that 
unusual circumstance. 

I have ventured in this way to give illustrations of the influence 
of the thought of that people in the sphere of ethics ; from their 
sculpture and architecture in the Parthenon ; from the utterances 
of statesmen like Pericles ; and from the sublime and immortal 
words of Sophocles and Euripides. But the Greek people, as we 
have said, were not only the fathers of sculpture, architecture, the 
drama, and statesmanship ; we look to them also for the origin of 
philosophy. It might be said that all the gropings of the mind and 
heart in the poets, architects, and statesmen, finally culminated in 
the greatest of all minds, — Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. 

The more I have read the thoughts of those minds, the more it 
has come home to me how little was left to be said. We ordinarily 
begin by studying the writings of later thinkers of the modern world. 
It is a startling discovery when we find that much of the best 
thought of Kant and Emerson, Hume and Pascal is to be read in 
the writings of those other earlier minds, who lived fifteen hundred 
or two thousand years before them. I do not say that all our reli- 
gion or philosophy comes from the Greeks. We owe an equal debt 
in another direction to the Hebrews and the Romans. But ethics 
as a science certainly had its origin with the people of Athens. 

It would be impossible in a few paragraphs to give even an 
epitome or outline of the thoughts of those three philosophers. We 
cannot say which was the greater or the greatest ; but we can only 
rest assured that they were, and have always been, the fountain-head 
of philosophy. It began with Socrates, with his everlasting habit 
of putting questions, not being willing to let things stay as they were 
just because the fore-fathers had thought them right and wise. He 
was the one who perhaps for the first time in history did put that 
question, — why, and wherefore? 

It is so ordinary now that we do not appreciate its purport. But 
there was a time when men first began to hear the query, w-hat are 
you doing that/cr ? why do you act in that way ^^ey had lit- 
erally never thought of it, They acted from nio^^H) moment, 
from hour to hour. It was a revolution in humai^lgling when a 
man stood forth and said, you must first in your mind grasp the 
whole purpose of life before you begin to act or wA at all ; other- 
wise, what you do is liable to be futile, aimless,^Bd without any 
result. Socrates insisting on discovering the whole purpose of life, 
was the philosophical beginning of the science of ethics. It all grew 
out of that commonplace notion, — if you make a window, do it not 



with reference to one single room, but adjust and fashion it accord- 
ing to the proportions of the whole house. Out of the plain science 
of carpentering came ethics ; as indeed we might say, from a plain 
humble carpenter came the religion of Christianity. 

Then came the idealist Plato. He had received the method, 
he had been given his first principles or suggestions from his great 
teacher. The principle of adjustment or proportion of each act to 
the whole life, of every detail to the one supreme purpose, — this 
was his starting point, as given him by Socrates. 

Plato has truly been called " the Father of Idealism." A cer- 
tain class of minds will always look to him as their leader. It is not 
the particular theory which he held ; his special doctrine may have 
been somewhat modified. It was the amount of stress which he laid 
on ideas and their influence, which gives him this distinction. We 
are all somewhat realists and somewhat idealists. Whether we be- 
long to one or the other class will depend simply on the degree of 
importance we give to the concrete or ideal. 

It was of consequence that so early in history a colossal genius 
should appear which should exalt /'iirc mind to so lofty a height. 
The great Master who had taken the hemlock was no more. He 
had begun the science ; now came the further consideration. 

Where was that law of virtue to be found ? How should we 
seek for it ? The genius of Socrates had shown itself in the one 
persistent demand that we should at least set out to find it. Plato's 
mighty contribution came in the assertion that that law was to be 
found as a supreme idea luifk in the ntiiid or soul itself. It was an 
equally grand discovery for the philosopher at that time to have 
asserted that the soul "could perceive certain things by its own 
power." It fixed irrevocably the right of pure mind to a certain 
authority. No agency since that time has been able to draw it from 
its pinnacle. With Socrates began the science of ethics ; but we 
could still further say, with Plato, in the higher sense, began phi- 
losophy, because with him began the analysis of mind and its true 
power and sphere of influence. He may have exaggerated the de- 
gree of its importance. But the assertion has not yet been refuted, 
that in this soul of ours there is something not quite to be accounted 
for by what we perceive outside of us. We do from within ourselves 
contribute something to knowledge. 

The law of virtue had been stated as a positive fact to be de- 
fined, accounted for, and explained by the first great teacher. The 
second leader came and sought to give that definition. He it was 
who put forward the idea of the good, as something to be looked for 
within the human soul. He did not say that it was something that 
could necessarily be realised and worked out in complete form ; he 
did not assert that we could ever see it with the human eye ; but 
there was the positive assurance that it was there as an idea or an 
ideal. We read what he says with regard to the majesty of one of 
those principles. 

"Justice is the reality of which tllis is the semblance, dealing, however, 
not with the outward man but with the inward, which is the true self and our 
supreme concern. The nature of justice and the perfectly just man is only an 
ideal. We are to look at them in order that we may judge of our own joy or 
misery according to the standard which they give and the degree to which we 
resemble them." 

There, in a sentence, is the position or standpoint of Plato. 
The artist is justified in giving a perfectly ideal type, though it 
could be shown that no such a concrete form had ever existed. The 
ethical teacjaer is authorised in the same way to draw from his 

mind an idi 

was endeavorin 
Acropolis. It 
of idealism, out' 


the perfect man, although it has no existence in 

ying to do in the sphere of ethics just what Phidias 
9 perform with that magnificent structure on the 
is reason that I like to think of that father 
re with his pupils in the groves of the academy, 
because from tlie shade of those trees they could look out towards 
that great mass of rock, and as they talked together could let their 
eyes fall upon the Parthenon. That building was an eftort, and the 

most successful of its kind ever constructed, to construct an ideal 
of beauty out of the mind itself. And it was this supremely, be- 
cause we are to remember that no models were then in existence, 
no philosophy or science of architecture then prevailed. Those two 
men accomplished a like achievement in their two great spheres of 
work. Instinctively we connect the names of Phidias and Plato. 

The philosopher could say : " While thou hast not seen it with 
thine eye ; thou canst behold it nevertheless. Though it never 
stand before thee in external form, it is there in the presence of 
thine inward vision. It shall follow thee, stay with thee, live with 
thee, but not die with thee. It shall hold thee in its grasp and 
never let thee go. Thou canst flee from it but it will be with thee 
as the cause of thine own shadow. It stands there fixed as a part 
of thine own soul, Me law of the good." This in my own words 
would be the way I would summarise the entire moral philosophy 
of Plato. 

Finally, to close the trio of colossal minds came Aristotle. He 
is thought to be the philosopher of the concrete and practical. The 
idealist thinks of him as dry and ordinary ; but we are not to forget 
that human thought at the present day is more extensively made up of 
opinions and teachings from him, than from either Socrates or Plato. 
Through his practical genius the thought of Greece was able to be- 
come an influential factor in the intellectual development of Europe. 
The church adopted it as a means of working out their system of 
doctrine ; the creeds of the past owe very much to his teachings. It 
is doubtful whether they would ever have been in existence if it had 
not been for the third of those great intellects of Greece. All that 
he did in the various spheres of economics, political science, meta- 
physics, psychology, and even natural science, does not concern us 
here. We are interested only in one line of his influence. He ana- 
lysed the virtues, he was the first intellect that undertook to write 
a detailed catalogue of the duties. That was the one thing essential 
to establish the fact once for all, that ethics could be a science. We 
may now-a-days think that we have a finer and more thorough 
classification of the virtues. It is probably true that he has been 
superseded in this sphere by Immanuel Kant. But the genius comes 
in the individual who begins the work, sees the necessity for it, 
suggests the first broad outlines, — not in him who is merely a suc- 
cessor and carries it out to completion. There was one permanent 
step to be taken. Socrates had laid down as we have said the de- 
mand that virtue be defined ; Plato had shown where the law was 
to be discovered ; btit there remained the task of determining what 
was its actual nature in the soul, what were the virtues, what made 
them different from the other facts or laws of the natural world, 
how were they related to the structure and growth of the mind and 
the soul. This had not been clearly explained by the first or second 
of that trio. Aristotle gave the answer. He drew the lasting con- 
trast between outward nature, and the growth of the inward self. 

What is the real difference between the way we grow and the 
way nature acts ? Why, he says, you may toss a stone up a thou- 
sand or million times into the air, but the number of times you do 
it will not in the slightest degree encourage the stone to go up into 
the air by itself. Its law is fixed and irrevocable. You cannot change 
it, you cannot make it do other than what is its nature. The stone 
will not fly into the air by its own effort though you were to keep 
tossing it there for untold millions of years. But on the other hand 
how is it with one's self ? We do actually induce this body and soul 
of ours to acquire new ways and new habits, by simply making our- 
selves perform certain acts a number of times. We can literally to 
a certain extent change and re-make ourselves ; we can root out 
vices by the steady performance of higher deeds ; we can make 
good conduct natural where at one time evil tendencies had that 
position. In a word virtues are not merely ideas but they are hubits 
of the body, and mind and soul. They are not learned, but ac- 

This was the final discovery which practically brought to a 



conclusion the history of the ethics of Greece. The entire foun- 
dation had been laid. It only rested for the superstructure to be 
erected by the thought and labors of Rome, France. England, Ger- 
many, and lastly America. We are simply building on those foun- 
dations. The basis is there and will be the same forever. Aris- 
totle, Socrates, and Plato established the elements of the one great 
science which most concerns us, — that of ethics. We can see it in 
the sculpture of the Apollo and Hermes ; we view it in the work of 
the Parthenon ; it is to be traced in the Iphigenia, the Antigone, and 
the Prometheus. We can recognise it in the efforts of Pericles ; it 
culminates finally in those three colossal minds, the philosophers 
of Greece. 

This may almost seem like a superstitious regard for the work 
of a single people. We do not mean to say that we cannot advance 
upon them ! But the old truths do not change though we make 
new discoveries. And so it is that the new elements in this science 
must be a superstructure resting on that first basis of truth which 
came from Athens. And yet our work in ethics must continue. The 
best suggestion I can make in conclusion would be from the English 
poet who sang of Hellas : 

" The world's great age begins anew, 
Tlie golden years return, 
Ttie earth doth like a snake renew 

Her winter weeds outworn ; 
Heaven smiles, and faith and empires gleam. 
Like wrecks of a dissolving dream. 

A brighter Hellas rears its mountains 

From waves serener far ; 
A new Peneus rolls its fountains 

Against the morning star. 
Where fairer Tempes bloom, there sleep 

Young Cyclads on a sunnier deep. 

Another Athens shall arise, 

And to remoter time 
Bequeath like sunset to the skies 

The splendor of its prime ; 
And leave, if nought so bright may live, 

All earth can take or Heaven can give." 

What we have to do is told there plainly enough. The Greeks of 
by-gone days will never come back 'again. There is no use in at- 
tempting to re-establish the position or supremacy of that partic- 
ular people as they exist to-day. What we have now to do is to 
build a new, that is. a universal Athens. 


The Governor of Pennsylvania, in his annual message to the 
legislature, speaks of the Homestead riot, and compliments the 
militia for the "zeal and activity" displayed by those amateur 
warriors in reducing the working men to " peace and submission." 
These are portentous words ; ominous, not only to the working 
men but also to their masters. When I remember that the most 
productive estate of its size in all this world, is the piece of land 
geographically known as Pennsylvania, it seems to me that if a 
standing army becomes necessary there to dragoon the working 
men into "peace and submission," something must be wrong in 
the management of that farm. "Peace and submission" is an 
irritating phrase when directed exclusively against the working 
men, for it implies that the laborers are a conquered class ; and a 
conquered class is a rickety foundation on which to build the 
prosperity of any nation ; because men, and especially American 
men, will never contentedly stay conquered. 

A key to the puzzle is furnished by the Governor himself in 
that identical message, for he complains of another set of Penn- 
sylvania lawbreakers who live in habitual riot and rebellion with- 
out any fear of punishment at all ; those numerous incorporated 
conspiracies, which according to the Governor, appear to be in a 
chronic state of treason. Asking for an enforcement of the Con 
stitution against all corporations that trample it under foot, the 

Governor mentions the Reading railroad combination as "an espe- 
cially flagrant illustration of the manner in which the Constitution 
is defied." That is positive enough, and it really seems as if the 
militia might reduce to "peace and submission" that organised 
assault upon the Constitution. Unfortunately, the militia is in- 
tended for the protection of the Reading "combine " and similar 
bands of powerful men confederated against the law. Property, 
abusing its rights, and usurping powers by which the Constitution 
is "defied" provokes the resistance of labor. 

An Illinois statesman has offered in the legislature a bill for 
lengthening blankets by cutting a strip from the top of them and 
stitching it on to the bottom ; in other words, he proposes to 
increase the demand for labor at one end of our industrial system, 
by cutting off the supply of labor at the other. He proposes to 
limit the hours of labor by law, and he makes industry a crime if 
persisted in longer than eight hours in any one day. In the lan- 
guage of his bill, " It shall be and is unlawful for any person to 
agree to be employed, hired, or engaged, or counsel or persuade 
any other person to agree to be, or to be employed, hired, or en- 
gaged contrary to the provisions of this act." The scheme is to 
increase wages by decreasing the products, out of which all wages 
must be paid ; and to increase the demand for laborers by dimin- 
ishing the hours of labor. He might as well implore the legislature 
to flog this old earth to a quicker pace, and thus reduce her hours 
of daily labor from twenty-four to twenty. The bill is morally 
unsound because it takes away the right of men to work as long as 
they please, and to make their own contracts ; it is economically 
unsound because it seeks to increase the demand for labor by cut- 
ting off the source from which the demand must come. The plan 
is fallacious because it makes idleness furnish employment for in- 
dustry. Abundance, not scarcity, furnishes work and wages. The 
theory of the bill is born of the mistake that if we diminish the 
supply of labor by one fifth, we reduce the product of labor in that 
proportion, and therefore a corresponding increase of laborers 
must be called into the vineyard to make up the deficiency ; but 
this view of it supposes that there is a reservoir of wages some- 
where that is not supplied by labor, a reservoir that can replenish 
itself whether men work or not. Suppose the length of the work- 
ing day reduced to four hours, or to two, is it not evident that the 
result would be less workmen at work, and these at lower wages ? 
The principle of the bill is mischievous because it leads working 
men to the opinion that it is patriotic and brave to withdraw a 
part, or all of their producing power from the commonwealth of 
labor. If that is true, surely we ought to honor the noble army of 
tramps, and sports, and thieves, who have patriotically withdrawn 
themselves altogether from the competition with their fellow-men 
in the labor market, The vagrant, instead of being punished, 
ought to be rewarded. If we depend for an eight hour working- 
day on the feeble mandate of an Illinois statute we shall waste the 
time that might be better employed in seeking the reform in a more 
effective way. 

* * 

Another encroachment upon liberty is reported ; this time 
from Cheyenne, in the State of Wyoming. It appeared in the 
shape of a judicial denial of the right which the citiisens of that 
commonwealth have enjoyed from time immemorial. The case 
before the court was that of the cattlemen, indicted for high 
crimes and misdemeanors. The outrage committed by the judge, 
a tenderfoot by the name of Scott, was this : He instructed the 
clerk to enter an order that all prisoners appear in court without 
fire-arms, and the sheriff was directed to see that the order be 
strictly enforced. This order deprives a prisoner of that privilege 
which has heretofore always been allowed him by the unwritten 
Magna Charta of Wyoming, the right to shoot a witness who may 
be telling too much truth ; or "the counsel on the other side," if 



he should happen to become too eloquent in his address to the 
jury. When I lived out on the western frontier I always thought 
that a ten-inch revolver, visible in the belt of "the prisoner at the 
bar," was a wholesome check on the fluent vituperation of the 
prosecuting attorney ; and I mourn over the decay of liberty when 
I see the blessed privilege of shooting a lawyer in the court-room 
taken away by the arbitrary mandate of a judge. Mr. Justice 
Scott carried the innovation beyond the bounds of all reason when 
he made his order apply not only to the prisoners, but also to the 
witnesses and spectators, whereby the prospect of enlivening the 
trial by a free for all fight in the middle of it, was grievously dimin- 
ished. Of course, a stray bullet might have hit " the honorable 
court," but that is a timid excuse for taking away from the citizens 
of Wyoming their ancient rights. With proper contempt for the 
effeminacy of modern civilisation the Wyoming cowboys read 
this notice on the court-house door; "Before going into court, 
gentlemen will please deposit their guns in the ante-room." And 
when the "guns" were all deposited the ante-room looked like 
the armory in the Tower of London. M. M. Trumbull. 


The Agnostic Annual. Edited by C/ias. A. IVnfts. London : 
W. Stewart cS: Co. 

The Annual for 1893 is very good reading, and has little that 
is typically agnostic in it. Mr. Amos Waters's " Reverent Agnos- 
ticism " contains most of that which is at all essentially so. This 
article is thoughtfully and artistically done ; and exhibits Mr. Wa- 
ters's characteristically " sweet " literary style in its best and latest 
guise. His prediction of a coming philosophico-religious recon, 
struction will find an answering echo in the minds of many. 

The author in chief, however, of the present number, is Mr. 
Leslie Stephen, who is known to consider the terra " agnostic " as 
descriptive of his general point of view. By him is contributed the 
opening paper upon "The Moral Sanction." Mr. Stephen holds 
that to try to discover " a moral ' sanction ' in the sense of finding 
out a motive which shall persuade everybody to be virtuous, is to 
attempt a contradiction. . . . This argument is generally alleged as 
telling against the scientific moralist, whether of the Utilitarian or 
Evolutionist variety, I reply that it is equally applicable upon every 
moral theory. Every genuine 'sanction' must imply a certain 
character in the persons whose conduct it is to influence." 

Dr. Alfred Momerie — who was compelled to vacate a London 
chair of logic and metaphysic on account of heresy — discourses 
upon "Dogmatism in Theology." He very neatly distinguishes 
dogma from creed as follows; "Creed means that which is be- 
lieved in the present, dogma that which must not be disbelieved in 
the future." Dr. Momerie declares that what is now called theology 
does not possess a single characteristic of true science. 

Mr. Samuel Laing compares "Sermons on the Mount" of An- 
cient Egyptian, Zoroastrian, and Christian sacred books. The re- 
sult of this comparison is by no means in favor of the latest and 
most familiar homily. 

Mr. Edward Clodd, author of some popular summaries of lore 
relating to religions and evolution, writes on " Anthropology and 

Miss C. E. Plumptre, also an author, Dr. Bithell, Mr. Chas. 
Watts, Mr. F. J. Gould, and Mr. Fre(»crick Millar all send inter- 
esting prose contributions. 

Poetry is represented by Mr. Gerald Massey's "The Mother 
Nature," Mr. W. Stewart Ross's "The City of the Dead," and 
some verses by Mr. G. H. Martin. 

The last piece of writing in the Annual is especially worthy of 
note. It is a review, by Mr. Lucian Armstrong, of Captain McTag- 
gart's " Absolute Relativism." This work claims to reconcile ideal- 
ism and materialism. The author, we are told, " draws a bold and 
profound line of division between matter and body. Matter," he 

affirms, " should stand for the unknown and unknowable substra- 
tum underlying both the corporeal phenomena which appeal to 
human sense, and the phenomena of mental and other forces which 
are revealed through bodily media." 

Body, it appears, is to signify " only " that which can be seen, 
touched, and so forth. But how if we deny, as Berkeley did, this 
" unknowable substratum " altogether ? 

Captain McTaggart holds that " Materialism is the objective 
explanation to the exclusion of the subjective." While " Idealism 
is the subjective explanation to the exclusion of the objective." 
The reviewer, however, does not make clear how his author is able 
to bring these two points of view to a single focus. Still, every 
reasonable attempt at the performance of this hitherto unperformed 
philosophic feat is welcome. knA it is to be hoped that Captain 
McTaggart will not fail to continue the contribution towards a 
positive system of thought of which the work in question is only 
volume one. E. T. 

The Gospel of Matthew in Greek. Edited by Alexander Kerr 
and Herbert Cushing Tolman, Professors in the University 
of Wisconsin. Chicago; Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1892. 
Pp. 116. Price, $1.00. 
It is the aim of the editors of this New Testament series " to 
emphasise above all else the individuality of the separate writers." 
They do this by the following methods: i) by indicating by bold 
type in the text those words which Matthew alone of the New 
Testament writers employs ; 2) by an estimate of the frequency of 
occurrence of every word in Matthew ; 3) by the designation of 
the i'mai 'Aeyu/ieva in Matthew ; 4) by a list of passages peculiar to 
Matthew ; 5) by a summary of the prominent examples of Hebra- 
ism in Matthew ; 6) by a discussion concerning the original lan- 
guage of Matthew's Gospel with reference to the Hebrew and 
Septuagint translation in all quotations from the Old Testament ; 
7) by a vocabulary restricted as far as possible to the use and 
meaning of each word in Matthew ; and 8) by complete Historical 
and Geographical Indexes, giving reference to all the places of the 
occurrence of every proper name. Separate sections are devoted 
to the last seven of these objects. The Greek text is based on 
Gebhart's eclectic edition of Tischendorfi's, Tregells's, and others' 
recensions ( Leipsic, 1891). Little else need be said. The type of 
the Greek text is very clear, and the text is divided into sections 
by Latin headings. The book is in every respect neatly got up 
and printed on good paper. /mpK. 





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SAWING AND SPLITTING. Hudor Genone 3519 

SCIENCE. Editor 3520 

THE ETHICS OF GREECE. W. L. Sheldon, 3521 

CURRENT TOPICS : Peace and Submission. Industry 

Made Criminal. The Decay of Liberty in Wyoming. 

Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3525 



The Open Court. 



No. 282. (Vol. VII.— 3.) 


j Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



It is said that there is no monument of importance 
to the memory of Rousseau in Switzerland, the land 
of his birth, or in France, where he made his home. 
But nevertheless he has earned for himself a place in 
the memory of man which cannot be lost. His writings, 
notwithstanding their repeated exaggeration of facts, 
form powerful psychological studies, and are written 
in such a strangely fascinating style that there is little 
danger of their ever being lost to view. 

Rousseau formed a curious combination of ration- 
alism and an intensely sensitive and imaginative na- 
ture, which at times seems to approach insanity, but 
we must allow for the fact that there was working 
powerfully within him that new and reactionary spirit 
which was bound, in the nature of things, to follow 
upon the unnatural and highly artificial civilization 
which had been developing for a considerable period 
in France, and which it was his destiny to overthrow. 
Born in Geneva in 1712 he inherited a Calvinistic 
spirit and a desire for freedom from all authority of 
the Church, for he tells us : " in addition to the general 
"feelings which attracted me to the worship of my 
"fathers, I had a special aversion for Catholicism 
"which belonged to my city. I had been taught to 
"regard it as a frightful idolatry. The sentiment 
"went so far with me that I never looked into the in- 
" side of a church, never met a priest in a surplice, 
"never heard the bell of a procession without a shud- 
" der of affright, which, though I soon lost it in the 
"cities, often returned to me in country parishes 
"where I first experienced it." 

Rousseau, by his love of natural scenery and soli- 
tude and simplicity of life, powerfully influenced his 
contemporaries. We can trace his influence in the 
outburst of popular fury in the Revolution of 1789, 
which, shortly after his death, shook society to its 
foundations. We can follow his thoughts in the poems 
of Byron and other writers of the early part of this 
century. He was the originator of the positive school 
of Humanity, with its ideas of equality and fraternity. 
He also influenced Herder, the founder of scientific 
socialism. Goethe, also, early in life, ia his "Sor- 

rows of Werther, " exhibited Rousseau's unsettled and 
sensitive spirit, but his powerful mind shortly after- 
wards shook off its morbid effects. Rousseau, however, 
by his individualism, affected Goethe in another and 
more important way. For the greatness of Goethe, from 
a philosophical point of view, just lies in the fact 
that his monism was never abstract like that of Spi- 
noza — it always was vitalised by an active individual- 
ism which could not be passed over or neglected in 
any contemplation of the "All." From Goethe's point 
of view, the higher ideals of life sprang from the due 
recognition of the relationship of man to the cosmos ; 
and while giving due prominence to that unity he 
never forgot that all true work depended on the activ- 
ity of man. In " Wilhelm Meister" he says : "Man's 
"highest merit always is, as much as possible to rule 
"external circumstances, and as little as possible to 
" let himself be ruled by them. Life lies before us as 
"a huge quarry lies before the architect ; he deserves 
"not the name of architect, except when, out of this 
"fortuitous mass, he can combine, with the greatest 
"economy and fitness and durability, some form, the 
"pattern of which originated in his mind." 

For a slight sketch of Rousseau's teachings we may 
divide his philosophy into three portions, viz. : Edu- 
cation, Politics, and Religion. 


In "Emile" he shapes out the ideal environment 
in which the education of a child should be carried 
out, and he inveighs against all the artificial customs 
of society in his day, which tended to produce minds 
utterly at variance with what nature had intended 
them to be. He proposed that the young should be 
brought up in the simplest and most natural way. 
Starting from facts, his problem was to unfold the 
mind so that it should be natural in the midst of an 
artificial world. He did not wish to subject the child 
to book-learning, nor did he care how long it was be- 
fore the child learned to read. "Always it must be the 
"facts of life that he is to seize hold of." His idea 
all through was to cultivate the mind and not to in- 

Rousseau's method was, accordingly, to educate as 



closely to nature as possible, and there have been 
many attempts since his day to carry his ideas into 

His call to man to "return to nature " was more 
negative than positive, and in endeavoring to set forth 
the life of the "noble savage " in all its supposed sim- 
plicity, he found that his enthusiasm had carried him 
too far ; and then he proceeded to explain that the 
state of nature must be supplemented by a stage of 
human development beyond it, in which there is the 
settled order of the family. In this, he says, is to be 
discovered a "golden mean between the indolence of 
"the primitive state and the petulant activity of our 
"selfishness, and it must be the most happy and 
"durable state. " Rousseau shows us here that our 
rational nature cannot be developed in abstract isola- 
tion, and that it requires a basis of rights and duties, 
such as is found in family life, for realising itself. 


In the "Social Contract" Rousseau sets forth his 
views on politics. 

His individualistic conception of man is again 
stated, but not with the purpose of maintaining the 
individual in an abstract position, but only as a step 
in a process. He says : " The passage from the state of 
"nature to the civil state produces in man a very re- 
"markable change, in so far as it substitutes justice 
"for instinct, as the guide of his conduct, and gives to 
"his actions a morality which was hitherto wanting 
"in them .... Though by this change he deprives 
"himself of many of his natural advantages, those he 
" acquires in return are so great, his faculties are exer- 
" cised and developed, his ideas are extended, his 
"sentiments are ennobled, and his whole soul is ele- 
"vated to such a degree, that if the abuses of his new 
"condition did not often degrade him below that from 
"which he has emerged, he would have cause to bless, 
"without ceasing, the happy moment which forever 
"rescued him from it, and which, out of a stupid and 
" unthinking animal, made him an intelligent being 
" and a man." 

Here we find that Rousseau, notwithstanding his 
apparent failure to recognise the organic idea of soci- 
ety in its fulness, saw the importance of the state, and 
its educative effects on the individual members ; and 
he shows us that the formal freedom of the individual 
is attained only when he discovers that his true free- 
dom lies not in mere subjective fancies, but in a com- 
prehensive public life, where new duties and impulses 
will be continually developing. 


The same idea which we have seen in Rousseau's 
writings on education and politics, occupies also a 
large place in his thoughts about religion, viz.: his 

desire to free man from all the restraints of outward 
authority of whatever kind, and to allow him absolute 
freedom of thought. 

All his religious opinions have their ultimate au- 
thority in the " sentiment int^rieur, " which, he states, 
gives to man all ideas of the existence of God and 
moral laws. He says: "I find in it a natural safe- 
" guard against the sophisms of my understanding. . . . 
" It is that inward voice which reclaims and brings us 
" back in spite of ourselves to the way of truth." This 
extreme subjectivity of Rousseau, so typical of his 
thoughts on all subjects, adhered to him all through 

* * 

Rousseau gives no indication of a desire to attain 
to a philosophical conception of a world-order, but 
still his efforts all tended towards a greater harmony 
between nature and man in an ideal sense, and pre- 
pared the way for the higher unitary conceptions of 
existence, which occupy so much of the philosophical 
thought of the present day. 

The mainspring of all Rousseau's teaching is 
found in his idea of liberty — a liberty regarded as 
largely independent of the rights of others. A freedom 
of this kind is, however, abstract, and not long after 
his death his "liberty" became the watchword of the 
revolutionists of 1789 ; "his spirit walked abroad" in 
the bloody orgies and rioting of the Revolution, how- 
ever much he, as an individual, would have recoiled 
from such scenes ; and thus his abstract principle re- 
quired to be purified and to be worked back into a 
more concrete and lasting form. 


Prof. Ernst Haeckel has recently published a pam- 
phlet, bearing the title, "Monism as the Bond Be- 
tween Religion and Science. The Confession of Faith 
of a Naturalist." (Bonn: Emil Strauss, 1892.) 

This pamphlet of forty-seven pages is vigorously 
written and shows its famous author in one of his 
happiest hours. The substance of it is an extemporane- 
ous speech delivered on October 9, 1892, in Altenburg, 
at the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Naturalists' Club 
of Osterland. Professor Schlesinger, of Vienna, had 
been the orator of the day; his subject being " Natur- 
wissenschaftliche Glaubens-Satze. " The spirit of his 
oration aroused some objection among the audience, 
and Professor Haeckel was requested by several of his 
colleagues to make a reply. A full report of this re- 
ply was published in the Altenburger Zeitung, and was 
reprinted, with some additional remarks, in the Frcie 
Biihnc (III, Heft ii,) and appears now, in a more com- 
plete form, as an independent pamphlet. The author 
has carefully revised his speech, has here and there 



emphasised his propositions, and has added valuable 
notes, containing further explanations and references. 

The tone of the pamphlet bears witness to its 
origin ; it is buoyant and sprightly. The main idea of 
Professor Haeckel's view is set forth in the title. Pro- 
fessor Haeckel maintains that the doctrine of monism 
is the bond of union between religion and science, mak- 
ing a reconciliation of them possible. The pamphlet 
contains his confession of faith, and his faith is ex- 
actly the same as that of The Open Court; it is faith 
in the religion of science. 

Professor Haeckel recognises as the highest duty 
of our time <^das Iii'iliste Ziel unsercr Gfis/cs//ui/ii;kei/) 
the amalgamation of religion and science in the sense 
proposed by The Open Court, the efforts of which 
journal he especially mentions in his preface. In a 
private letter he adds that the differences that ob- 
tain between his views and those editorially pre- 
sented in TJie Open Court appear to him of secondary 
importance onl}', and should not hinder us from fight- 
ing shoulder to shoulder. We gladly agree with him, 
and hail him as a companion-in-arms. 

The main tenet of the religion of science is the 
recognition of the fact that there is but one truth, and 
that science possesses the right method of searching 
for the truth. There is but one religion : the religion 
of truth. Religious truth must be investigated and 
stated not less systematically than any other truth ; it 
must be inquired into with the best, maturest, and 
most scientific methods at our command. 

There are some points of disagreement between 
Professor Haeckel's position and ours, and we do not 
intend to minimise them. They are, perhaps, of more 
importance than they seem. Nevertheless, in the face 
of our agreement in principle, they may be overcome, 
and I trust that we shall still come to a complete 
agreement. Our differences have been set forth in 
The Monist ( January, 1893). There is no need of re- 
peating them here. 

The agreement between Professor Haeckel's posi- 
tion and ours also appears in his opposition to the at- 
tempts to preach pure ethics — ethics that leaves the 
religious and philosophical questions out of sight. He 
says in one of his notes (on p. 45): 

' 'All ethics, theoretical as well as practical, stands as a branch 
of the normative sciences in an immediate connection with our 
world-conception, and, therefore, also with religion. I regard this 
maxim as very important and have defended it in an article en- 
titled 'Ethics and World-Conception,' written with special ref- 
erence to the lately established German society for ethical culture. 
The society for ethical culture attempts to teach and further eth- 
ics without any reference to a world-conception or religion. ( See 
the new weekly, Die Zulninfl, Berlin 92, No. 5-7, edited by Maxi- 
milian Harden.)* 

* Die Zukun/t is the same jourDal of which a late number, containiDg an 
article on the education of princes, was confiscated by the imperial authori- 
ties. — Ed. 

The time is ripe for a great religious reform. Even 
the trials for heresy, as they are prosecuted to-day, 
bear evidence of the fact that light is beginning to 
penetrate into the very darkest nooks of our churches. 
The bats and owls flutter about in dismay, and the 
whole process, so terrible in former times, has become 
pleasantly ridiculous. 

The generation of to-day is on the very brink of 
recognising the truth that the God of Moses and the 
God of Christ is after all different from the God of the 
presbytery and of the various confessions of faith ; he 
is the same God as the God of Science. 

What is the authority of these formulas of faith ? 
They are not based upon evidence, not upon proofs 
that can be revised ; the}' were declared to be infalli- 
ble truths by a majority vote of some bigoted, narrow- 
minded old fogies, who had not the slightest inkling 
about the nature of truth and science and still less any 
authority to pronounce their utterances as the voice of 
God. How childish it is to reject the revelations of God 
in nature, wherever it happens to be in conflict with the 
blundering opinions of a few elders I But their time 
has come. Man-made religions will pass away, and 
the religion of truth will prevail. 

There is but one God, and this one God is the God 
of the religion of Science. p. c. 



Mr. Francis G.^lton, in order to procure truly 
representative faces, contrived the method of compo- 
site portraiture ; to wit, he photographed a certain 
class of persons upon the same photographer's sensi- 
tive plate, adjusting the different faces to the same 
size, and laying one upon the other so that all their 
eyes fell upon the same horizontal, and their noses 
upon the same vertical line. The results which he ob- 
tained are, as is well known, remarkable. They "bring 
into evidence all the traits in which there is agreement, 
and leave but a ghost of a trace of individual peculiar- 
ities. There are so many traits in common of all faces 
that the composite picture when made from many 
compounds is far from being a blur ; it has altogether 
the look of an ideal composition." 

Now, suppose that the photographer's sensitive 
plate were actually endowed with sentiency. We should 
in that case have an instance similar to that which ac- 
tually exists in the brains of living beings. Similar 
impressions are made through the different sense-or- 
gans and registered in their respective sensory centres. 
Registrations of the same kind are not made sidef by 
side ; they are not independent single pictures asso- 
ciated among themselves ; they are placed one upon 
the other, all forming a peculiar new formation, viz., 
a composite memory-structure or an ideal image of all 



the objects of the same kind that have come under 

The generic images of the mind are, according to 
Mr. Galton, the product of blended memories, and he 
suggests that the term "cumulative idea" would be 
more appropriate than "abstract idea." 

The composites of blended memories, built up by 
successive sense-impressions, acquire meaning and 
come to represent the various objects of the surround- 
ing world. As such, i. e., as meaning-endowed com- 
posite images of living feelings, they form the elements 
of the soul. 


Perhaps everybody has sometimes in his experience 
been puzzled by the sight of an object the character 
of which he was unable to recognise. We see a cer- 
tain something and do not know what it is. The out- 
lines are perhaps clear, the colors are distinct. Never- 
theless, we cannot make out what kind of a thing it is. 

What can this psychical phenomenon teach us ? 

It proves that a sense-impression is quite a differ- 
ent thing from a perception. A sense-impression that 
is felt is called a "sensation" ; and a sensation may be 
perfect and yet a perception need not be brought about. 
A perception is only effected if the sense-impression 
is transmitted to the memory-structures of its class so 
that it can be interpreted as a certain object, so that 
it can be identified with former impressions of the same 
kind, so that it can be recognised as such and such a 

That which has been called the cerebral centre of 
vision, is nothing but the place in which the composite 
memories of sight-impressions are contained. A crea- 
ture whose centre of vision has been destroyed has 
lost the repository of th'ose impressions which it has re- 
ceived through the eye. It is soul-blind, or seelen-hlind, 
as it has been called by German savants. Again, that 
which has been called the centre of hearing is nothing 
but the place in which composite memories of auditory 
impressions are contained ; and a creature whose cen- 
tre of hearing has been destroyed can no longer recog- 
nise sounds. It is soul-deaf, or seelen-tatib. And the 
same is true of all the so-called different centres of 

Professor Goltz has succeeded in keeping alive a 
dog whose entire hemispheres have been removed. 
While all other organs, especially his senses, are in 
perfect order, he has lost all his memory-structures, 
and with them the composite images shaped by former 
experiences. Thus he is a perfect idiot, a soulless crea- 
ture, capable of receiving sense-impressions through 
all his sense-organs, but all the various sense-impres- 
sions remain meaningless to him. 

A perception is the simplest act of cognition, for a 

perception is a sensation that has reached and revived 
its analogous memory-structure. There it is, so to say, 
subsumed. Having the same or a similar form the 
sense-impression fits into the form of the memory- 
structures and is felt to be of the same kind. This 
classification of things belonging to the same kind is 
the essential nature of cognition : perceptions are prim- 
itive judgments. 


There has been much controversy concerning the 
priority of general or of particular ideas. On the one 
hand, general ideas were said to have sprung from 
particular ideas : the primum appcUatum and primum 
cognitiim, it was maintained, were concrete objects. 
And on the other hand, it was objected that the very 
first act of naming, and indeed every act of cognition, 
presupposes the existence of a general idea. The latter 
view is quite correct ; yet, when this view is adduced to 
prove the mysteriousness of cognition, hinting that 
there is a break in nature between that which is mind 
and that which is without mind, we must seriously pro- 

When we keep before our minds the physiological 
process of perception, the reason is obvious why every 
idea must be at bottom a general idea, and why every 
act of cognition presupposes some general notion under 
which a particular notion is subsumed. Every sense- 
impression is a particular, while the analogous mem- 
ory-structure, which is ready to receive any sense-im- 
pression of the same kind, is, or at least, stands for 
a general, notion. And this notion is the more vague, 
the more primitive it is. 

Generalisation, accordingly, is not one of the high- 
est faculties of the mind, but its very lowest. Mind be- 
gins with generalisation. 

The first particular sensation is a particular act ; yet 
it is no notion. Only the first composite of memories 
partakes of the nature of generalisations, of generic 
images, of cumulative ideas ; and therefore the first 
perception, i. e. , the first and most rudimentary act 
of cognition is a subsumption ; it presupposes already 
the existence of a general notion. 


A perception is, in turn, the most elementary act 
of apperception ; and apperception is the function of 

When analysing the nature of consciousness, we find 
that it consists of coordinating, centralising, and intensi- 
fying feelings in a focus. A single and isolated feeling 
cannot exist as an actual feeling. It becomes an ac- 
tual feeling only when it meets another feeling by 
which it is felt. Thus feelings are possible only in 
those organisms in which feelings are so organised or 



systeniatised that sensations are referred to the mem- 
ories of former sense-impressions. The organ of sys- 
tematising feehngs is called the nervous system. 

Suppose a sense-impression were made upon a sen- 
tient organism void of memories — i. e., an organism 
which has never as yet received prior sense- impres- 
sions. The isolated feeling produced by a first sense- 
impression (if feeling it can be called) is very different 
from later feelings, for its scale of consciousness is not 
merely extremely low, but actually zero, there is no 
other feeling to apperceive it. The second sense-im- 
pression of the same kind, however, meets with and 
revives the trace left by the first one. It is received 
in the memory-structure of the first sense-impression 
and there it is felt. This act of the memor^'-structure 
is the weakest kind of apperception imaginable. 

Isolated feelings may be called feelings, but they 
are not felt. Several or at least two feelings must meet 
for being felt. 

The stronger and the more manifold the memory- 
structures grow, the more cognisant does apperception 
become. A sense-impression will in higher stages re- 
vive several memory-structures, and their feelings will 
be concentrated upon it. The object of attention is 
now focused and the act of its being felt is intensified 
by a coordination of feelings. Thus dim feelings de- 
velop by coordination into clear consciousness, and the 
organised memory-structures form a more and more 
definite basis of psychic life constituting a certain char- 
acter, which when it reaches the domain of human life, 
is called personality. 


The question has been raised whether or not ap- 
perception is an act of the will, and the answer de- 
pends upon the meaning we attach to the word "will." 

The most elementary kind of a will is to be found 
in the spontaneity of the simplest processes in nature. 
The actions and reactions of chemicals, the ether vi- 
brations of light and electricity, and also the gravita- 
tion of a stone are motions that take place because 
the moving object possesses a certain quality which 
under special conditions makes it act in a certain way. 
These motions are self-motions or spontaneous motions. 
Schopenhauer uses the word "will" in this sense. 

By "will," however, we generally understand a 
peculiar kind of that inherent quality of things which 
makes them move : will is the spontaneit}' only of in- 
telligent beings. A tendency to pass into motion is 
called will only when it is accompanied by conscious- 
ness. Will is the incipient motion the motive cause 
of which is a representative image (generally called 
motor idea) in the agent's mind ; the object repre- 
sented in this representative image being the aim or 
end to be attained. 

Primitive apperception is a spontaneous action, for 
the act of apperception takes place because of the pe- 
culiar qualities of the acting organism. It is an activ- 
ity of the feeling substance : it is an apprehending 
and not merely a passive state of receiving impres- 

The peculiar qualities of an organism, which make 
apperception possible, are (i) ps^xhical, for the mem- 
ory-structures are endowed with sentiency, and (2) 
mental, for they possess representative value, they are 
endowed with meaning. Thus apperception is (in its 
primitive appearance, and of course in a very rudiment- 
ary way) at once a psychical and a mental process. But 
it does not become an act of will until the memory- 
structures grow strong and independent enough to ex. 
ercise a choice and give preference to a certain kind of 
sense-impressions. By a neglect of any other sense- 
impressions all available sentiency is focused upon one 
object or upon the search for one kind of object. This 
phenomenon, best observable in the hunt for food, is 
called attention, and attention is " apperception guided 
by will." 

Whether or not amcebas and protozoa exhibit an 
elementary will when hunting for food is simpl)' a 
question of terminology. According to Schopenhauer 
they possess will ; according to the customary usage 
of the term, not. Their tissues demand a restoration 
of their waste products and they seek to satisfy this 
want. Their tendencies are much more complex 
processes than the affinities of chemical substances, 
but there is no radical difference between the two 
actions. Dr. Max Verworn has proved that the protru- 
sion of pseudopods in the amoeba is caused by their 
chemotropy for oxygen, while their contraction, (i. e. 
the return of the plasma to the nuclear substance), 
after an irritation of some kind which changes their 
chemical constitution, is due to a chemotropy for the 
nuclear substances. Their motions are tendencies ; 
they are not actions of a will. We can speak of a will 
as soon as the irritation which causes a contraction of 
living substance is a commotion possessing a repre- 
sentative value. There must be memory-structures 
which not only feel the want for a restoration of the 
waste products in the tissues of the organism but have 
also a recollection of its prior satisfaction. This recol- 
lection is the primitive form of a motor-idea. It serves 
as an irritation upon the motor organs of the organism 
to hunt for food. Thus the cause of the action is a 
mental state, and the action is planned, however 
vaguely it may be. The aim of the action is the reali- 
sation of the motor-idea. There is no action of the 
will without either a motive, which is the motor-idea, 
or without an end in view or purpose, which is the ob- 
ject represented by the motor-idea. 

That there is no definite line of demarcation where 



tendencies become purposive acts of a will is a matter 
of course, which, as in all analogous cases of evolu- 
tionary products, detracts nothing from the distinction 
to be made between these lower and higher pheno- 
mena of organised life. 


Perceptions are the simplest acts of soul-life. But 
in the course of evolution a higher activity of soul- 
life grows from them as soon as sounds are em- 
ployed to designate certain composite pictures. These 
sound-symbols create a new sphere of mental life with 
higher possibilities. Meaning-endowed sound-symbols 
are called "words," and the mechanism of words or ar- 
ticulate speech creates the domain of rational thought, 
which in its highest perfection is called science. 

The meanings of words and of combinations of words 
are called ideas. 

And what wonderful things are ideas, these highest 
kinds of meaning- freighted feelings ! Every idea pos- 
sesses an individuality of its own. Ideas grow and de- 
velop, they migrate from one brain into another, being 
transferred through the word-symbols of spoken or 
written language. Ideas'adapt themselves to new en- 
vironments; they struggle among themselves; some of 
them are victorious, others succumb. Some are exter- 
minated, others survive." Those that survive suffer 
changes from assimilation among themselves. Some 
are powerful, others are weak, and a few assume do- 
minion over their companions. 

Ideas are real living beings : each one of them pos- 
sesses a special individualitj' and all of them are, as it 
were, citizens of that wonderful commonwealth which 
is called " the soul." 

It has been said that states, churches, and other 
superindividual beings do not exist. We do not intend 
to discuss the problem now ; but it appears that ideas 
would have at least the same right to deny the exist- 
ence of human personalities, for a human personality 
is only a society of ideas. 

We may compare ideas (without going astray or 
being fantastical) to real persons. At least the idea 
we have of persons is after all the most appropriate 
simile we have to characterise their being. Think only 
of moral ideas, of ideals, of religious sentiments ! They 
enter the souls of men and take hold of their entire ex- 
istence often in spite of their will. And what a pro- 
found truth lies in the dogma of resurrection ! Jesus 
the crucified has actually risen from the dead. His- 
torical investigations have been made as to whether 
the apparitions of Christ as seen by his disciples, ac- 
cording to the gospels, were not hallucinations; and 
the possibility of his bodily resurrection has been de- 
nied. It is true, and let it be true, that corpses can- 
not be revived. But what of that ? We need not mind 

the fate of the body in the face of the truth that the 
soul possesses immortal life. Christ is actually a liv- 
ing presence in humanity, and his spirit was and is 
still the most dominating power in the evolution of 
mankind. The dogmatist, so-called, and exactly so his 
adversary, the infidel, so-called, imagine that Chris- 
tianity must be a fraud unless it can be proved that 
the corpse of Jesus became reanimated. The concep- 
tion of both the orthodox as well as the infidel are ma- 
terialistic ; both overlook the reality and importance 
of soul-life. 

Ye of little faith and of still less understanding ! It 
is a pagan notion to build a religion on the resurrec- 
tion of corpses. True religion is based upon the im- 
mortality of the soul ; and the immortality of the soul 
is no mere phrase, no empty allegory, no error or fraud : 
it is fact provable by science ; it is a reality without 
which no higher soul-life, no progress, no evolution 
would be possible : it is the corner-stone of religion 
and the basis of ethics. p. c. 


A PASSIONATE appeal to Congress is made by a Philadelphia 
paper against a right which I thought was quite secure from legis- 
lative interference, the blessed privilege of wearing rags. In a fit 
of newspaper hysterics the organ exclaims ; " Keep out the rags — 
this is the first duty of the government. Cholera is certain to re- 
appear in Europe. It is sure to spread along lines of travel. It 
will come to this country unless it is kept out. It will travel as it 
always has done by way of the rags. Keep out the rags." This 
presents to me a dread alternative ; and on whichever horn I sit I 
find it very uncomfortable, but if there is a shade of difference in 
the danger it is in favor of the cholera. I think it will be safer for 
me to risk that, than to do without rags. Wool is already kept Out ; 
and if rags are to be kept out also, what's to become of me ? By 
the laws of my country I am already forbidden to wear wool, and 
as a law-abiding citizen, I have adopted shoddy. They now pro- 
pose to deprive me of that by shutting out rags. This will put me 
in the situation of Tim Burke of Marbletown, who was asked one 
day by a shopkeeper to buy a trunk, "What for?" says Tim. 
" To keep your clothes in," said the trader. "And then," says 
Tim, " if I keep my clothes in a trunk, what will I wear ?" I re- 
peat the question of Tim Burke, and say. If rags are to be kept out 
of the country, what will I wear ? Cotton makes a very good sub- 
stitute in the summer time, but it is twelve degrees below zero in 
Chicago to-day, and when the temperature is that low, a blizzard 
from the North goes through cotton like a knife. I will propose 
this compromise to Congress ; I will agree that you ^hall keep out 
rags, if you will agree to let in wool. 


* * 

They have lately formed in Philadelphia an "Educational 
Club," composed of men engaged in the work of teaching or of 
superintendence in the schools of that city. The object of the club 
is to advance the standard of the profession of teaching, through 
the discussion of educational topics, and by means of the work of 
various committees. The enterprise is praiseworthy, and it might 
well be imitated in Chicago, because any plan to elevate the stand- 
ard of teachers and teaching deserves encouragement. No doubt 
many teachers have much to learn about the science of teaching, 
and a comparison of methods by means of Educational Clubs must 
prove useful, not only to the teachers, but also to the pupils in the 



schools. At the very beginning, it would be well to examine the 
methods by which teachers are appointed and removed ; because 
the office of teacher ought to be secure, and reasonably independ- 
ent ; free from outside influences, and especially from the hopes 
and fears of political rewards and punishments. When teachers 
are appointed and discharged at the demand of an ignorant saloon 
keeper who happens to be an alderman, the standard of the pro- 
fession is lowered so as to meet the lesser stature of an ordinary 
city council, or something like that. Will the Educational Club 
give its early attentain to the vast quantity of precious brain energy 
wasted by little children in the study of spelling ; in the paragraph 
system by which they are made bad readers for life ; in the copy- 
book system by which they are taught at the cost of immense time 
and labor to write a cramped and crippled hand ; and in the geo- 
graphy torment which compels them to commit to memory the 
names of all the towns, counties, kingdoms, islands, continents, 
mountains, valleys, lakes, rivers, oceans, gulfs, and seas ? If the 
Educational Clubs will become societies for the prevention of 
cruelty to children, and will stop that awful waste they will de- 
serve everlasting fame. 

In a letter which I have just received from Mr. George Julian 
Harney, now in England, he says, " Albert, the last of the Provi- 
sional Government of 1848 is dead. A noble man, if ever there 
was one." That is all ; and yet the kindly tribute at the end may 
last a long time, perhaps longer than a marble monument, for a 
printed word is nearer to immortality than any other mortal thing. 
To die, and be called " a noble man" is a triumph over death. 
Who knows anything about -\Ibert now ? Or cares ? Noiseless 
as a bubble on the water, he dissolves into the eternal sea ; and yet 
this man had once the powers of a king in France. He was one 
of the animating and directing forces of a brave and mighty people 
in a revolutionary time ;- a picturesque figure, he stood forth, in 
bold relief, among "The Men of Forty-Eight." He helped in 
overturning the throne of Louis Phillippe. and in laying upon its 
ruins the foundations of a promising republic, only to find, what 
Caesar found, how fickle are the Gauls. I have before me now 
the roster of the Provisional Government ; — eleven Governors 
France had then — and amongst them some historic men, like Arago, 
Louis Blanc, and Lamartine. At the very bottom of the list is 
Albert (ouvrier), or Albert (working-man). It is a weird coinci- 
dence that Albert (ouvrier), is the last on the list of the Provisional 
Governors, and he was the last of them to die. I have before me 
also some proclamations of the eleven Governors, in which they 
command the Sun to stand still on Gibeon, and the Moon in the 
valley of Ajalon ; or in other words, the proclamations in which 
they decree all sorts of possible and impossible things ; the price 
of bread, for example ; redemption by the government, and the 
restoration to their owners of all the goods pawned by the poor ; 
work and wages for everybody ; and wages without work for those 
who had moral scruples against labor. They thought they could 
establish an inexhaustible fountain of prosperity in the Faubourg 
St. Antoine, and connect it by invisible pipes with an imaginary 
reservoir somewhere in the Delectable mountains ; a reservoir 
which "the rich " would everlastingly keep full. Albert, (ouvrier), 
was truly "a noble man," but he was a dreamer of dreams; as 
was, indeed, his colleague, Lamartine, and his other colleague, the 
famous man of science, Arago, well enough in physical astronomy, 
but a political astronomer who saw stars in the heavens that were 
not there; as also did Lamartine, and Albert, (ouvrier). They 
thought that a people could become dependent on Government for 
a living, and be at the same time free. 

* * 

From one proclamation of the Provisional Government I 
quote the following sensible decree : " Royalty, under whatever 
forms it assumes, is abolished. No more Legitimacy — no more 

Bonapartism — no Regency." This decree was hailed by the 
French people with delirious joy, and yet in a few days they re- 
lapsed into Imperialistic idolatry and chose for their national 
chief a most inferior type of Bonaparte. When Albert (ouvrier) 
saw, or thought he saw, the revolution going backward, a trick 
that revolutions have in spite of the proverb otherwise ; when he 
saw the republic sliding down, he tried to arrest its reaction by a 
counterplot in the form of a supplementary amendment to the 
February revolution, and for two or three hours on the fifteenth 
of May it looked as if he might succeed ; but the middle classes — 
without whose aid no revolution can succeed in any country — the 
middle classes, thinking that they saw in Albert (ouvrier) a resur- 
rection of " the terror, " fought for the National Assembly, sup- 
pressed the new rebellion, arrested Albert (ouvrier) and carried 
him to prison, where they kept him for ten years. When he came 
out he saw the Bonapartism that he had abolished, cheered by the 
ignoble acclamations of the French people, riding rampant over 
France. Weary at heart, he withdrew, with becoming dignity, to 
some vety humble work that gave him an honest living. From 
his retirement he watched the mad procession through all its 
crooked policies and through its treacherous paths of simulated 
glory to the catastrophe of Sedan. He never stooped for place or 
power, nor did he ever coin his great political opportunities into 
money. .\nd so, farewell ; a long farewell, to Albert (ouvrier)! 


* * 

On the tenth of January the Governor of Illinois took the oath 
of office at the capitol, and the inauguration ceremonies will ex- 
cite the wonder of the world. They show us a patriotic occasion 
diminished by the intolerance of party. A pageant of mutual for- 
bearance and good-will was twisted into a festival of swagger, 
wherein the triumphant side exulted over the other. An official 
ceremony of high dignity, in which Judges, Representatives, Sen- 
ators, and others of opposing politics took part, shrunk to the 
moral size of a party celebration. When the election of a Gov- 
ernor is ratified and confirmed by both houses of the legislature, 
by Democrats and Republicans alike, in the form of a solemn in- 
auguration, the very ceremonial itself proclaims that the common- 
weal is greater than any faction ; but the managers of this inaugu- 
ration evidently think that there is, outside and above the com- 
monweal, a corporate existence known as the Democratic party ; 
and that the claims of that corporation must be considered before 
the public welfare. It is hardly a matter of civic pride to any of 
us that in the very middle of the proceedings the Cook County 
Marching Club, a strictly partisan organization, raising tumultuous 
yells and "bearing aloft their gorgeous banner," filed into the hall. 
We can hardly believe it, but the papers tell it, that a big rooster 
was provided, whose duty it was to crow at a certain stage of the 
solemnity, which he valorously did. In manner, voice, and style 
he was the most representative person there, and he spoke for his 
constituents — the majority. The two most conspicuous actors in 
the play did much to relieve it of its coarseness. These were the 
two governors, Altgeld and Fifer. Neither of them said anything 
or did anything that was not refined and dignified. Considering 
the magnanimity of Governor Fifer in gracing the triumph of his 
rival, nothing could have been in more deplorable taste than a 
glee club greeting him with doggerel songs, explaining how "Joe 
Fifer's goose was cooked;" and reducing to poetry the additional 
information that "Altgeld is the man who put him in the soup." 

* * 

During the late ' ' campaign, " a Republican lawyer of Chicago, 
conversing with some friends, remarked that he should vote for 
Altgeld ; whereupon one of the party rebuked him and asked him 
if he had e%'er read Altgeld's dangerous book and if he knew its 
character. "No," said the other, " I know nothing about it, but 
I think it will be such a rare luxury for the people of Illinois to 
have a governor who knows enough to write a book about any- 



thing." The inaugural message of Governor Altgeld seems to jus- 
tify that reason for supporting him. This message is so eminently 
direct and practical ; so earnestly occupied with "live questions," 
instead of dead one^ , that we painfully miss our venerable friends, 
the commonplace generalities of old. The Governor is aware 
" that few people pay attention to inaugural addresses," for which 
neglect there has hitherto been good reason ; but this message will 
be read, for it will compel the attention of men. It strikes at 
wrongs that have become despotic, and its accusations must be 
answered; for instance, this: "Practically, there is neither 
Magna Charta nor the Bill of Rights for the poor of our great 
cities." Nothing so bold as that has been said in messages of late, 
and it is uncomfortably non-partisan. It impeaches Democrats 
and Republicans alike, for if the specifications that accompany the 
charge are true, it is very clear that our executive magistrates and 
our judicial magistrates of high and low degree, of both parties, 
are all guilty together and equally responsible for the wrong. 
Both Magna Charta and the Bill of Rights are embodied in the 
Constitution of the United States and in the Constitution of Illi- 
nois, and if those constitutions have been suspended in Chicago, 
for the oppression of the poor, by the officers and courts appointed 
and sworn to maintain them, what security have the rich that it 
may not be convenient some day to foreclose tJidir interest in 
Magna Charta and the Bill of Rights ? The judges, at least, ought 
to be examples of "a law-abiding people." 

M. M. Trumbull. 


Stories from the Greek Comedians. 'By Jifv. Alfred J. Chiirth, 
M. A. With sixteen illustrations after the antique. New 
York and London : MacMillan & Co. 1892. Pp. 344. 
Price, $1,00. 
The Rev. Prof. Alfred Church is known as the author of a 
large number of works designed for the popularisation of ancient 
literature. The present volume from his hand is made up of 
representative plays from the three recognised periods of Greek 
comedy — the old, the middle, and the new. The plays of the first 
and second period are from Aristophanes ("The Acharnians, " 
"The Knights," "Peace," "The Wasps," "The Clouds," "The 
Birds," "The Frogs,' "The Parliament of Women," and 
"Plutus"). The plays of the third period are from Philemon, 
Diphilus, Menander, and Apollodorus, being translations of 
Terence and Plautus ("The Buried Treasure," "The Ghost," 
"The Shipwreck," "The Brothers," "The Girl of Andros," and 
"Phormio"). The book is adorned with sixteen beautifully exe- 
cuted illustrations after the antique, is prettily and appropriately 
bound and printed on excellent paper. Its cheapness is remark- 

Professor Church has, in parts, well accomplished his task. 
Some of the refrains in "The Clouds," "The Birds," "The 
Frogs," are exceedingly well done and may be read with enjoy- 
ment and with the perfect unconsciousness that they were origin- 
ally Greek. In other parts he has not been quite so successful. 
Some points are strained and too much emphasised. What should 
be left ancient is sometimes modernised, and that which should be 
modernised is sometimes left ancient. But this work of repro- 
duction is very difficult. It can never be the work of one man. 
Its fulfilment will require perhaps centuries and call into requisi- 
tion the labors of scores of collaborators. Each shall contribute 
his mite, each will elaborate some little point ; till ultimately a 
master mind, guided by the efforts of all, fully appreciating the 
spirit of the production of which he is at work, and possessed of 
the power of expression of that modern Greek who wrote " Iphi- 
genia auf Tauris," will give to the world a production which will 
make us forget that Greece and Rome existed thousands of years 
ago and are not now living among us. impii. 

The Dynamic Theory of Life and Mind. By James B. Ale.x- 
ttiulcr. Minneapolis, Minn. ; The Housekeeper Press. 1893. 
The sub-title of this work tells us that it is "an attempt to 
show that all organic beings are both constructed and operated by 
the dynamic agencies of their respective environments." It is a 
large heavy book of 1067 closely printed pages. It may be desig- 
nated as a compendium of the general facts of the following sci- 
ences : Anatomy (comparative and human). Physiology, Embry- 
ology, Physics, Geology, Chemistry, Psychology, and Anthropol- 
ogy, Mineralogy, and the Science of Evolution. The author, in 
this compilation, has made good use of the best authorities, and 
has, so far as we can judge, faithfully reproduced what is found 
in them. The book contains 400 illustrations. Its production must 
have been a matter of some expense. .\nd in view of this fact we 
think it might have been supplied with a better binding. In the 
main, little objection may be found to the author's method of pro- 
cedure. We think, however, that it would have been much better 
had he confined his expositions to the simple statement of his own 
peculiar views and left the work of detail for the text-books of the 
special sciences. The tendency of his doctrine is somewhat to- 
wards mechanicalism. He is inclined to see in the physical ante- 
cedents of mental phenomena the direct causes of these phenom- 
ena. He believes that " mental action is a form of physical energy," 
that the ether is "the soul of the universe," "the soul of things," 
and so forth. We think that if the author had combined some 
philosophical studies with his scientific reading he would hardly 
have ventured to put forth such hypotheses. Another view which 
in our judgment mars the work, is the author's belief in telepathy. 
The medium of the transference of thought, he thinks, is the ether. 
It is true, the thoughts of the mind are accompanied by motions 
or vibrations of feeling brain-substance : but it is not the objective 
fact of motion that constitutes the thought ; there is no " meaning " 
in the simple mechanical fact of motion. How then can any purely 
mechanical medium like the ether be the vehicle of thought ? The 
ether is an instrument of physical research, not of psychical. Its 
role is motion, not thought. On these grounds we think that the 
position of the author is, philosophically, an uncritical one, though 
some of his points of view — for example, his criticism of Bain's 
theory of pleasure and pain — are well taken. ///./w. 





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The Open Court. 


No. 283. (Vol. VII.— 4.) 


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The simplest ideas are sometimes the most diffi- 
cult ones to define ; and the words which are com- 
monly and daily used as catchwords for all parties 
and for all opinions are, as a rule, vague and undeter- 
mined. Yet most of these words denote in their proper 
meaning very important ideas, which form essential 
parts of our souls, keeping our hearts and minds well 
tuned and in good harmony with the welfare of our 
aspiring, toiling, advancing fellow-men. 

As such catchwords have been used, for instance, 
the words "■Liberie, egalite, fraternite !" and they were 
made to mask the fiercest and crudest terrorism of 
modern times. Other catchwords of a similarly de- 
lusive nature are Reform, Morality, Goodness, Truth, 
and Justice. Unless these words have a very clear 
and definite meaning they are at best mere phrases, 
not unlike a sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. 
But, as a rule, they ar_e worse than that : they either 
actually are or are very apt to become treacherous 
will-o'-the-wisps, destined to lead the most well-inten- 
tioned minds astray. 

Let us not rest satisfied with such catchwords, 
however beautiful they may sound, without properly 
understanding their meanings ; for if we understand 
the true meanings of these words, we shall not so easily 
be blinded by a wrong application of them. 

* * 

Justice may briefly be defined as "giving every 
one his due ;" but this definition does not include the 
measure according to which we can determine what 
and how much is due to the various persons to whom 
justice shall be done, and this very same definition 
may be adopted by two opposite parties, each of whom 
contends that they are fighting for justice. 

There are two things implied in the definition of 
justice as "giving to every one his due," which have 
to be minded, and a consideration of which will help 
us to clear away some of our doubts : 

F"irst, that justice is a virtue which can exist only 
in a community of social beings having some important 
interests, aims, and rules of conduct in common. 

And secondly, that justice means equality of rule 

under unequal conditions ; it means equal measures 
for equal dues and unequal measures for unequa 

Justice is a virtue of social beings. For we can- 
not give any one his due, unless we have dealings with 
him, partaking of the nature of a cooperation ; unless 
we are somehow or other allied or engaged in pursu- 
ing a common purpose ; unless ^e are in some social 
relation to each other, so that he has rendered us 
goods, services, or assistance of some kind, ft is, 
therefore, a very hard thing, indeed it is impossible to 
establish the idea of justice purely upon the basis of 
an extreme individualism. He who regards society as 
a mere aggregate of individuals can see in justice only 
the right of everybody to the result of his labors. 
Yet "right" and " justice " are not identical. 

Taking the one-sided individualistic view, Mr. 
Spencer, in his book "Justice," entirely neglects the 
fact that the ver}' essence of justice is bound up in the 
social relations of man, and that without these social 
relations there is no sense in employing the term "jus- 
tice." Thus Mr. Spencer discusses in his book various 
rights of living beings but not justice. 

Mr. Spencer speaks of 

"... .The law that benefits received shall be directly propor- 
tionate to merits possessed : merits being measured by power of 
self-sustentation." (P. 6, chap. .Vnimal Ethics). 

"That the individual shall experience all the consequences, 
good and evil, of its own nature and consequent conduct, which is 
that primary principle of sub-human justice whence results sur- 
vival of the fittest, is, in creatures that lead solitary lives, a prin- 
ciple complicated only by the responsibilities of parenthood." (P. 
13, chap. Sub-human Justice). 

"Sub-human justice becomes more decided as organisation 
becomes higher." (P. 10, chap. Sub-human Justice.) 

" Sub-human justice is extremely imperfect in detail," 


"Accidents of kinds which fall indiscriminately upon inferior 
and superior individuals." (P. 10). 

Mr. Spencer apparently regards it as an act of jus- 
tice that the swallow gets the flies he catches, and the 
bear the honey he hunts for; while "the multitudi- 
nous deaths caused by the inclemencies of weather" 
are such imperfections in the system of justice as will 
be overcome in the further advance of evolution. 



But to keep all that which one can get, is at best 
a "right," not "justice"; and suffering through un- 
) favorable conditions is not "injustice," but "acci- 
dent" ! 

The whole gist of the book is contained in the 
sentence : 

"Every man is free to do that which he wills, provided he 
infringes not the equal freedom of any other man." 

Of "human justice" Mr. Spencer says: 

"Each individual ought to receive the benefits and the evils 
of his own nature and consequent conduct : neither being pre- 
vented from having whatever good his actions normally bring to 
him, nor allowed to shoulder off on to other persons whatever ill 
is brought to him by his actions." ( P. 17. chap. Human Justice.) 

This is explained as follows : 

"When, of some one who suffers a disaster, it is said — 'He 
has no one to blame but himself,' there is implied the belief that 
he has not been inequitably dealt with." (P. 18, chap. Human 

"A kindred conviction is implied when, conversely, there re- 
sults good instead of evil." ( P. 18, chap. Human Justice.) 

"Similarly is it with the civilised varieties of mankind as 
compared with the savage varieties. A still further diminished 
rate of mortality implies that there is a still larger proportion, the 
members of which gain good from well-adapted acts and suffer 
evil from ill-adapted acts." (P. 19, chap. Human Justice.) 

If that is the nature of justice, we ought to speak 
of injustice whenever a hard-working and virtuous 
man is killed in a railroad accident. 

Mr. Spencer, in our conception, makes an errone- 
ous start. He mentions things which have little or 
nothing to do with the subject of his title. He fre- 
quently uses the word, but he never touches the real 
problem of justice. Limiting his inquiry on the funda- 
mental conception of justice to the justice of nature 
toward her creatures, he does not appear to be aware 
of the fact that this usage of the word is allowable 
only as a poetical license. 

When claiming that the term "justice" must be 
restricted to individuals living in communities, we do 
by no means restrict it to human society. Animals 
that lead a social life exercise justice, according to the 
perfection attained in their societies, as much as man 
does, and often with great cruelty. When bees no 
longer allow drones to partake of the common stock of 
food, because they have ceased to be able to render 
useful services to the hive, they commit an act of jus- 
tice ; it may be severe, it may be unfair, it may even 
be unjust according to the standard of human justice ; 
but it is, nevertheless, an act analogous to human jus- 

Mr. Spencer confounds right (viz.: the right of 
power, the ability of holding one's own, the faculty of 
self sustentation) with justice. 

We may say that every creature has a right to re- 
ceive such benefits as are directly proportionate to its 
merits, their merits being the power to take their ben- 

efits. In this sense we speak of the inalienable rights 
of rnen to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, 
but scarcely of justice. 

A tiger who hunts down a fat deer lias a right to 
the fat deer, but we cannot call it unjust that some 
fellow tiger hunts down with ten times more trouble a 
lean deer. Granting that both have a right to what- 
ever they get, what shall we say of the lion who, after 
a square and honest fight, despoils both tigers of their 
righteous possessions ? And, granting that all men have 
the inalienable rights which they assert, why do not 
all sentient creatures (as the Buddhists actually claim) 
enjoy the very same rights. No doubt they may claim 
them, if they can, and if they can assert them, their 
title is as good as that of the citizens of the United 
States, who, rightly or wrongly, base upon it their dec- 
laration of independence. 

We can speak of justice only because of the in- 
equality in the world, in the face of which an inequal- 
ity of attitude is demanded. Justice is equality of rule 
for an inequality of single cases. 

Justice means giving to everyone his due rewards 
for merits, and taking away rewards or punishing for 
demerits. We do justice to a great man in honoring 
him. The employer does justice to his employee in 
paying him the full value of his work, and the crimi- 
nal receives justice at the hands of the sheriff. 

Such is justice. Yet the man who earns a thousand 
dollars by a lucky circumstance, say by the fluctuating 
prices in the market of certain commodities, or by an 
unforeseen rise in real estate, without any merit on his 
part, has a perfect and undisputed right to retain it, 
but his gain is not founded on justice ; his gain is 
only in so far connected with justice as he is entitled 
to keep it ; he would suffer injustice if he were, in a 

high-handed way, deprived of it. 

* * 

It is peculiarly characteristic of Mr. Spencer's he- 
donism that he regards those rights which are not con- 
ducive to happiness as unessential and even illusory. 
He speaks of political rights as "rights so called." He 
says : 

"Those shares of political power which in the more advanced 
nations citizens have come to possess, and which experience has 
shown to be good guaranties for the maintenance of life, liberty, 
and property, are spoken of as though the claims to them were of 
the same nature as the claims to life, liberty, and property them- 
selves. Yet there is no kinship between the two. The giving of a 
vote, considered in itself, in no way furthers the voter's life, as 
does the exercise of those various liberties we properly call rights." 

We citizens of a republic regard our political rights 
as a sacred possession. Many of us neglect them when 
and because their exercise becomes inconvenient. But 
we propose, nevertheless, to preserve them even though 
they should not bring us any returns in happiness and 
property. With all the faults that vitiate our politics, 



who among us would be so base as to prefer the greater 
ease of being comfortably governed, to the troubles of 
democratic institutions ? And if anyone among us were 
base enough to think so, he would pay the tribute to 
virtue which is called hypocrisy and be ashamed to 
openly speak his mind. 

Mr. Spencer regards political rights as mere ends 
to secure our claims on life, liberty, and property. He 
says : 

" Current political thought is profoundly vitiated by this mis- 
taking of means for ends, and by this pursuit of the means to the 
neglect of the ends. Hence, among others, the illusions which 
prevail concerning 'political rights.' 

"There are no further rights, truly so called, than such as 
have been set forth. ... If a man's freedom is not in any way fur- 
ther restricted, he possesses all his rights." 

Our ethical criterion is not the greatest happiness 
of the greatest number, but the fullest and richest and 
highest evolution of the human soul. The possession 
of our political rights are not mere means to an end 
in the sense that Mr. Spencer suggests. It is doubtful 
whether we can speak of anything as an end itself. 
"Life, liberty, and property" at least are not less 
" means to an end " than " political rights." Property, 
above all, is most assuredly not an end, and the polit- 
ical rights of any advanced nation ought to be holier 
even than property and life. This has been a sacred 
tradition in the home of Mr. Spencer and we intend to 
preserve it here in the new world. Our political rights 
are as yet imperfect, but we shall not abandon them 

for the sole reason that they need improvement. 

* * 

Mr. Salter, in his article on "Justice," recognises 
equality and inequality as two ingredients of the idea 
of justice, but his treatment is different from ours. 
He expatiates on the equality of all men, "having in 
mind their essential humanit)', those capacities that 
lead us to differentiate them from the rest of the world 
and call them men." Justice, accordingly, is to Mr. 
Salter "nothing but that action which is inspired by 
equal regard for all men." The equality of justice, in 
our opinion, consists in the equality of principle or 
law or rule of conduct ; while the inequality consists 
in the inequality of the persons to whom justice is 
meted out. The equality of men, which, in so far as 
all men are rational beings cannot be denied, is unduly 
exaggerated by Mr. Salter. Admitting that inequalities 
exist, he says : 

"But all such inequalities are, as compared with the great 
underlying capacities which men have in common, on the surface." 

This is not so. The inequalities are not superficial, 
but essential, and justify, therefore, in the place of 
" an equal regard " an extraordinary and often a rad- 
ical inequality of conduct. Without these inequalities, 
there would be no justice, no discrimination of con- 
duct, but simply indiscriminate equality. 

It is a very common mistake to identify justice 
with equality. Especially the social reformers who 
clamor most vehemently for justice, frequently demand 
nothing but equality. 

Those who preach that the laborer alone produces 
values, and that a fortune can be amassed onl}' by 
fleecing the laborer of his dues, (taking the ground 
that the whole profit ought to be equally divided among 
those who do manual work,) are blind to the value of 
intellectual work. And the most valuable work (most 
valuable to society) does not as yet consist in the 
lucubrations of the professor in his study, but in be- 
ing the practical leader of some enterprise, the think- 
ing head of an industrial organism, the independent 
captain, on whose vigilance and ability depends the 
undisturbed livelihood of all those who have embarked 
with him in the same venture. 

A man who starts an enterprise risks his fortune, 
but when successful he creates new values which did 
not exist before. Mankind is that much richer through 
his efforts. Having an attentive eye for the rise of a want 
he supplies the means to satisf}' the want ; and in doing 
so he cannot but help creating new wants, which serve 
in turn as stimuli for further enterprises. Such a man 
deserves the full share of his industrious activity and 
ingenious attention. The capital earned in this way 
will be in good hands, for it is most probable that he 
will be the best man to take care of it : he will use it 
where it will bring the best returns and work most 
advantageously for a further production or increase 
of values. On the other hand, it is the duty of this 
man, and in the long nm it is also to his own advantage, 
to pay the men to whom he gives employment some- 
thing more than the rate of wages which they could 
make independently of him. 

The full rate of wages which employees could make 
independently of their employer is their due, and, in- 
deed, it is exactly the amount which they can and, if 
they look out for their own interests, which they will 

Justice demands that a man who employs men to 
help him in his enterprise should give them their full 
due, and we say that the wages due to them 'is the 
price which they can enforce : this is for the average 
laborer that amount which he could realise either in 
the employ of others or by independent work ; and 
for extraordinarily skilful workmen or artisans it is 
that sum which represents to the employer the value 
of their assistance in his enterprise. An employer, if 
just, will gladly pay those employees proportionately 
higher wages through whose assistance the returns of 
his capital are greater. 

The statement concerning the dues of the average 
workman, however, needs a supplementary explana- 
tion. We do not call those wages just, which are paid 



by taking advantage of temporary emergencies of the 
men seeking for employment. There are many indus- 
trial plants that cut down the pay of the laborer to the 
starvation point. They are parasitic institutions, para- 
sitic to society at large. If all the employers acted in 
this way mankind would rapidly degenerate. In order 
to defend themselves against extortions the laborers of 
the United States have formed unions, which enable 
them to fight for their rights more effectually than they 
could do alone. 

It is further unjust to lock out laborers when, after 
having adapted themselves to one special kind of work, 
they have become unfit to undertake any other kind (for 
this is creating an emergency) ; or when, after having 
settled in a community, after having founded families 
and acquired homes, they find it very expensive and 
also inconvenient, at an advanced age, to begin life 
over again in some other town or state, they know not 
where. Such lockouts are worse than taking advan- 
tage of emergencies, they are creating emergencies. 


All mankind have one common aim, which is the 
enhancement, the enlargement, the growth, and con- 
stant reformation of the human soul. The rewards 
for the work done in the service of this idea are, 
according to the system of society which among 
all civilised nations of the world has been found 
out by experience to work best, distributed by a free 
competition for them. It is no exaggeration to say, 
that the more the system of free competition is car- 
ried out, the more progressive a nation is. We trust 
that the more equal the chances are for every individ- 
ual to apply his energies to whatever he thinks him- 
self fittest to do, the better work will be rendered by 
the community as a whole, and the better will be the 
returns of the work. 

To stimulate the spirit of enterprise and of individ- 
ual exertion, society insures to everyone and to his 
posterity, (as the heirs of his very existence, consti- 
tuting the continuance of his self after death,) the full 
benefit of his work performed for the progress of the 
race. On the other hand, in order to give as far as 
possible equal chances to all in the general competi- 
tion, this great republic of ours has instituted the pub- 
lic school system, the justice of which is based upon 
the idea that the education of the children is of vital 
interest to the community as a whole. Justice in- 
cludes the performance of duties, and some of the 
most important duties are to the generations still un- 

The law has decided that a certain portion of the 
taxes, without any further discrimination, shall be em- 
ployed for the support of the public schools. And we 
see no injustice in the fact that the childless bachelor 
and also those people who see fit to send their children 

to private schools, are obliged to contribute to the 
maintenance of an institution from which they do not 
directly derive any personal benefits, either for them- 
selves or their families, but in which they ought to be 
interested as citizens. It is everyone's duty to help 
in building up the future of mankind. 

It is to be hoped that in time not only the public 
schools, but all schools, the colleges, and universities, 
also, will become public institutions, affording quite 
equal chances of education to the rich and to the poor. 

* * 

Justice cannot and should not be done arbitrarily 
or by guesswork. Accordingly, rules have been devised 
to regulate duties, and these rules are called "laws " if 
they are of a general nature, and applicable to the whole 
community; they are called "contracts," if they are 
made by private individuals. A society in which duties 
are or can be thus fixed is called a state, and a state, 
being the organised common will of the members of a so- 
ciety, has the authority as well as the power to enforce 
certain duties. A law that is not to be enforced, a con- 
tract which the parties are not bound to respect, and a 
state that has no power whatever over its members, 
are self-contradictory conceptions. There may be and 
there are unjust laws, which it is highly desirable to 
abolish ; there may be and there are unfair contracts, 
in which one party deceives the other ; there may be 
and there are states which are not the organised com- 
mon will of all citizens, but only of a usurper or of a 
ruling class. In such cases we have to work for an 
improvement of the laws, of the state, and of the 
conditions under which contracts are made, but we 
should not for that reason propose (as do extreme in- 
dividualists and anarchists) that laws, as such, clearly 
defined contracts, and states should not exist at all, 
for this proposition, closely considered, is tantamount 
not only to a denial of all duties but also to the aboli- 
tion of justice itself. 

The exact performance of our d.uties according to 
laws or contracts, not more and not less, is called jus- 
tice. To perform duties precisely as the law or a 
contract prescribes, is justice according to the letter ; 
and justice is the least that is expected of us. If we 
do less we are in default. Justice, in this sense, is of 
all virtues the lowest, for its absence denotes a posi- 
tive vice. However, when justice is accomplished not 
only in the letter but in the spirit of the law, (always 
supposing in this case that the law be righteous,) jus- 
tice becomes the highest virtue, (as Plato maintains,) 
for it comprises all other virtues. Justice is the ful- 
filment of the law and the moral ideal of mankind. 

* * 

This consideration leads us to the problems as to 
the source and ultimate authority of justice. 

The source of justice is morality. Justice is not 

the: open court. 


morality, but it is a special application of morality. 
The moral man will always be just ; he has such an 
attitude toward others that he will, as a matter of 
course, be careful to fulfil all the claims they have on 
him. Any injustice on his part can only be caused 
through an oversight. The just man, however, is not 
necessarily a moral man, for he may do justice for other 
reasons than from pure good-will. He may, but it is 
little probable that a man will, practice justice through- 
out his life, unless his character be so attuned toward 
the world, that his good actions are simpl}' the ex- 
pressions of his kind heart. He will not only be just 
when a contract or a law enjoins a certain duty, but 
also when equity demands it. There cannot be laws 
and regulations for every trifle, but we can attend to 
our duties with a good will and love of duty, as if every 
detail had been rigorously fixed. The moral attitude 
of general good-will (in the language of the gospel 
called " love,") prompts us spontaneously and gladly 
to perform all justice, and to fulfil the law voluntarily. 

The ultimate authority of justice is to be found in 
the ordinances of nature ; and the ordinances of 
nature are exactly what the theologians call " the will 
of God." Justice is but another name for the con- 
ditions under which alone, according to the natural 
order of the universe, societies can exist. Justice 
makes of hordes of wild animals or savages moral com- 
munities, and every act of injustice is a breaking down 
of the foundations of society. 

Let us be most careful in being just, and let us im- 
plant the love of justice in our hearts. Thus alone we 
can establish upon earth an increasingly more perfect 
realisation of the human in man or the kingdom of 
heaven (as Christ called the religion he preached). 
Justice is the will of God that shall be done, and the 
path of justice is the path of progress that leadeth 
unto life. p. c. 


American humor may be recognised by its breadth, and the 
immense distance between the opposite points of it that emphasise 
a contrast. When a man complains loudly that he is being cheated 
and swindled, and robbed, he does not give us the smallest hint 
that there is any comedy in reserve, but when in the middle o£ his 
outcry he joins the robbers, and helps them to get away with the 
plunder stolen from himself the whole grand larceny is converted 
at once into American humor of superior quality. As a fair sample 
of the article, I present the following little story, founded on fact. 
Last Tuesday Mr. Edward Murphy was elected to the United 
States Senate by the legislature of New York, and while the voting 
was going on, the name of Mr. Kempner being called, that honor- 
able member rose and said, ' ' First, the election of Edward Murphy 
is dictated by himself and two or three other persons in utter de- 
fiance of public sentiment. Secondly, he is not a statesman either 
of high or low degree, and consequently is not fit to represent this 
state in the United States Senate." He had just finished "Thirdly,'' 
and was going on to "Fourthly," when he was called to order, 
whereupon he rolled up his indictment, and brought his charges 
against Mr. Murphy to a comical anti-climax by voting for that 

candidate. This contrast between speech and action is by some 
dull, straightforward people called self-stultification, but it is really 
American huraor laughing at serious life. Something like it may 
be found in English fiction ; as, for instance, in the I'ickwick pa- 
pers, where Mr. Blotton calls Mr. Pickwick a humbug, and im- 
mediately declares that he has " the highest regard and esteem for 
him," but that is merely the absurd creation'of a story teller ; we 
give the contradiction life and interest by reducing it to actual 
practice in affairs of greatest moment, thereby throwing over them 
all a cloak of playful insincerity. I once knew a man who had the 
habit of cheating himself when playing solitaire : a stupid sort of 
knavery indeed, but better than none at all. 

It is not easy to spiritualise larceny, and yet it can be done, 
Cardinal Manning put stealing among the elements of social self- 
defence, and Judge Springfield of Tennessee puts it on a higher 
plane than that. He uses it as a religious warning to wicked cor- 
porations, and he sanctions it as a justifiable attempt by the poor 
to recover some of the " natural opportunities" which have been 
stolen from them by the rich. He announces that "no person in 
necessitous circumstances will be punished in his court for stealing 
coal from the coal trust " ; and he discharged several men and 
women who had been arrested in Chattanooga for stealing coal. 
If this dictum is the higher law in Tennessee where the weather 
is comparatively mild, it must be the very highest law in Illinois, 
supreme above the statutes and the decalogue, especially in Chi- 
cago, where the mercury has a habit of creeping do^vn below the 
zero point, and staying there. If the code of the Tennessee judge 
is morally correct, stealing coal from the trust is a patriotic duty, 
and I already feel some twinges of a guilty conscience because I 
have not yet stolen any coal this winter from the coal yards. The 
higher law of Judge Springfield, is not only ethically bad, but also 
it is unsound in social economics. It makes me the judge in my own 
cause, deciding that the world owes me a living, and then permits 
me as my own sheriff to levy on anybody's property to satisfy the 
judgment. Of course, Judge Springfield's doctrine is intended for 
cold- weather only, but he will find it thriving in the summer time, 
although then it may apply to something else than coal ; and it 
comes handy to this argument that an ice trust was organised yes- 
terday. The judge is like that man in the Arabian Nights who let 
some imps of mischief out of a bo.x, and then saw them grow so 
big in a minute that he could not put them back again. Larceny 
as a social reformer is not reliable, and I have no confidence in it ; 
although I think the confederated larceny committed by the coal 
trust is ten thousand times more criminal than the petty counter- 
stealing by the poor. I have one religious comfort left ; no mem- 
ber of the trust will ever go to heaven. " I haint got to go no 
furder than my testyment for that." 

In spite of all my efforts to protect the dignity of the greatest 
office in this republic from ungrammalical insult, the illegitimate 
barbarism "Chief Executive," still usurps the place and majesty 
of that lawful, stately, and grammatical designation "Presi- 
dent of the United States." Little did I dream when I was fight- 
ing for my country, that I should live to see the day when 
the President of the United States would be supplanted by the 
little, wheezy, epileptic equivocation, " Chief Executive." Merely 
as rhetoric, the title "President of the United States " is magnifi- 
cent ; and I cannot understand why the American people should 
be afraid of it, as if it had the measles or the cholera. Before long, 
the Chief Justice of the United States will sink into the "Chief 
Judicial " ; and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, will 
be squeezed into the cheap and tawdry abbreviation, ' ' Chief Legis- 
lative." It's coming to that, and we may as well fortify our minds 
to bear the blow. There is no aggravated assault and battery upon 
our language that the newspapers are not ready to commit ; and 



even American statesmen, sworn to obey the constitution, are not 
to be depended on ; for no longer ago than yesterday, a statesman 
in the Senate o£ Illinois offered a resolution of which the preamble 
was, "Whereas, we have learned of the death of Rutherford B. 
Hayes, who for four years filled the high ofBce of chief executive 
of this nation." As there is no such office, I cannot help weeping 
when I read that the preamble was adopted by the senate, gram- 
mar, diction, mistake, and all. Still, what better could be expected, 
when a grave and reverend senator, in speaking about the World's 
Fair, and against opening it on Sundays, declared that no man 
"had went" farther than he had in support of that great enter- 
prise. I know that as a critic of language, I stand on dangerous 
ground, because I never studied rhetoric, and I should not know a 
rule of grammar if I met it on the street. I write, as I play the 
fiddle, "by ear" ; and judging by the ear alone, I claim that "had 
went" is better grammar, and better sense than " chief executive"; 
and I am willing to submit that claim to the judgment of any 
school-teacher in this town. I have said it before, and I say it 
again, that a man has no more right to jar the nerves of his neigh- 
bors by discords in rhetoric than by discords in music, for there 
are men and women whose nerves are finely strung in sympathy 
with all the tunes and cadences of pure and classic language. To 
them the limpid flow of our literature from Chaucer to Longfellow 
is an eloquent melody whose notes may not be rudely jarred, nor 
its symphonies destroyed. In justice to the feelings of refined 
people, I maintain that a man has no right to say " Chief Execu- 
tive," when he means the " President of the United States." 

* ^ 

Among the superstitions common to our people is the delusion 
that magic lies in a "diploma," so that if a man can only obtain 
that, he becomes qualified for any trade, profession, or calling he 
may choose to put his hand to. It will soon be that a man must 
have a diploma before he can be permitted to earn an honest liv- 
ing at anything. He must pass an examination before he can be a 
lawyer, or a doctor or a druggist, or a dentist, or practice this, that, 
or the other useful trade. The excuse for all that interference with 
our natural rights is, that society at large is interested in skilful 
and competent practitioners. Thinking the matter over, I am 
wondering whether it would not be well to demand some sort of a 
diploma before allowing a man to practice as a statesman, either 
in the provinces, or in the National Congress. To be sure, many 
practicing statesmen would be found ineligible, but is not ' ' society 
at large " as much interested in competent lawmakers as in com- 
petent lawyers, or plumbers, or civil engineers ? For instance, 
would not a diploma have been found useful in the case of that 
eminent statesman who introduced a bill into the legislature, for- 
bidding oysters or clams to be sold in bulk in the State of Illinois, 
and requiring that they be sold either in the shells or in air-tight 
cans ? And in the case of his colleague, who proposes a law de- 
claring all persons ineligible to matrimony who cannot show a 
certificate that they are able to read and write in their own lan- 
guage ? And in the case of that congressman from somewhere, who 
proposes to legislate sentiment into the people by act of Congress, 
declaring that on and after the thirty-first day of May, 1893, the 
pansy shall be our national flower, and that it shall symbolise "jus- 
tice, liberty, union, culture, and peace"? Certainly, the pansy is 
not a warlike flower, but we have many other flowers that show 
more "culture," and just as much "justice, liberty, and union." 
Let us require a diploma from all our statesmen before allowing 
them to practice. M. M. Trumbull. 


Human Origins. By .V. Laing. London : Chapman & Hall, 
Ld. 1892. Fifth Thousand. 
Important as are the facts of physical science, as bearing on 
the material progress of the human race, it is none the less true. 

as stated by the author of the present work, that the most inter- 
esting of the results of modern science are those which bear upon 
the origin and evolution of the race. It is remarkable within how 
short a period this branch of science, which under the title of 
Anthropology was not long ago regarded as unorthodox if not 
" infidel," has come to occupy a recognised position. This is un- 
doubtedly due to the general reception by scientific men of the 
doctrine of evolution, under the influence of Darwinism ; and Mr. 
Laing does right, therefore, in supporting his contention as to the 
vast antiquity of the human race by reference to the requirements 
of that doctrine. If it be true, for instance, that all the species of a 
genus of apes have sprung from a common ancestor, we must be- 
lieve that all the varieties of the human species have also had a 
common derivation. Such a conclusion necessitates the throwing 
back of the origin of man to a date so distant, that the time which 
has since elapsed should be measured in geological periods rather 
than in years. Three quite distinct European types of paleolithic 
man are known to have existed, and they all appear to be differ- 
ent from the Negro type, which in certain particulars approaches 
the most nearly to that of the quadrumana. The question of 
human origins is complicated by the fact, that although the Cann- 
stadt type of skull found in Western Europe may be regarded as 
of a somewhat simian character, yet the still earlier skull of Cas- 
telredolo and Calaveras in California, which were extracted from 
Tertiary strata, are of a less brutal character. This would seem 
to require the first appearance of the really human being to have 
taken place during the middle Tertiary ; unless we are to suppose 
that his structure was originally more plastic than it is at present, 
and therefore more subject to variation under the influences of 
climate and other conditions. The conclusion arrived at by the 
author would seem to be a proper one. It is that man has existed 
from the Pliocene and probably from the Miocene period, but that 
at the earliest date at which his remains have been found there 
were several sharply distinguished types. 

It is not surprising, considering the small portion of the 
earth's surface that has been examined for human remains, that 
the ancestral type of man which constituted the "missing link" 
has not yet been discovered. There are certain facts from which 
we may infer that the primeval men were of small make, and 
traces of them may be expected to be met with, if at all, in regions 
now inhabited by dwarf races. Possibly, however, their original 
habitat may now be beneath the waters of the great ocean, to be- 
come known to science only in some future geological epoch. We 
have only to suppose that the continental area was formerly as 
extensive in the southern hemisphere as it now is in the northern 
hemisphere, and that mankind originated on some portion of that 
area which is now submerged, and a solution would be found for 
several interesting anthropological problems. The least developed 
of the existing varieties of man are all to be met with within the 
southern hemisphere or not far from its borders, and the time 
which has elapsed since the destruction of its continental system 
would probably be sufficient to account for the formation of the 
different human types after the spread of mankind from the com- 
mon centre. It is indeed possible that the formation of distinct 
types may be the result of the long continuance of special geolog- 
ical conditions either within different geographical areas, or suc- 
cessively within the same area, the former being the most prob- 

The great difficulty connected with the assignment to man- 
kind of the last antiquity required by the theory of evolution is 
the extremely short time covered by the historical period. The 
most distant date which can be brought within this period, ac- 
cording to the teachings of archaeological inquiry, does not carry 
us further back than about 5000 B. C, the approximate date of 
the foundation of the Egyptian empire by Menes. The most recent 
discoveries in Chaldaea are thought by some authorities to point 



to the existence of Accadian civilisation in that region as early as 
6000 B. C, but the more recent date which carries the historical 
period more than two thousand years beyond the beginning of the 
annals of the Chinese empire, is accepted by the author. He 
points out, however, that in Chaldaea as in Egypt, the country 
was then in a settled condition, being divided into a number of 
small states governed by priest-kings. These were in Egypt the 
Horsheshu, or servants of Horns, and to them is ascribed the 
building of the most ancient temples, and also of the great 
Sphyn.x, which would seem to be much older than the earliest 
pyramid of Ghizeh, and is an image of Hormachen, the Son of 
the Lower World. These architectural works are evidence of the 
existence of a considerable degree of civilisation at the above date, 
5000 B. C, although it is quite possible that they may have been 
due to an intrusive roll among a pastoral people, and the origin of 
civilisation should, therefore, be carried considerably beyond that 

That at a very early date, historically considered, the Semites 
established themselves as a ruling class, not only in Chaldaea, but 
also in Egypt, is shown by the monuments, and it is very prob- 
able that the earliest Egyptian empire was founded by Semitic 
conquerors. As the result of recent researches, it is now known 
that Southern Arabia was the seat of an ancient civilisation, com- 
parable to that of Egypt or Chaldsea, which probably originated 
at as early a date. Indeed, as pointed out by the author, ancient 
tradition refers to Southern Arabia as the source of both Chal- 
dsean and Phenician civilisation. Moreover, the country named 
Punt, which the Egyptians always spoke of with reverence, is sup- 
posed to have been Arabia Felis and the adjoining coast of North- 
Eastern Africa, now known as Somali-land, and "the physical 
type also of the chiefs of Punt, as depicted on the Egyptian monu- 
ments, is very like that of the aristocratic type of the earliest known 
Egyptian portraits." It is an important fact, as bearing on the 
question of human origins, that "in Arabia alone we find Semites 
and Semites only," but it ought to have been mentioned that 
the South Arabian Semite belongs to a somewhat different type 
to the Semite of the North. The former would seem to represent 
the pure stock, and his associations are undoubtedly with Africa 
rather than with Asia, or at least the central plateau from which 
the Turanian people of Chaldaea and Elam appear to have issued. 
It should be noticed, moreover, that the traditions of the Chal- 
dseans and Phenicians pointed to the Bahrein Islands in the Persian 
Gulf, or to the Gulf itself, by which we may understand foreigners 
coming by sea, as the source of their civilisation. This would seem 
to point to India as its real place of origin, and it is a pity that the 
author does not say anything with reference to Hindu civilisation, 
or rather to the pre-Hindu civilisation which the Vedas themselves 
hint at as existing among the Dravidian peoples. Probably he was 
deterred partly by the scantiness of the materials, and partly by a 
wish not to intervene in the Aryan controversy. There are reasons 
for believing that India and Egypt were at an early date in close com- 
munication, and this is supposed in the conjecture that the tin which 
enters into the composition of the bronze used for the weapons 
and tools of ancient Egypt was brought from Malacca. But even 
if the origin of what we call ancient civilisation could be traced to 
Southern India, and if it had gradually developed there through a 
period of five thousand years, it would be carried back only to 
about 10,000 B. C, which is as nothing to the vast antecedent 
period in the lifetime of mankind, of which we find trace only in 
the few scattered relics met with in caves, and in gravel beds and 
other geological strata. These are, however, amply sufiScient to 
establish the fact of man's existence on the earth for hundreds of 
thousands of years, and there is no reason why an antiquity of a 
million years should not be conceded to him, if this is required by 
the actual data. 

That the ancients had some idea of the great antiquity of the 

human race appears, however, from a fact which has not been 
allowed its due prominence. Mr. Laing, in referring to Egyptian 
chronology, remarks that "before the establishment of such his- 
torical dynasties we have nothing but legends and traditions, 
which are vague and mythical, the mythological element rapidly 
predominating, as we go backwards in time, until we soon arrive 
at reigns of gods, and lives of thousands of years. But as we ap- 
proach the period of historical dynasties the mythological element 
diminishes, and we pass from gods reigning 10,000 years, and 
patriarchs living to 900, to later patriarchs living 150 or 200 years, 
and finally to mortal men, living, and kings reigning, to natural 
ages." In Chaldaea also we have a mythological period, extend- 
ing over 432,000 years, during which gods and demi-gods reigned, 
and even 259,000 years are said to have elapsed between the in- 
troduction of civilisation by Cannes and the Chaldasan deluge. 
The chronology of the Hindus introduces similar figures, and the 
Buddhists of Central Asia ascribe to the earliest men lives of 
marvellous length, giving them in addition enormous size. Now 
although such statements as these are purely legendary, yet it is 
quite possible that they may preserve some dim memory of the 
fact that mankind was not a creature of yesterday, but that he 
had existed on the earth for a vast period, of which no record re- 
mained except in the daily life of the people, and in the vague 
stories of the reigns of gods and demi-gods. 

Before bringing to a close this notice of Mr. Laing's excellent 
work, reference may be made to a few of its other more striking 
features. The origin of the week of seven days is clearly shown, 
and the austerity of the Sabbath connected with its associations 
as the day ruled over by "the gloomy and malignant" Saturn. 
The fact is mentioned that the moon supplied the standard for 
measuring time until it was discovered that the seasons are regu- 
lated by the sun. It might have been added that the first time 
measurers probably dwelt in a region where winter was unknown. 
The question of the historical element in the Old Testament is 
treated with great fairness, and the results of modern criticism 
clearly stated. The author does not, however, throw any new 
light on the subject, but his statement that the moral atmosphere 
of the history of the Hebrews ' ' continues to be that of Red Indians 
down to the time of David " is suggestive. The bearing of Croll's 
theory of the action of the precession of the equinoxes, in com- 
bination with the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, in the produc- 
tion of the glacial period, as restated by Sir R. Ball, is well 
treated ; and the conclusion appears to be justified, that " as man 
clearly existed in the pre-glacial period, and was already widely 
spread and in considerable numbers in the early glacial, 250,000 
years may be taken as an approximation to the ininiimim duration 
of the existence of the human race on the earth." The final 
chapters, which deal with the subject of human origins from what 
may be regarded as its more purely anthropological standpoint, 
give a clear summary of the evidence in favor of the existence of 
Quarternary and Tertiary man. In connection with this subject 
we would point out that in "the earliest portrait of a man " found 
in the Grotto of Les Eyzies, a stroke which is usually taken for a 
horse's leg is very suggestive of a tail for the human being ! In 
leaving the work we will say only, that it is excellently adapted 
to do what the author desires, to stimulate the minds of the young, 
and of the intelligent members of the working classes to study the 
subject which he states has been to him " the solace of a long life, 
the delight of many quiet days, and the soother of many troubled 
ones," and that it is deserving, moreover, of study by all those who 
are wishful to know the truth as to human origins. \l. 

Precis d'economie politique et de morale. By G. De MoHuari. 
Paris : Guillaumin & Co. 1893. 
The present work is a neat and well-printed volume of 278 
pages. The activity of its veteran author, who is a correspondent 



of the Institute and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal des Economistes, 
extends as far back as the year 1846 when he published a small 
volume entitled Etudes economiques. The publishers Guillaumin 
and Co. have the reputation of publishing excellent works in this 
department ; their Collection des frincipntix ecomvnistes and their 
Xouveaii diclionnaire d'cconomie folitii/iie being especially note- 
worthy. This work, therefore, needs little comment. 

The purpose of the book, the author says, is to summarise and 
bring within the reach of the general reader the fundamental no- 
tions of political economy and the science of ethics, as he conceives 
these -sciences to be constituted. The work is divided into three 
parts: (i) "The General Economy of Nature," (2) "Political 
Economy," (3) " Ethics." All the chapters are instructive. 

The law of self-preservation, regulated by the motive force of 
pleasure and pain, is, says Molinari, the fundamental law of exist- 
ence : it controls man and beast alike. But man has reason and 
foresight. The beast destroys, man produces ; he accumulates, he 
saves ; he makes the labor of one supply the wants of many and 
thus makes it possible for others to follow higher and different 
pursuits. On this simple basis the vast structure of civilisation, 
with its untold wealth, arises ; and the domain of Political Econ- 
omy is created. With economical progress comes the necessity of 
Positive Law, the necessity of protection, the necessity of security ; 
and beyond positive law, comprising all, ethics, the supreme science 
of conduct in all human relations. Though economical in its foun- 
dation, human society is ethical in its end ; its raison d'etre is eth- 
ical. All laws, all customs, if they are just, are the expression of 
our ethical ideas. And our ethical ideas, if they are correct, are 
the reflection of the facts of human nature and the conditions of 
human existence. These ethical ideas must be the guide and gov- 
ernor of the great machine of economical civilisation. Without 
ethics, in the expressed form of law, no true economical progress. 
The divorce of the two is the cause of the great crisis which now 
inpends like a lowering cloud over the modern world. 

Such is, briefly and positively expressed, in our own words, 
Molinari's view. This is the fundamental fact of his book. Con- 
cerning his opinions on technical points of political economy, we 
present no criticism : his theories are, as he expressly states, liis 
own views of the subject. His style is forcible and clear. His 
mode of presentation is concise, and unburdened by platitudes or 
redundant discussions. finpK. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Constitution. A Study 
Showing the Play of Physical and Social Factors in the 
Creation of Institutional Law. By Morris M. Colin. Balti- 
more : The Johns Hopkins Press. 1892. 
America. Its Geographical History — 1492-1892. Six ^.ectures 
Delivered to Graduate Students of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, with a supplement entitled "Was the Rio Del Es- 
piritu Santo of the Spanish Geographers the Mississipppi ?" 
By Z^;-. Walter B. Scaife. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins 
Press. 1892. 
These two works are volumes XI II and XI of the "extra vol- 
ume" series of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science — a series conducted under the able manage- 
ment of Dr. H. B. Adams. They contain respectively 235 and 176 

Mr. Cohn's work was written, as the author says, "for the 
purpose of bringing before the student and reader of our American 
constitutional system a mass of information which at present lies 
scattered among the productions of many different writers, inquir- 
ers, and thinkers." The monograph is not intended for the special 
wants of legal practitioners, but is intended to supply the student 
with those general doctrines of political science which are abso- 
lutely necessary to the understanding of any special form of gov- 
ernment. Mr. Cohn has made use of the very best authorities in 

the production of this work : he has incorporated into his views 
the opinions of leading modern writers concerning the origin of 
"law" and "sovereignty," concerning the operation of physical 
and social factors in the constitution of states, with all that these 
subjects imply. 

The philosophy of law and the science of comparative juris- 
prudence are studies which until very lately have been much neg- 
lected in the United States. Otherwise, one who is ac(iuainted in 
the least with the history of institutions and with the idea of the 
evolution of things human and divine, might really wonder why 
Mr. Cohn should be led to make the remark that "The belief that 
the constitution of the United States was one out of many, and 
could have no existence save in connection with well settled and 
somewhat diversely governed communities which preceded it, early 
formed itself in his mind and has now grown into an unalterable 
conviction." He also remarks that the repeated expressions of 
federal tribunals bear out this conviction. The Anglo American 
lawyer hesitates, without the opinion of a court, to pass judgment 
even on questions of philosophy. 

It does not lie within our province to give a detailed critical 
opinion of Mr. Cohn's work but the erudition which is displayed 
in the citation of authorities and its appearance in the Johns Hop- 
kins series are a sufficient guarantee of its usefulness. 

The second of these books is an interesting monograph by Dr. 
Scaife on the development of American geography. It is divided 
into the following six sections: " The Development of the Atlantic 
Coast in the Consciousness of Europe ; " " Development of Pacific 
Coast Geography ; " " Geography of the Interior of Polar Regions ; " 
"Historical Notes on Certain Geographical Names: America, 
Brazil, Canada ; " " Development of American National and State 
Boundaries ; " " Geographical Work of the National Government. " 

It contains a number of photographs and facsimile reproduc- 
tions of ancient maps of America preserved in the libraries of 
Europe and of our own country, and though a treatise on a spe- 
cial subject will be of great interest to the general reader. [iKpn. 





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JUSTICE. Editor 3535 

CURRENT TOPICS : The Humor of a Politician. The 
Ethics of Larceny. The Chief Executive. Diplomas 
for Statesmen. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3539 



The Open Court. 



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In Till' Open Court of December 29th, commenting 
on the letters of Earl Grey, I spoke of " Reciprocity," 
and I now desire to illustrate the subject by the light 
of The South American Commission and The Pan- 
American Congress. The experience of the Commis- 
sion and the Congress demonstrates clearly that the 
"reciprocity" expedient is a free-trade sign, for it 
shows the natural desire of every people to trade freely 
with every other people, if their governments will per- 
mit them to do so. The reciprocity device hinders, for 
the present, the free-trade movement, but it strength- 
ens it for the future by exciting the appetite for free- 
dom. When the United States of America sends agents 
to other nations, asking them for custom and making 
bids for business, it confesses that international trade 
is a good thing, and we have a right to suppose that 
the more of it the better. 

A few years ago the United States government sent 
three commercial travellers to Mexico, Brazil, and the 
South American Republics, asking those nations to 
buy some goods of us, politely assuring them at the 
same time that it was against our principles to buy 
any goods of them, excepting, only such goods as we 
could not get anywhere else, and such as we could not 
produce at home. Of course, the commercial travel- 
lers came back without making or giving any bargains ; 
in fact, without bringing any orders for any goods at 
all; and there is not among the "archives" at Wash- 
ington a more comical state paper than the melancholy 
"report" of those three commercial travellers. One 
of the most laughable chapters in it is the story of 
their interview with the President of Uruguay, and 
from that story I quote the following paragraph : 

"The President of Uruguay and his minister, after express- 
ing with great ardor their admiration for the United States, their 
efforts to imitate our government in all things, and their desire for 
closer relations, accepted, without discussion, each and all of the 
propositions submitted by the commission, except that which re- 
lates to a reciprocity treaty with the United States. To this they 
would readily have consented also, had the commission felt justi- 
fied in encouraging them to expect that the Congress of the United 
States would consent to a reduction or a removal of the duty on 
wool, this being the chief product of Uruguay." 

Of course, the three commercial travellers did not 
see that the President of Uruguay was laughing at 
them ; they could not detect the keen irony in the de- 
sire of Uruguay to "imitate our government in all 
things," including, of course, its restrictive polic)'. 
"The President of Uruguay and his minister" must 
have been very much amused at the simplicity of use- 
less commissioners, wandering over South America 
with an ungracious message from Washington to the 
South American states, asking them to trade with us, 
and rudely telling them at the same time that we de- 
cline to trade with them. 

It is easy to imagine the dialogue that must have 
been had between the commercial travellers and the 
President of Uruguay. "We have come soliciting 
trade," say the travellers. "Very well, says the Pres- 
ident, "what have you to trade?" They answer: 
"Woolen goods." "Will you take wool for them ? " 
says the President. " Oh, no," reply the uncommercial 
travellers; "our firm is forbidden by law to take 
wool." "All right," says the President; "England 
will take it and give us cloth in exchange." Then the 
uncommercial travellers go to Chili, and the Chilians 
offer them copper for their goods, but they are not al- 
lowed to take that either; and so, at last, they dis- 
cover that they cannot trade with South America to 
any great extent, because the protective-tariff policy of 
their own country will not permit it. Finally they try 
the Argentine Republic, and the President of that 
country advises them to go home and tell the Ameri- 
can Congress to "do something at once to make the 
markets of the United States accessible to the Argen- 
tine producers." If they had been keen enough to 
see the sarcasm in that advice, they would hardly have 
put it in the "Report." 

Not satisfied with the experiment of the uncom- 
mercial travellers, our government invited a Pan- 
American congress to convene in the city of Wash- 
ington, to promote Pan-American peace and closer 
and more liberal trade relations among all the nations 
of the American continent. The congress met, but 
the United States tariff, like a barricade in Paris, 
blocked the way to all the supposed purposes of the 
congress, and, as might have been expected, it merely 



sharpened the free-trade appetite. It showed that an 
invitation by the United States to the nations of New 
Spain for closer commercial friendship, on the basis 
of commercial hostility to Old Spain, is a paradox. 
Never did protection make a greater mistake than it 
made when it inspired Congress and the Secretary of 
State to issue that invitation. The very purpose of 
the congress was larger freedom, better acquaintance, 
and more ships. All these mean greater freedom of 
trade. Even the cool equipoise of Senator Sherman 
was disturbed by the mere inspiration of the confer- 
ence. His habitual self-restraint gave way ; his well- 
trained politics grew insubordinate ; his soul made a 
break for liberty ; and this man, erroneously supposed 
to have "no pulse," broke into enthusiasm, and said 
that he "was almost inclined to be a convert to free 
trade, if that free trade were confined to American na- 
tions. " The qualifying clause counts for nothing. The 
speech of Senator Sherman proves that in thought and 
by conviction he is a free trader. It is true, the speech 
was made at a banquet, but sometimes the soul of a 
man is revealed at a banquet, although successfully 
concealed elsewhere. 

That Pan-American banquet was given at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, but another one given at Chicago was 
equally full of paradoxes, the most colossal incongru- 
ity being the chairman, a Senator in Congress from 
the State of Illinois ; a protectionist in theory, in prac- 
tice a free trader ; by politics a Republican, by occu- 
pation a veteran importer of "pauper-made goods from 
Europe " ; a statesman who demands free trade with 
one hemisphere, and commercial war with the other ; 
a geographical economist who thinks that commerce 
ought to be longitudinally free, but latitudinally slave. 
Proposing a toast to the healths of the Presidents of 
the South American Republics, and addressing the 
guests from South America, he said : 

' ' We must as soon as possible establish steamship lines to your 
countries and liberally subsidise them. We must offer you our 
exports as cheaply as others do ; and to that end I shall favor such 
legislation as will bring about this result, even to the extent of 
uninterrupted trade between all the countries of this hemisphere. 

Senator Farwell meant of course the western hemi- 
sphere, so-called ; but suppose he cuts his orange 
equatorially, what then ? And what if he thus divides 
the globe ? In this case the United States will be in 
the same "hemisphere" with England, France, and 
Germany. Will the laws of political science change 
on that account ? If it is wise to trade southward, can 
it be foolish to trade eastward ? A geographical polit- 
ical economy is like a geographical arithmetic, which 
adds and multiplies by opposite rules in opposite 
" hemispheres." 

The Governor of Illinois, also a Republican, and a 
protectionist, followed Senator Farwell, and he knew 

enough to know that there can be no definite "hemi- 
sphere " until a line is drawn to make it, and he de- 
clined to draw the line. He expanded the "uninter- 
rupted trade " felicity far beyond the contracted " hemi- 
sphere " patronised by Senator Farwell. The Gover- 
nor enlarged it until it covered all the world. He 
said : 

"Industry found here new incentives; enterprise and inven- 
tion found large rewards, head and heart joined alike in the service 
of humanity ; and the inanimate forces of nature harnessed by the 
devices of free Ihouglil to the car of progress, carry to-day the 
burdens once borne by unrequited toil. The swift interchange of 
thought, wherein, as by the lightning's touch, the heart-throbs of 
the Nations are felt in the pulses under the embracing sea, tends 
to make brothers of all mankind." 

Somewhat stilted, but ethically true, because the 
brotherhood of man is broken whenever governments 
forbid brother to trade with brother. A misprint has 
marred the beauty of the sentiment, and " free tJwug/it " 
has been carelessly interpolated for "free trade." The 
context proves that "free trade" was the Governor's 
word, otherwise there is no adequate cause for the con- 
sequence he praised. He knows that "the heart-throbs 
felt in the pulses under the embracing sea" are tele- 
graph messages concerning trade. For ten "throbs" 
about thought, that " pulse under the embracing sea," 
ten thousand pulse in reference to trade. 

Reciprocity treaties rest on the assumption that 
imported goods are an injury to the country that re- 
ceives them ; and therefore it is only fair political re- 
tribution that the country sending them should suffer 
a corresponding injury by importing something in re- 
turn. The cheaper the goods the greater the mischief, 
while to get them for nothing would be the greatest 
calamity of all. 


" O Happiness, our Being's end and aim." — Po^e. 

It can be easily shown, if things be envisaged in 
the right way, which they so seldom are, owing to the 
triviality and wrong-headedness of the mass of man- 
kind, that the above postulate is true. Epicurism, 
which involves a belief in the eternity of matter, of 
cosmos or chaos, and therefore which disposes of ' ' Cre- 
ator " and "creation, " quite incompatible with ancient 
or modern evolution, is without doubt the most ra- 
tional, indeed the <}?t/y rational, theory of the Universe, 
but is also the grandest and most sublime. It is even 
more, for it includes and categorises all other philo- 
sophic sects, even the sternest stoicism and ascetic- 
ism. Happiness, or at least, satisfaction to the in- 
stincts and impulses of each nature, is the end and aim 
of all philosophies that have come down to us from 
antiquity. Just as much, though in a more cryptic 



sense, as of epicurism. Even St. Simon Stylites, on 
his pillar, amid his sores, absurd battering of Heaven 
with prayer, including his twelve hundred reverences 
and genuflections in the twelve hours, is no exception 
to this rule. He could have descended and led an or- 
dinary life if he had cared to. But there is no disput- 
ing about tastes and he could only have remained 
where he did simply because he preferred the one 
course of life — eccentric and criminal as we must re- 
gard it — to the other more natural, general, and genial 
one. The one pleased more than tlie otiier. Consequently 
even his unparalleled asceticism, and seeming self-de- 
nial, was as much self-indulgence, as is even that of 
the most degenerate "epicure" — falsely called after 
the name of its founder, whose system really postulated 
just as much antecedent self-denial and self-effacement 
as did that of the Portico, or any other philosophic 
school. All men must seek, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, most often the latter — the gratification of their 
own "pleasure," the absence of which results in mal 
aise, not hien aise, or content. Man never can enjo)' 
self-satisfaction, or anything resembling it, until that 
nistis is realised. Just like the squirming infant in 
the bath, which generally illustrates the advertisement 
of Pears' soap, with the legend, " He never will be 
happy (easy) till he gets it." 

I think all who read this with an impartial mind 
must see its relevancy. Only impartial minds are, 
alas ! in such a dire minority. Quite like Virgil's ships 
of .^neas : "Rari nanft's in giirgitc vasto .'" Dualism, 
which infers spiritualism, in any shape or form, seems 
quite untenable when we fathom its heights and depths, 
with Epicurus and Lucretius. Just as much as with 
hylo-idealism, which is only the coverse of hylo-zoism 
or materialism (motherism). In the latter synthesis 
there is no pretence to deal with objects in advance of 
the age. For to no mortal is it given to anticipate his 
era and its Zeitgeist. All predicated by automorphic 
egoism has been in the air, even to dunces, for at 
least two generations past. Just as Luther said of re- 
formation principles, which he traced back for two 
centuries to the mysticism of Johann Tauler and oth- 
ers, and as certainly was also the case with Columbus. 
Only it is the rare exceptional mind that possesses the 
power of converting facts into general principles. As 
I have often said, I am willing to rest the whole 
fabric of hylo-zoism and hylo-idealism on Wohler's 
artificial manufacture of a vital (organic) secretion out 
of inorganic elements — a matter now sixty years or 
more old. If this development from inorganic into 
organic be a "true bill," of which there is no doubt, 
and of which grape sugar, indigo, etc., are also ex- 
amples, all animism, on which divine worship is based, 
is eliminated. It can only exist as a supererogation 
and useless surplusage. In fact, on the above data, 

religion, as usually understood by the term, becomes 
a reductio, first ad absiirdiim, and finally ad impossibile. 
How can we worship Deity, when we never can escape 
from all-inclusi','e monistic egoity? Indeed, even on 
theistic data, all divine worship is hylo-ideal. If we 
look far enough into the millstone, which so very few 
care or dare, to do, we must be landed in the same 
conclusion. Clericals, as at the present Church Con- 
gress in Folkestone, prate of the "crown rights of the 
Son of God" (Christ). But, properly speaking, we 
are all Christs, (equally with that lofty idealist, on the 
hypothesis of an existing Deity,) i. e., Sons of God. 
A complete illogicality presides over the very initiative 
of supernaturalism, which is equally implied in mono- 
theism (Jehovah-ism) or polytheism. One God is as 
much superhumanism as are the 300,000 of the Hindu 

We read in Matthew xxiv, 23, and also in Mark 
xiii, 22 : " If any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is 
Christ, or there, believe it not." In spite of this 
warning, men who pretend to be Christs have arisen 
at all times ; they are still among us, and the State of 
Illinois, it seems, is at present more blessed with 
Christs than any other country in the world. Would 
it not be advisable for the World's Fair Auxiliary to 
open during the World's Fair, a congress of Christs? 
It is to be hoped that it would be a better success 
than all the congresses of learning that are planned ! 
It would be something unprecedented and unrivaled, 
something extraordinary. 

Harold Brodrick is the latest pretender to that 
great title, which mankind has attributed only once, to 
the Nazarene prophet, the patient sufferer on Gol- 
gotha. Mr. Brodrick has announced his coming in 
two volumes of a work entitled "The Son of Man." 
The second volume states on the title page that it is 
written "By the Christ," and its dedication reads: 

"To my dear Father, God, this volume is dedicated by his 
son Harold: the Christ." 

In this he tells us all the main facts of his life, his 
experiences in an EngHsh insane asylum and how he 
came to believe that he is Christ. The man is appar- 
ently in earnest, and we do not doubt his sincerity. 
There is much nobility about him, which lifts him high 
above Schweinfurth, Teed, and other fellows who as- 
sume the same honor to themeslves. 

Mr. Brodrick's story is interesting from a patholog- 
ical point of view. The ecstatic states, of which he 
speaks, when "the spirit of God came all about " him, 
(II, p. 124,) and in which God "revealed to him spirit- 
ual pleasures," were succeeded the following morning 
by a collapse, in which he felt tired. (II, p. 126. ) The 
physicians treated him as an epileptic. The state- 



ment of the case, as presented by Mr. Brodrick him- 
self, would be of great interest to Professor Lom- 
broso, of Turin. It should be supplemented, how- 
ever, by notes of the physician who attended to Mr. 
Brodrick. Whether or not he was correctly treated, 
it is impossible to surmise. This much is certain, 
that our alienists, as a rule, enter too little into the 
mi?uh of their patients. They neither try to gain their 
confidence, as they ought to, nor do they trouble much 
to find the mental key to their aberrations, which, if 
mental, cannot be cured by drugs. It may be true 
that public insane asylums are too overcrowded to 
allow of much individual discrimination among their 
occupants, yet this does not apply to private institutes 
which receive payment for patients. And a man like 
Brodrick deserves an exceptional treatment, not only 
for his personal qualities, but also for all the lessons 
which his case can teach us. 

Mr. Brodrick had ecstatic states, in which, as he 
says, God spoke to him, and he is eccentric in his 
ways. That exhausts the case ; there is, so far as his 
own apparently very sincere and complete statement 
goes, no madness about him. He is not insane in the 
proper sense of the term ; he is no lunatic, and to 
treat him as such in an asylum might be a serious 

His book is a strange mixture of abnormal ex- 
travagances and sensible ideas, which latter compare 
very favorably with those of religious maniacs and 
even of cranks. He says, for instance: 

"Son of Man is a collective term, and anything that happens 
to any man on earth happens to the Son of Man." (II, p. 67) 

"There are more men than Harold Brodrick knows of who 
may yet be Christs." ( II, p. 71.) 

He regards himself as Christ, because he says : 

" I have overcome sin." ( I, p. 43.) 


"God is the most Glorious Father to me. He has chastened 
me and afflicted me with fever and with those things that are 
brought on by immorality." (II, p. 39.) 

When detained in the asylum, Mr. Brodrick was 
visited by a friend from his native country, New Zea- 
land. Mr. Brodrick says : 

" My father, in the flesh, sent him. ... I told him that I was 
• all right, and he said, I hear you claim to be the Holy Ghost. I 
laughed and told him that the Holy Ghost dwelt in me, and I was 
only trying to practically teach people that He dwells wherever 
truth is." ( II, p. 162.) 

It is surprising that he has no spiritualistic ten- 
dencies. He says that ' ' nature " is only another word 
for God, and it is quite consistent for him to say that 
" God acts as God and as the devil." (Vol. II, p. 148.) 

He expresses his ideas of heaven and immortality 
as follows : "There are no such places as heaven; 
heaven is in us." "There are no hells, except what 

men are in now." (II, p. 44.) He says: "there is 
no life after death ; when men get to be of the ideas 
of Jesus and of his way of living, then they overcome 
death." Or, in another passage (I, p. 57) : 

" God said to me, when I was in prison : ' You shall live for 
more than a thousand years.' . . . That means only that the spirit 
of truth that dwells in me shall dwell in all men." 

Mr. Brodrick's description of how he recovered his 
pld faith in God, is very touching. He says : 

"As a child I had the most perfect faith in God. I did not 
know where God was, but I used to work on and on, and do my 
lessons at school as well as I could, and wait on my mother, who 
was ill ; and then after her death I don't think I ever was happy 
again. I wanted to go to Heaven to be with God. That idea I 
had for a very short time after her death. Then, I don't know 
how it began, but I gradually ceased to think there was a God. I 
have clinched my teeth with rage, and I have blasphemed the 
name of God many a time since." ( I, p. 33-34.) 

When travelling from Montevideo to England, he 
became "as happy as he ever had been." He says : 

" It was a very quiet kind of happiness. Perhaps it made me 
look as if I had been crying, and possibly I had. The fact is that 
I had got back my old faith in God. I felt that He was taking 
care of me. ( I, p. 32.) 

"And I do not mind confessing that I sobbed like a child. I 
had longed and hungered for that love of God for many a long 
year." (I, p. 33.) 

If Mr. Brodrick had said and written and done 
nothing but what is in accord with these quotations 
from his books, no one would have thought of confin- 
ing him in a lunatic asylum. But there are some ad- 
ditional facts which explain the situation, and some of 
them are so comical, that even Mr. Brodrick con- 
fesses : 

"In plain words, God made me a fool in order that I may 
teach others what fools they are." (II, p. 128.) 


" It was a foolish thing of me to announce myself as the mes- 
senger of God." (II, p. 116.) 

The way in which he tried to announce himself 
must have created a sensation. He may tell his story 
in his own words. He sometimes speaks of himself 
in the third person. He says ; 

"On Monday, the 19th of October, 1891, he went to the pub- 
lic telegraph office in London, and he handed cables in which 
were to be sent to many parts of the world, and those cables an- 
nounced that he was the messenger of God. . . . He handed in 
messages to the President of the United States and to the Gov- 
ernors of the English colonies, and to the Prince of Wales, and 
with those messages he handed in one that was an ordinary busi- 
ness telegram to Otto Bemberg, of Buenos Ayres. It told him 
simply that Harold Brodrick did not intend to buy the Elortondo 
colony, which he had formerly proposed to do. They took those 
messages after having refused many times, and they thought I did 
not know what I was doing because I called Jesus my brother ; 
and then, because in another of the messages I said He was my 
father ; and then, in another I said I was the son of Christ. Now 
Jesus taught men about two thousand years ago that he who be- 
lieved in Him was His son and brother and father and sister and 
mother. Those words mean, in the Spirit. They did not send 



my messages although they promised to do so. It took me from 
about ten o'clock in the morning until five in the evening to get 
those messages out of my hands. I was determined that they 
should take them. I made them do so by persuasion. They 
looked solemn until they came to one addressed to the Fiji Islands, 
and then they smiled, and said that there was no wire to Fiji. 

" I was pretty well aware of that fact, but they might, never- 
theless, have wired it to New Zealand, and sent it from th^e by 
post. However, that is of no consequence. All I wanted was to 
let men see I was in earnest, and to make them understand that I 
was the messenger of God." ( II, pp. 104-107.) 

This is only one of Mr. Brodrick's eccentricities. 
There are more of them, among which ma)' be men- 
tioned his visit to the Prince of Wales, his anthropo- 
logical revelations about the inhabitants of Asia and 
New Zealand, his enunciation of oracular saj'ings at- 
tributed to God, etc., etc. His style betrays the na- 
ture of his mind. His sentences are abrupt, and his 
thought is erratic; a fact which is most striking at 
the beginning of his book and least apparent in a sys- 
tematised collection of quotations as presented here. 

Whether or not he can be prevailed upon to give 
up his eccentricities is difficult to say. Being born in 
1861, he is too old for a radical change of character 
and too young still to be entirely unamenable. How 
he will develop if quietly left to himself it is difficult to 
say. Let us bear in mind that whole nations have passed 
through stages of almost incurable eccentricities ! And 
yet they overcame them, at least in part. We are 
still at work conquering some of the eccentricities of 
mankind, which the present generation has inherited 
from mediaeval times, and a public teacher is in this 
respect a wholesale alienist. The editor of this jour- 
nal, at least, sometimes feels like it when confronted 
with officially established absurdities, compared with 
which Mr. Brodrick's eccentricities are trifles. 

Mr. Brodrick being the living example of a man who 
arrived at the sincere conviction that he is Christ, nat- 
urally suggests a comparison between him and Jesus of 
Nazareth. But this comparison, as must be e.xpected, 
does not show Mr. Brodrick to advantage. While Jesus 
is a great figure, powerfully stirring the people of his 
age, and, through them, all -mankind, Mr. Brodrick is 
simply a curiosity, an anachronism, a phenomenon of 
mental atavism ; he is out of date and (as he is very 
well aware himself) can only appear ridiculous to his 
fellow-beings. How grand, simple, and yet pithy are 
the words of the Christ of the Gospel ! There is a 
moral spirit in them that touches to the quick. How 
poor is this modern "Son of Man," who has not one 
great tliought of his own ! Granted that he is pure of 
heart and sincere, he is lacking in those qualities 
which made Jesus the moral leader of mankind. Mr. 
Brodrick's best ideas are only distorted repetitions of 

his elder brother, whose shoe's latchet he is not worthy 
to unloose. 

That which constitutes the greatness of the Jesus 
of the Gospel is not his self-annunciations as Christ, 
but the moral contents of his preachings. 

There is a mythology woven about the historical 
Jesus, and David Friedrich Strauss has endeavored to 
explain it and to trace the mythical threads to their 
various origins. The labors of critical inquiry are of 
great value, but that which Christianity is most in 
want of at present, is not the negative work of a vivi- 
section of mythical figures, but a restatement of the 
mission of Christ in the light of modern science. The 
historical Christ is the spirit of Christianity, and the 
rise of the historical Christ announces a new era in 
the evolution of mankind. The historical Jesus, it 
appears, is one of the main factors that formed the 
historical Christ, and the mythological Jesus was one 
of the vehicles in which the historical Christ first took 
shape. The historical Christ, however, is a living 
presence even to-day, and the more we understand 
his mission, the less are we in want of any further in- 
corporations of Christ — in the sense of specially chosen 
instruments of God ; while on the other hand, as Dr. 
Lewins says in his article of this number : "Properly 
speaking we are all Christs, Sons of God." 


Considering that the Isthmus of Panama is on the American 
continent, and that we have a Monroe doctrine, although nobody 
knows what it is, it seemed rather unfair that all the profits of the 
Panama swindle should go to the statesmen of the French repub- 
lic, and none to the American owners of the Monroe doctrine, the 
diplomatic sandbag hitherto available whenever European govern- 
ments have attempted any enterprise on this continent. While 
that opulent stealing was going on, the Monroe doctrine, instead 
of ramping round as formerly, lay peaceful as a kitten on a rug, 
chloroformed into quiet by the French Commissary Generals of 
the Panama canal. It seems from the evidence obtained in France 
that we were not altogether cheated out of our honest dues, for two 
million four hundred thousand dollars was distributed in .America 
to keep the Monroe doctrine still. Our self-esteem increases when 
we learn that the French freebooters respected the vigilant guard- 
ians of the Monroe doctrine, and estimated their value at such a 
liberal sum. Like a blind man groping his way with a stick, Mr. 
Fellows, a member of congress from New York, offers a resolution 
calling for the appointment of a committee to find out who got the 

The long struggle over the office of United States Senator for 
Wisconsin has resulted in the triumph of Mr. Mitchell. This was 
inevitable, and according to the eternal fitness of things, for Mr. 
Mitchell owns many millions of dollars, and his proper place is in 
the United States Senate. His chief competitor General Bragg 
had nothing to recommend him but fame, services, and ability, 
therefore it was an act of presumption in him to aspire. It was 
thought by the innocents that on the break up of the Knight forces 
they would vote for Bragg, the poor man, but a person with no 
more foresight than a weather prophet might have known that 
most of them would flock to the rich man, as they did. One of 
them, voting for Bragg, said that he did so ' ' because the sentiment 



of nine tenths of the Democrats of Wisconsin is in favor of the sol- 
dier statesman General Edward S. Bragg. Therefore I vote for 
the choice of the people, for the choice of the democratic masses 
of the State of Wisconsin, General Edward S, Bragg." (Applause 
from the Bragg men.) Rarely do we see such a fine example of 
self-restraint. For thirty ballots, extending over three weeks of 
time, this eloquent advocate kept his enthusiasm down, and voted 
mechanically as a clock against " the soldier statesman, the choice 
of the people." It was very unkind in his colleague to remark in 
a taunting way, "Well, if you believed what you say, why didn't 

you vote for Bragg ? " 

* * 

A week ago, in speaking of the statute that compels an aspiring 
genius to get a "diploma" before beginning to practice law, I sug- 
gested that the rule might be beneficially expanded so as to require 
a man to obtain a diploma before venturing upon the business of 
law making, and before attempting to practice as a statesman. I 
desire now to offer another amendment requiring any candidate 
for judicial rank to obtain from some competent authority a cer- 
tificate showing that be is morally and mentally able to perform 
the duties of a judge. Such a regulation appears to be greatly 
needed, especially in Illinois. It is not pleasant for a citizen of 
this commonwealth to see the judiciary laughed at for its law, and 
condemned for its injustice. Long ago, one of the judges, now 
Governor of Illinois, showed in a book filled with evidence, that our 
jurisprudence is not only vacant of law, but also of that moral in- 
telligence without which not even the decisions of a Marshall or a 
Mansfield can be relied on. And now the Albany La^v Joiinial 
impeaches the Supreme Court of Illinois, and accuses that high 
tribunal of weakness, vacillation, inconsistency, and careless disre- 
gard of the Constitution and the law. The charge that the deci- 
sions are made by individual judges, instead of by the whole court, 
seems to be successfully denied by the clerk of the Supreme Court 
himself, who certainly ought to be believed ; but the other accu- 
sations yet remain. The decisions quoted by the Albany Lmo 
Jotirtial are so discordant, and so feebly reasoned, that they dimin- 
ish our confidence in the learning of the court, and in its judicial 
impartiality. The indecision of the decisions deprives the law of 
strength and symmetry. No suitor, however just he knows his 
cause to be, can depend upon the law. No lawyer, however confi- 
dent, can safely advise a client, 

* * 

As if to justify the censure of the Albany Law Journal, the 
Supreme Court of Illinois now reverses the judgment in the Cronin 
case, for errors which it sanctioned in the Anarchist case. By this 
reversal it has passed a solemn sentence on itself, and conjured 
ghosts out of the shades of Mannheim, and into the temples and 
mansions of Chicago. We may whistle aloud to keep our courage 
up, but in spite of our affected bravery a mysterious fear creeps 
over us, that, perhaps, after all, the so called anarchists were de- 
nied a legal trial by jury. If the latter decision is right, the former 
decision was wrong, and its consequences a tragic and melancholy 
mistake. This fear awakens the general conscience and finds ex- 
pression in the following words, which I quote from a leading pa- 
per in Chicago. Deploring the opinion in the Cronin case, it 
says: " An argument like this could easily have been made in the 
anarchist case, for there was an abundance of technical errors in 
that upon which a reversal might have been based. If there was a 
miscarriage of justice in the Cronin case for the reasons set forth 
in this opinion, th«re was also a miscarriage of justice in the an- 
archist case, and no other conclusion can be reached than that 
Spies and his fellow conspirators were judicially murdered." The 
inward, silent monitor that accuses us is neither to be deceived nor 
soothed by adjectives, and the "abundance of errors" cannot be 
exorcised by verbal incantations such as "technical." An illegal 
jury never was a merely technical error, but always a substantial 

wrong, especially in trials involving life or death ; but of course, 
in a time of mob frenzy and judicial anarchy a different rule pre- 

* * 

The "immigration'' question appears to be responsible for 
a great deal of "native" bad manners and inhospitality. It has 
become the fashion for men of words, especially at banquets, to 
lecture the ' ' foreigner " on his duties, and to complain of his ways. 
Those patrician censors are very superior persons. They cannot 
condescend, like the rest of us, to be equal fellow-citizens of this 
country, because they own the country, and mounted on their ora- 
torical stilts they patronise and criticise the foreigner in a very 
conceited and ungenerous way. Whatever he may do to please 
them, they are not satisfied. When he calls himself Irish, Ger- 
man, Scandinavian, or anything else, they tell him that he is dis- 
loyal to his adopted country, and that he ought to be an Ameri- 
can, and nothing but an American. When he adopts that advice 
and calls himself an American, they tell him that he is using false 
pretenses and that he cannot be an American, because he was not 
born in America. When he tries to compromise the difficulty by 
describing himself more fully as an Irish-American, or a German- 
American, the hyphen makes them swoon, and they drop into a 
feminine faint. Is there anything disloyal about a hyphen, which 
innocently helps to describe an American citizen who is by birth 
a foreigner ? Last week a New York American bearing the very 
Dutch and very honorable name of Roosevelt, spoke in Chicago at 
the annual banquet of the Hamilton Club on "Americanism and 
Immigration." With eloquent rage he pounced upon the "hyphen- 
ated American," and magisterially proclaimed who must not come 
into this country. Next year the Hamilton Club will invite him 
to come back and tell us who shall not stay. He would exclude 
the "uneducated"; a harsh proceeding, which might put Mr. 
Roosevelt himself in danger, if his description of America and the 
Americans is to be taken as a test of what he knows. He said : 
"America is more than a geographical expression, and Americans 
more than human beings who happen to inhabit a particular sec- 
tion of the world's surface." Only a very small fraction of that is 
true. To-be sure, there are a few Americans, like Mr. Roosevelt 
and the members of the Hamilton Club, who are "more than 
human beings who happen to inhabit a particular section of the 
world's surface," but the most of us are merely human beings who 
are called Americans, because we happen to inhabit that bit of the 
earth which is known in geography as America. Mr. Roosevelt 
further said that "America, as a nation, is to be regarded as an 
organic whole, indivisible itself, and sharply sundered from all 
others." This is such an extravagant mistake, that I cannot help 
thinking that "America" is a misprint for "China," of which lat- 
ter country the words of Mr. Roosevelt give a very fair descrip- 
tion. They are less applicable to America than to any other na- 
tion on the globe. There never was a country, not even Rome, 
so closely connected with all others as the United States is now. 

* * 

That a man ought to be a good citizen is plain enough, and it 
is well to tell him so, but our political schoolmasters of the Roose- 
velt order think that nobody but the foreigner needs exhorting, 
and that the native is always good. I am sorry to confess that I 
have many times detected foreigners engaged in political rascality, 
but in every instance I found some native Americans among them, 
directing operations and sharing in the spoils. Mr. Roosevelt has 
no doubt that the Americanism worn by him and the Hamilton 
Club is the genuine article, and that every other kind is counter- 
feit ; but, if we test it by the Declaration of Independence, by the 
Constitution of the United States, by the history and traditions of 
the American people we may find that it is not Americanism at 
all, but English Toryism covered all over with cobwebs, like old 
port of a vintage as far away as the reign of George the Third. 



At the Hamilton Club the members applaud sentiments which are 
as contemptuously anti-American as anything ever uttered at the 
Carlton Club in London, and I cannot accept from them as Ameri- 
canism of good quality the reactionary Toryism of Pall Mall. 
While they are lecturing the foreigner on his civic duties, they 
might profitably drop a patriotic word into the ear of the native, 
too. It is coming to this, that the foreigner, in order to satisfy 
his critics, must give up not only his political allegiance to his na- 
tive land, but also the sentiments, manners, thoughts, and cus- 
toms of his own people, and that natural allegiance of love and 
veneration which no good man ever withholds from the home of 
his forefathers. Mr. Roosevelt is separated from Holland by sev- 
eral generations, but has he no pride in the Dutch people from 
whom he sprung ; a people who have done greater things with 
smaller means than any other people under the sun ? I would not 
give much for the political allegiance to America of any foreigner 
who can renounce, as if it were an old coat, the natural allegiance 
which he owes to his native land. 

M. M. Trumbull. 

Life rolls on like a river. 
Purer, clearer, stronger. 

Love digs her channels ; ever 
Broader, deeper, longer. 

Still other mothers, we know. 
Busily will knit the stocking. 
Lovingly will do the rocking ; 

All as ours did long ago. 



She sits alone in her room ; 

She knits the livelong day. 
Or clasps her hands in the gloom ; 

Her thoughts are far away. 
'Tis dear old mother we know ; 

The same dear hands knit the stocking, 

The same dear foot did the rocking 
Of our cradle long ago. 

She's back in her mountain home, 

A loved one holds her hand. 
He says : "You are mine ; oh, come ! " 

She enters fairyland. 
Beautiful mother ! we know 

The same dear hands knit the stocking. 

The same dear foot did the rocking 
Of our cradle long ago. 

She hears the patter of feet, 

She kissed them every one. 
She works, they play in the street, 

Her work is never done. 
A busy mother, we know 

The same dear hands knit the stocking. 

The same dear foot did the rocking 
Of our cradle long ago. 

One by one, they go away, 

Ever in memory stored ; 
Same are dead — one brave son lay 

Where guns for freedom roared. 
A faithful mother, we know ; 

The same dear hands knit the stocking, 

The same dear foot did the rocking 
Of our cradle long ago. 

The heart she still loves lies cold ; 

She's near his empty chair. 
Her love will never grow old ; 

We kiss her silv'ry hair. 
Darling mother ! we know 

The same dear hands knit the stocking. 

The same dear foot did the rocking 
Of our cradle long ago. 



To the Editor of The Of en Court : 

I am not interested in The Open Court. Its name alone even 
without its expressed aim is enough to condemn it in the eyes of a 

To insinuate that religion — the religion of Christ — is a thing 
to be brought before the bar shows a sad ignorance of the word of 
revelation that tells us " the faith was once delivered," or a sadder 
unbelief of that revelation. 

A man might as well begin to inquire if he ever was made, as 
to examine and strive to find out the truth about God by reason. 
If God is a Spirit, the Infinite, the Almighty, the .adorable, how 
could man know much about Him unless it was revealed to him ? 
That God exists the Bible assumes (not attempts to prove) and 
man's consciousness attests. 

It seems to rae like an insult to send such a paper to a clergy- 

When I have become familiar enough with the Bible to under- 
stand its obscurer parts, to know under what circumstances each 
part was written, perfectly well posted on all its geography and 
history, I may have time to reconcile science, so far as it is not 
merely so-called science with it. 

I am afraid I have not written in a conciliatory spirit, so that 
you will hardly heed my request that you will make the Bible more 
your study, and literature less. If, however, you would do so and 
act upon what you find therein, you will not have the heart nor 
mind to sanction the utterly useless and debasing horrors of vivi- 
section. Truly yours, 

B. RoTHER Plymouth. 

[We respect every sincere opinion, and are glad to let every 
side be heard. It is strange, however, that our correspondent 
imagines that he represents the cause of Christianity. "To in- 
sinuate that religion, the religion of Christ, is a thing to be brought 
before the bar," he says, "shows a sad ignorance of the word of 
revelation," etc. Yet to insinuate that we should not inquire into 
the truth and reliability of that which is regarded as the most im- 
portant thing, denotes either a lack of religious interest or what is 
sadder still, of confidence in the truth of our religious convictions. 
Who ever saw truth afraid of being brought before the bar ? Truth 
need not mind and does not mind the closest scrutiny. Thus, he 
who stands up for truth will rather encourage than prevent in- 

Our correspondent advises us to study the bible. We have 
studied the Bible ; not only its geography and history, but also its 
spirit, and we must confess that we regard the Bible as far supe- 
rior to that orthodoxy which erroneously claims the biblical 
authority in its favor. 

Revelation and tradition are two different things A revela- 
tion of which we have no direct knowledge, but only the indirect 
information of traditions, is, as a matter of course, to be classed 
as a tradition. It is, first of all, the pretense of a revelation which 
has to prove its claims. 

It is expected that during the World's Fair all the various 



religions will hold public services. How shall we decide their re- 
spective claims except (as Jesus suggested) by their fruits ? And 
how shall we judge of their fruits, except by closest scrutiny and 
most exact, most rigorous, and scientific inquiry ? — Ed.] 


Socialism Exposed and Refuted. By th' Rev. I'ictoi- Cathrsin, 
S. J. A Chapter from the Author's Moral Philosophy. 
[From the German.] By the Rev. _/(7W<?.f Cowwaj', S.J. New 
York, Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Brothers. Pp. 164, 
75 cents. 
This booklet is a translation from a chapter of Cathrein's com- 
prehensive work on "Moral Philosophy." It was published sep- 
arately in the original German and met with a most cordial recep- 
tion. Five translations have already appeared, in French, Italian, 
Spanish, Polish, and Flemish. The English translation is the sixth 
one. Its German origin will be a sufficient explanation why the 
criticisms of the book are so little applicable to American life. 
Our conditions are so different, and having no Social Democracy, 
few people will understand the refutations hurled against its doc- 
trines. The author explains (in Chap. I) the nature of socialism as 
well as its development up to the time of the Erfurt programme, and 
avers (Chap. II) that the principles of socialism are untenable. He 
declares that there is no absolute equality of the rights of all men as 
demanded by socialism, that undue emphasis is given to the in- 
dustrial phase of life, and that human life is treated only from its 
temporal or earthly standpoint. The socialistic theory that value 
is created exclusively by labor is rejected, and liberalism is de- 
clared to be the root of the evil. The impracticability of socialism 
(Chap. Ill) is treated of in six sections. The author grants more to 
socialism than from the premises of the first part could be expected. 
He says : 

" We do not maintain that a social order, such as that devised 
by the socialists, involves a contradiction or is impracticable under 
all conditions. If men generally were entirely unselfish, indus- 
trious, obedient, filled with interest for the common weal, always 
ready to give everybody else the preference, and to choose for 
themselves the last and most disagreeable place — in short, if men 
were no longer men, as they are, but angels, a social order, ac- 
cording to the plan of the socialists, would not be impossible." 

Now, the experiment has been made repeatedly, not only sev- 
eral times of late in Amerida, but once almost 2000 years ago in 
Judea ; and we do not doubt that the first Christians who had all 
their goods in common, thus making a noble experiment from which 
later generations could learn, were truly religious, unselfish, seri- 
ous, diligent, obedient men, filled with the interest for the common 
weal, and yet they failed in their aspirations. 

We think it is strange that the Rev. Father does not even men- 
tion that Christianity in its very origin was socialism. If he had 
kept this fact in view, he might have judged the socialistic aspira- 
tions in a less unfavorable light. f. 


The German branch of the Society for Ethical Culture is now 
publishing a weekly journal, entitled Ethische Kitltur, the editor 
of which is Prof. George von Gizycki. The first number contains 
an editorial, explanatory of the aims of the society. " By 'ethical 
culture,' the society understands a state in which justice, truth- 
fulness, humaneness, and mutual esteem obtain," and an article by 
Professor Jodl answers the question Was hcisst elhische Kulttir ? in 
a similar sense. We believe in the necessity of preaching moral- 
ity, so we wish that the new society may prosper and do a good 
work. We do not believe, however, in the maxim proposed by 
the Society for Ethical Culture that ethics can be preached with- 
out regard to science, religion, and philosophy ; and this error of 

theirs has been pointed out at once by Prof. Ernst Haeckel, in 
Did Zukiinfl, and by Dr.Th. Barth, in an editorial of Die Nation. 
We fully agree with both critics ; and this is the reason why we 
have little confidence in the future of the societies of ethical cul- 
ture on this side as well as on the other side of the Atlantic. Never- 
theless, we trust that their good intentions are worth something, 
and their labors will not be entirely lost. Yet the main value of 
their work, it seems to us, lies in this, that the churches receive 
with this new competition a fresh impetus, which will strengthen 
the liberal, humanitarian, and moral elements in the churches, so 
as to overcome the old, narrow dogmatism. 





CONTENTS OF VOL. Ill, NO. 2, (JANUARY, 1^93, ): 

The Doctrine of Auta. By PROF. C. LLOYD MORGAN. 

Evolutionary Love. By CHARLES S. PEIRCE. 

Renan : A Discourse Given at South Place Chapel, London. By MONCURK 

Intuition and Rfason. By CHRISTINE LADD FRANKLIN. 
Cruelty and Pity in Woman. By GUILLAUME FERRERO. 
Panpsvchism and Panbiotism. EDITOR. 
Literary Correspondfnce. 

1) Fiance— LUCIEN ARREAT- 

2) Germany— CHRISTIAN UFER. 
Criticisms and Discussions. 

Book Reviews. 


Terms of Subscription : S2.00 a year, post-paid, to any part of the United 
States, Canada, and Mexico; to foreign countries in the Postal Union, S2.25; 
single numbers, 60 cents. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



Trumbull 3543 



A MODERN CHRIST, Editor 3545 

CURRENT TOPICS : Was the Monroe Doctrine Bribed ? 
Rich Men for the Senate. Diplomas for Judges. The 
Cronin Case and the Anarchist Case. Spurious Ameri- 
canism. Natural Allegiance and Political Allegiance. 
Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3547 


The Dear Old Hand. G. L. Henderson 3549 


No Tribunal for Religion. [With Editorial Comments.] 

B Rother Plymouth 3549 


NOTES 3550 


The Open Court. 



No. 285. (Vol. VII.— 6.) 


J Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



The small but trul)' fraternal prandial meeting in 
Anderton's Hotel, London, to welcome Dr. Carus was 
not in anything special in regard to somatic comest- 
ibles but has certainly proved remarkable as a feast of 
reason and a flow of soul — to this day the reason is to 
the fore, and the soul is still flowing. 

My capable friend F. J. Gould reported for T/ie 
Agncstii- Joiinial ihe speeches of Dr. Carus and myself 
on the festive function at Anderton's. Dr. Carus re- 
produced Mr. Gould's transcript in the columns of his 
excellent hebdomadal. The Open Court ; and my gifted 
friend, Amos Waters, has contributed an illuminative 
article on " Agnosticism vs. Monism " to that journal ; 
and now Dr. Carus himself has cogently and cour- 
teously traversed the report of my speech which he 
had reproduced. It is with one or two of the learned 
Doctor's comments and strictures upon my position, 
or his conception of it, I now propose to briefly deal. 

i) Dr. Carus, joining issue with my thesis that phi- 
losophy is not dependent upon natural science, con- 
tends that it is dependent ; and, in support of his con- 
tention, observes : 

" Aristotle was a first class naturalist. Familiarity with the 
results of science is less important to a philosopher than to be 
versed in the methods of inquiry, Yet who would deny the great 
influence of natural science upon Aristotle's philosophy," 

I fear the appeal to Aristotle is not altogether for- 
tunate. The less stress laid upon Aristotle's natural 
science the better. Lewes, in his "Aristotle," fully 
exploits the character of the ' 'Science " of the Stagirite. 
Even giving full weight to Dr. Carus's pertinent ob- 
servation that "familiarity with the results of science 
is less important to a philosopher than to be versed in 
the methods of inquiry" hardly renders his appeal to 
Aristotle more valid, unless the Doctor contend that 
astrology involves the scientific "method" and that 
alchemy and the pursuit of the elixir of life and the phi- 
losopher's stone involve the exact and positive research 
and codification implied in modern scientific inquiry. 

But in support of my contention that philosophy 
owes little or nothing to natural science, Aristotle's 
philosophy proper is not obsolete, but significantly ex- 

tant. His physics is abrogated ; but what essential ad- 
vances have been made upon \{\s metaphysics, his ethics, 
or his logic, which is the most perfect analysis of 
thought of which human mentality is capable ! Many 
have dealt with, but no one has as yet actually devel- 
oped the logical system with which he dowered the 
world. And scientist or not, in his general world-con- 
ception, Aristotle arrived only at the same result as 
the non-scientific Socrates with his dcemoji and Plato 
with his deific intuition. The God of Aristotle is only 
that of Socrates and Plato arrived at by another venue ; 
God is with him the logical completion and unity of 
his system of thought, the One, the Totality in which 
the multiplicity of ideas reach their necessary consum- 
mation in Unity, in the Monos of the school of Dr. 
Carus, in the Unknown the Unconditioned Absolute of 
the agnostic. Even grant that Aristotle was the first 
scientific philosopher, in his world-synthesis he did 
no more than endorse the finding of his unscientific 
predecessors. So much for the evidence that philosophy 
is dependent upon science. 

2) I am reported as having said : " Where science 
and philosophy break down, we require religion." To 
this proposition Dr. Carus writes : "Here I must re- 
spectfully differ. " And here /must respectively ask 
for information. Dr. Carus's monism is ostensibly 
"devoted to the work of conciliating religion with sci- 
ence." Trul}' a most laudable work to be devoted to. 
But what has hitherto restrained me from unreservedly 
endorsing the monistic doctrine is, I have never been 
able to clearly discover where the "religion " came in, 
although of the "science" we have had quantum suff. 
To me, but if I am wrong I earnestly desire to be put 
right. Dr. Carus's reconciliation of religion and science 
is the proverbial reconciliation between the lion and 
the lamb, effected by the latter lying down inside the 
former. If religion does not come in where science 
and philosophy can minister no further to intuitional 
aspiration, I much want to know where it does come 
in. Dr. Carus must, perforce, admit that it comes in 
somewhere or he would not devote his able journal to 
the task of reconciling it with science. 

3) Dr. Carus states : "God in my opinion is the 
reality which surrounds us and of which our very being 



consists." Granted. This is all very well in a He- 
gelian regard. But how does the learned Doctor who 
challenged my statement of the inadequacy of the five 
sensesyfwi/ this God ? Is, with him God the obverse 
of his brain-processes ? lie tells what, in his opinion, 
God is, but how, by his method, does he reach him ? 

4) Evidently it is by no third faculty, apart from 
sense and reason, as posited by Max Miiller that Dr. 
Carus finds God ; and yet, from the following in his 
stricture upon my speech he alleges that he cannot 
only find the infinite, but "understand" it. 

" Even the infinite is a conception which is as plain or even 
plainer than anything finite. Ask a mathematician whether man 
possesses besides sense and reason a third faculty, ' the faculty of 
apprehending the infinite.' The mathematician will inform you 
that reason is quite sufficient to understand the nature of the in- 
finite ; and that if such a third faculty existed its reality should be 
doubted if indeed it were in a certain sense contradicted by sense 
and reason. If reason were contradicted by sense, or sense by 
reason, in what a sorry plight would science be ?" 

Is it possible that my learned friend is more con- 
cerned for his darling "science" than for truth? If 
the inevitable conclusion of the eternal verities go 
against "science" who cares whether she be "in a 
sorry plight" or not? If reason aspire to "under- 
stand " the infinite, the reasonable will expect to find 
her in "a sorry plight." 

5) Since reason is so potent it is important to know 
what Dr. Carus means by reason. His definition we 
may gather from the following : 

"Mr. Ross mistakes my position when he says that I 'would 
exclude .... everything which does not appeal to the five senses 
and approve itself to the sensational school.' Mathematics is a 
science from which all sense elements have been excluded, and 
logical arguments appeal to reason, not to the five senses." 

Now this "reason" is, according to Dr. Carus the 
faculty by which we can, not apprehend, mark you, but 
"understand" the infinite. Reason evolves the pro- 
cesses of mathematics "a science from which 2\\ sense 
elements have been excluded." Dr. Carus thinks that 
at last he can proceed independently of the five senses 
upon which I opined he laid undue stress. Even here 
I doubt if the learned Doctor has shaken himself clear 
of his besetting inctibi, the senses. It has been pointed 
out by Bain that all reach marches of deduction are 
material, and that even the highest mathematical sym- 
bols themselves are more or less material, in their way. 
Pure form is unthinkable. Surely any student of the 
living processes of thought as worked out by Spencer 
or Bain, who talks of reason operating " upon the 
basis of the laws of form " speaks for the study, not 
for the world of reality. The "laws" are, at best, only 
verbal formulae. 

5) To me there is, near the end of Dr. Carus's 
criticisms upon my position, a passage from which I 
have derived much satisfaction. The Doctor writes : 

" The ultimate aim in which all feelings may be represented 
to find satisfaction, may be sought in infinity it may be called God 
or Theos, it may be characterised as an illusion or an ideal, that 
much is certain that the elements of our soul, the feelings out of 
which the hjiman mind grows, are yearnings. Reason does not 
create these yearnings ; they are facts ; they are the data of our 

This, after all, from the pen of Dr. Carus, the 
Monist, looks like a forcible expression of a statement 
I, the Agnostio, have insisted upon, in varying forms, 
times without number. The five senses, however, and 
the scientific method he advocates, do not form the 
entire basis for the " feelings," to which the Doctor 
here refers, and which in disregard of his own set 
processes, he introduces per saltiim, over his own head, 
as it were, to complement his own monistic world- 
theory. It seems to me that, after pursuing an incor- 
rect method, his intuition, which he would fain ignore, 
is so keen that he abandons his incorrect method and 
at a bound reaches the correct result. If "reason 
does not create these yearnings," then there is, as 
Max Miiller contends, something beyond reason after 
all ; and Dr. Carus himself uses it for a purpose much 
akin to Dr. Miiller's apprehension of the infinite. 

To show that in this last quotation I do not un- 
fairly catch Dr. Carus making an inadvertent admis- 
sion, let me give his corollary : 

" There is a truth in Saladin's position which I do not wish to 
deny, and there is a truth too in the sentences quoted from Max 
Miiller and from Tyndall ; but I should express it differently. I 
should say : The religious sentiment is now the same as it was in 
the days of Job ; we feel attracted by a power that, mystically 
speaking, loves us with an everlasting love and therefore with lov- 
ing kindness is drawing us. The yearning of our soul, which is 
unlimited, unfathomable, infinite, is a power 'independent of 
sense and reason,' and 'neither sense nor reason are able to over- 
come it, while it alone is able to overcome both reason and sense.' 
For this yearning is the master, sense and reason are his servants. 
Sense and reason stand in the service of the will. They are his 
torch-bearers and illumine his path. 

" Monism, as it is upheld in T/n Open Court, does not exclude 
the sacred promptings of the religious instinct ; on the contrary, 
it includes them ; nay, more so. The Open Court is the work of 
these promptings. The founder of The Open Court, in spite of all 
the accusations of narrow-minded bigots who call him a pagan and 
an infidel, because he carries the torch of reason into the dark 
chambers of religious dogmatism, is of a deeply religious nature. 

" The religion of Tlie Open Court, however, (mine no less than 
Mr. Hegeler's, ) does not originate in the breakdown of science and 
philosophy, but it permeates and is permeated by science and phi- 
losophy. The more science we have, the purer, the grander, the 
truer will be our religion. If science and philosophy should break 
down, our religion would break down with them. Science and 
philosophy are inseparable from religion, and religion could not 
exist without them." 

Of course religion, from its ethical side, may run 
pari passu with science and philosophy, as indicated 
by Dr. Carus ; but religion in the unity of its force, as 
the yearning and passionate at-one-ment of the soul 
with the All, comes in with its solution where, as I 



contended, science and philosophy break down. 1 do 
not hold that if "science and philosophy should break 
down, religion would break down with them"; al- 
though, of course, if civilisation were to break down, 
the expressions and symbolisations of the religious 
sentiment would degenerate. 

Dr. Cams arrives at what are essentially my own 
conclusions; but, it appears to me, he so arrives not 
by his scientific method, but in spite of it. He leaps 
out of the chariot of his choice and outruns it. He 
says philosophy "inquires into the subjective and ob- 
jective conditions of cognition." But, if philosophy 
do so, in tlie very act it becomes metaphysic, as now 
understood by our advanced thinkers. The study of 
the conditions of knowledge is metaphysic, as Von 
Hartmann himself observes. Even Dr. Carus's study is 
metaphysical, as he so far transcends the phenomenal 
as to believe in extra subjective material objects, which 
subsist whether perceived or not. A true positive 
thinker must not soar beyond his data. The Doctor 
gets to what I submit is the proper goal, but only 
through treason to his own positive method. 

I am grateful to my critic for the, for him, rather 
ample formulation of the "religion" he seeks to recon- 
cile with science. But I earnestly invite him to say 
more, and I assure him, if he will do so, he will 
be better understood, on this side of the Atlantic at 
least. I submit that discursive thinking, with its con- 
ceptual abstractions, has nothing to do with the pure 
religious feeling. Religion, in one aspect, is akin to 
poetry, and the art-emotions generally. It is not 
thouglil, but felt. But besides its emotional, it has its 
intellectual side or aspect, and here I am willing to 
concede to my acute critic that philosophy may inter- 
vene. Religion in this aspect has been defined as 
"philosophy speaking naively." Schelling argued for 
a coming creed which should weld religion, poetry, 
and philosophy into one. Dr. Carus, in one or two 
points he has touched, has, by suggestion, opened up 
so wide a field that I have had to place myself under 
considerable restraint to prevent my being drifted 
away into regions only remotely bearing on the dis- 
cussion at issue. I have not been able to do more 
than honestl)' try to touch upon and elucidate one or 
two salient headings, with a view to letting my es- 
teemed critic and myself respectively know for cer- 
tain what we respectivel}- mean. And it does seem 
that after all, though we do work out the proposition 
with a different nomenclature and with a different dia- 
gram, we arrive at practically the same result, the 
same monistic and divine solution of the Problem of 

I have been encouraged to write freely by the con- 
sciousness that I was dealing with a thinker, who, de- 
spite his philosophic reputation and his recognised 

acuteness as a dialectician, is above all a simple, ear- 
nest, and unprejudiced truth-seeker, independent of 
school or cult ; and with the view that truth may be 
elicited, and utterly oblivious of any considerations of 
either personal triumph or defeat, I have written as 
freely and fraternally as I spoke when I was by his 
side at the festive board at which this friendly com- 
parison of opinions originated. 



Says the esteemed editor of The Agnostic Jonrnal 
in his rejoinder concerning religion : 

"Besides its emotional, it has its intellectual side or aspect, 
and here I am willing to concede to my acute critic that philosophy 
may* intervene. Religion in this aspect has been defined as ' phi- 
losophy speaking naively.' 

This, it appears, is the main difference between 
him and myself. He says may while I say must. Phi- 
losophy, science, experience, reason, all the best meth- 
ods of inquiry at our command must be called upon to 
guide our feelings and our religious enthusiasm. Re- 
ligion is not identical with science ; religion is the en- 
thusiasm of applying that knowledge, of whose truth 
and potency we are unwaveringly convinced, to prac- 
tical life. Science is in many respects opposed to and 
very different from religion ; for science is of the head 
and religion is of the heart. Yet science and religion 
should keep abreast with each other. They should be 
allied. One should be the complement of the other. 
Schiller says in his " Philosophical Letters " : 

" Lasst uns hell dcnkcn, so Tverden wirf^itrig lieben.'^ 

There is a close connection between thought and 
feeling, so close that the tenor of our feelings will also 
have its effects upon our thought and vice versa. Only 
he whose heart is hopelessly chilled by ill will or egot- 
ism, will be little benefited by the enlightenments of 
science. Science may help to show him the futility 
of ill-will and the irrationality of egotism, and thus 
slowly cure him of his irreligious disposition. But 
upon the whole Faust's words will remain true : 

"IVcnn Ihy's nichtfUhlt, Ihr werdffs nicht crjagen." 

That this, my view of rehgion comes in per saltum 
is new to me. I see no break in my logic ; I have made 
no use in the least of intuitive faculties ; I have simply 
employed the usual methods of reasoning. 

* * 

The question of the relation of religion to science 
is the salient feature of our controversy. There are, 
however, a few additional points of minor interest, 
concerning which a few remarks will not be out of 

* Italics are ours. 



i) No doubt Aristotle's physics is abrogated. But 
can there be any doubt that Aristotle acquired his in- 
sight into the methods of science by actually pursuing 
scientific studies ? Aristotle's physics are not abro- 
gated in the sense that his investigations in natural 
science were never of value. On the contrary, they 
were of great value ; and later inquirers used them, 
modified them, added to them, and sifted them. 

2) The dainicm or dainioiiion of Socrates is histor- 
ically not well ascertained, and of course for the pres- 
ent issues it matters little whether or not Socrates 
claimed to have special informations through a daimoii 
and also whether or not Plato believed he had received 
any knowledge by a deific revelation. 

3) Concerning the adequacy or inadequacy of the 
five senses, I should say that our senses are quite ade- 
quate to our present purposes. We might have ac- 
quired other senses, an electrical sense, etc., and might 
be better off if we had it. I doubt it, but I gladly 
concede the possibility. 

Sensation is the beginning of all experience ; but 
our experience contains other elements besides the 
sensuous. The world of things consists not only of 
matter, but matter appears in definite forms, and these 
forms make the things what they are. The analogous 
world of sensations also does not consist of feeling 
alone. The various feelings possess certain forms and 
present various inter-relations. Man is able to view 
the formal element of his experience apart from the 
feeling element. He can think in abstracts, and can 
acquire an insight into the mechanism of his thought. 
Reason is nothing but a name for this mechanism of 
combining and separating, and recombining, the vari- 
ous elements of our experience. Reason accordingly 
is not an additional sense ; reason is something quite 
different from the purely sensuous. Reason is the 
method of handling our ideas. 

4) Reason, as practically applied, deals with ma- 
terial objects, but pure reason so called is engaged 
with purely formal concepts. Thus, in pure mathe- 
matics the material element is excluded by abstrac- 
tion ; its object being purely formal. Pure form is not 
unthinkable, although we grant that pure forms as such 
have no real and separate existence. 

5) Science being the search for truth, how is it 
possible that truth can come in conflict with science ? 
Should we find out that the results of our scientists 
are wrong, their science so called would be proved to 
be a pseudo-science, and we shall have to establish 
another and truer science upon better foundations. 
From my standpoint eternal verities can never go 
against science or flourish upon the wrecks of science. 

6) The term metaphysics is used in various senses. 
I do not use it in the sense in which Mr. Ross does. 

If it is metaphysical to soar above the data which 

we have, every logical inference leading us by the 
laws of thought from the known to the unknown, from 
given facts to other facts, viz. to the facts inferred, 
and thus widening our sphere of knowledge, would 
also be metaphysics. This is certainly not the accepted 
usage of the term. 

As to my belief in extra- subjective material objects, 
I do not reach them in any metaphysical way. First, 
I deny that the data of experience are purely subject- 
ive. The data of experience are subject- object rela- 
tions; and thus, secondly, I maintain that both ideas, 
the subjective as well as the objective, are reached by 
abstraction. I do not assume the reality of objects, 
but I define a certain quality of my experiences as real 
or objective. This may appear to the old-fashioned 
idealist as an evasion of the problem. But in fact it 
is simpi}' the recognition that the idealistic problem is 
a self-made puzzle.* 

The last point I have to make is a short reply to 
the question : 

"He tells what, in his opinion, God is, but how, by his 
method, does he reach Himf" 

God (as I conceive God ) is not a concrete thing or 
an individual being. Thus, God cannot be recognized 
by sense-experience. God is a certain quality of ex- 
istence, being that feature of reality which enforces a 
definite conduct. The idea of God, accordingly, is a 
very abstract and complex thought. Briefly defined, 
God is the ultimate authority of what is generally 
called moral rules. Being an abstract idea, God can 
be reached only by reason. Take away a man's rea- 
son, and he loses the faculty of thinking God. 

Must I add that the ability of thinking God is dif- 
ferent still from the religious sentiment of loving God 
and doing his will ? The will of God is, in our opinion, 
only a religious way of speaking of "the moral com- 
mands." It is not sufficient that we understand the 
moral commands, we must also comply with them, and 
the more we comply with them willingly, unhesitatingly, 
and with our whole heart, the better it will be for us. 

I conclude by expressing my sincerest thanks to 
Mr. W. Stewart Ross for the interest he takes in Tlie 
Open Court and for the amiable inclination he shows, 
in spite of our difference of standpoint, to appreciate 
and understand our work. This disposition, I can 
assure him, is mutual. p. c. 



"The sabbath was made for man." — Mark ii : 27. 

In the Bible are two accounts of the origin of the 
sabbath. Genesis, second chapter, tells us that the 
seventh day was made a sabbath, because Elohim, the 

* For further details see my review of Avenarius's book, ( The Monist, Vol. 
U, p. 453,) and my article. The Origin 0/ Mind, in The Monist, Vol. I, p. 6g, 
republished in The Soul of Man, pp. 36-37. 



gods, rested on that da}' after the weary work of crea- 

Deuteronomy, or the second law, fifth chapter, tells 
us that it was instituted and to be observed in com- 
memoration of the deliverance from Egyptian bond- 
age ; and it appears that no trace of its Hebrew ob- 
servance can be found from Moses to Josiah, a thou- 
sand years after the escape from Egypt ; and the book 
of Deuteronomy, according to the best Bible scholars, 
was written in Josiah's time. This was undoubtedly 
the book mentioned in II Kings, xxii : 8-12, where 
Hilkiah, the high-priest, says: "I have found the 
book of the law in the house of the Lord." The book- 
doubtless had its origin at that time. 

If neither of these disagreeing accounts of the 
origin of the sabbath are to be taken literally, can 
others be suggested ? 

Astronomy is the oldest of sciences, and some of 
the planets, as well as "Orion, Arcturus, and the 
Pleiades," were early known by the shepherd ances- 
tors of the Jewish people. And the phases of the 
moon, which take place weekly, could not have been 
unnoted. The division of time into years, months, 
days, and also into weeks, is a natural division, and 
so the sabbath is a nature day, to which we, who hold 
a natural and not an artificial religion, may, if we will, 
lay special claim, as we may to summer, autumn, and 
other nature festivals. 

And, observe, the fourth commandment does not 
require observance of the seventh day of the week, but 
the "seventh day" after six of labor upon which a 
community had previously practically agreed. It does 
not say the seventh day of the week, and we now ob- 
serve the first, needing no authority for taking a differ- 
ent day from that observed by the Jews. The sabbath 
was long used as a day for sacrifice and special service 
to Yahveh. It was his day and not man's. 

Since the Reformation two views, one the stringent, 
puritanical view, and a second, more liberal one, have 
obtained on the continent throughout Europe. Accord- 
ing to the strict view children must put away all play- 
things Saturday night and not touch them on Sunday ; 
nor hardly might they smile that day. They must go 
to church twice and endure two long, dry sermons. 
The day, interpreted in accord with the legendary 
idea that the Lord once struck a man with instant 
death for gathering a few sticks thereon, was the 
gloomiest of all the days, dreaded by the children, and 
even good deacons were glad when it was gone. 

Jesus held the more liberal views, which were the 
first to get him into trouble with the Sabbatarians. 
They said ; "We know this man is not of God, for he 
keepeth not the sabbath." 

Then he enunciated a new principle, saying : " The 
sabbath is not God's day more than others ; the sab- 

bath was made for man." Had it been God's day, 
"man" had been made "for the sabbath," as they 
supposed. The sabbath view that oppresses man 
must be wrong. 

Sabbath means rest, and our labor agitators may 
take comfort in the idea that perhaps it originated in 
a labor movement for fewer days ! Certainly the labor- 
ing man who does not defend it, does not know the 
right use of it. 

It certainly should be a day of rest for all who toil 
and can therefore appreciate rest. This rest is not se- 
cured alone by sleep. Rest comes b}' change — change 
of clothing, change of scene, — and by seeing worthy 
sights, in museums or in fields, and by hearing dis- 
courses properly presented. Some people excuse 
themselves from church attendance, because they want 
rest, but are more weary after a day of lounging. They 
forget that ideas — if there chance to be any in the ser- 
mon — and interchange of friendly greetings are rest- 
ful. Even the shaking of hands is restful. 

The sabbath is a day for every good work. It is a 
day to inspire men, and for men to be inspired by dis- 
cussion of the great and important subjects connected 
with every branch of reform. It is a day to forget our 
care and remember our neighbor who needs us. There 
remains, therefore, for us a keeping of the sabbath. 
All religions have their holy days, and we of the na- 
ture religion have ours. 

We also have our holy days, and indeed we have 
more than others. Have you one holy day in every 
week? I have seven. Paul says, (Rom. xiv : 5,): 
" One man esteemeth one day above another ; another 
esteemeth every day." All the days are holy. Have 
you fifty two holy daj's in a year? I have three hun- 
dred and sixt3'-five or six, in which I may not think 
any impure or dishonest thought, much less do any 
impure or dishonest deed. Have you six days, or one 
day, one hour, or one minute in which you may, — I 
will not say do the unhol)' thing, — but even think the 
unholy thought? That one minute may be your ruin ; 
for it is in those little beginnings of the minutes, shel- 
tering shallow and unseemly thought, that the work of 
ruin gets its starting place. But for that one unholy 
minute in the start, the note had not been forged, the 
theft had not been committed, virtue had not been se- 
duced. The burglary, the arson, the murder, all had 
their origin in an unhol}' minute. 

He who is not content with a religion of tradition, 
but aspires to the religion of nature, must have all 
days holy. 

Remember, "the sabbath was made for man." 


Stimulating as a drink of morning bitters, the scheme to an- 
ne.\ Hawaii excites .\raerican politics, and our statesmen, intoxi- 
cated by patriotic ambition, get ready to steal and fight. A dozen 



residents of Hawaii, men of money, interested in the American 
sugar bounty, enter into a conspiracy with outside speculators and 
make a revolution in Liliput. They depose the queen, declare 
themselves a provisional government, and beg the powers at Wash- 
ington to steal the Sandwich Islands, and then annex them polit- 
ically to the American republic Without waiting for the ambas- 
sadors, or caring to hear the case, our Jingo politicians hurriedly 
sanction the revolutionary plan, under the plea that "if rot' do not 
seize this opportunity, England will." How comes it that wTien 
territory is likely to be stolen, the suspicion of the civilised world 
immediately falls upon two Englishmen, the Englishman of the 
United States, and his kinsman in Great Britain ? It is corrobora- 
tive evidence against both of them that they instantly suspect each 
other. Neither of them fears that a larceny of the Sandwich 
Islands will be attempted by Russia, Japan, China, Germany, or 
France. By signs of mutual distrust they justify the opinion of 
mankind that if the islands are to be stolen at all, the stealing will 
be done by one of those Englishmen or the other. Before the 
spark that brought the revolutionary news was cold, Mr. Chandler 
offered a resolution in the Senate, looking to annexation, and he 
was eagerly assisted by Mr. Dolph, of Oregon, who said : "The 
time has arrived for a well-defined aggressive American policy." 
Why should we be ' ' aggressive " ? Aggressive persons are a neigh- 
borhood nuisance. One of them is enough to impair the comfort 
of a whole block, while three of them can depress the value of a 
street. Mr. Dolph thinks that "the time has arrived" for the 
American republic to make itself "aggressive" and a universal 
nuisance, the champion prizefighter among nations. 

* * 

The ethics of international piracy is now advocated with re- 
ligious fervor by the politicians and the press. In this morning's 
paper I find a sermon on that subject, preached by a moralist who 
has for a long time lived in the Sandwich Islands, and, speaking 
with authority, he says ; " The natives are incapable of self-gov- 
ernment." This argument was inevitable ; it has always been the 
excuse of strong governments for the oppression of the weak ; and 
in the present instance it ignominiously fails. The depravity of 
the "natives" is additional proof that their country ought to be 
taken from them, and their wickedness is thus described : "The 
'Kanakas' are a clever, interesting, gentle people. They are not 
lazy exactly, but act as though the earth belonged to them by 
right, and that others lived on it by sufferance." The latter part 
of this description applies more correctly to some other people 
than to the " Kanakas," for those poor natives have never claimed 
that any part of the earth excepting the Sandwich Islands "be- 
longed to them by right," and certainly that much of their claim 
is good. If we take their country from them, that bit of the earth 
will belong to us by wrong. Another reason for abolishing their 
nationality is this: "If they think you want something very much, 
they will charge extravagant prices for it." This weakness has a 
strong resemblance to the English and the American way of doing 
business, and it is excellent evidence that the " Kanakas" are not 
"incapable of self-goverment." "But," says the moralist, "if 
you admire that self-same thing and comment on its beauty, they 
will give it to you." This courtesy never was learned from the 
English or the Americans, but it suggests a plan worth trying. 
Instead of stealing the country, or buying it, let us admire it and 
"comment on its beauty." Then, perhaps, those "clever, gentle, 
interesting people " will give it to us for nothing. 


* * 

I am well aware that in discussing the World's Fair Sunday 
closing question I am threshing some old straw over again ; but as 
the threshing still goes on in spite of me, I think that I have as 
much right as anybody el'e to take a hand at the flail. My text 
will be found in the testament according to Charles Dickens. 
" Little Dorritt," Chapter III. Arthur Clennam has just returned 

from France to London. It happens to be Sunday evening, and 
as there is no place open that he cares to go to, he sits in a deso- 
late room at the tavern and hearkens to the cling-clang of the 
church-bells, calling the people to prayer. Listening wearily, he 
translates the language of the chimes as the tramp Whittington 
did when, resting on the mile-stone, he heard the very same bells 
talking to him like poetry, and saying, "Turn again, Whittington, 
Lord Mayor of London " : 

" Mr. Arthur Clennam sat in the window of the coffee house on Ludgate 
Hill, counting one of the neighboring bells, making sentences and burdens of 
songs out of it in spite of himself, and wondering how many sick people it 
might be the death of in the course of a year. As the hour approached its 
changes of measure made it more and more exasperating. At the quarter it 
went off into a condition of deadly importunity, urging the populace in a vol- 
uble manner to Come to church. Come to church, Come to church. At the ten 
minutes it became aware that the congregation would _^e scanty, and slowly 
hammered out in low spirits. They won't come. They won't come. They won't 
come. At five minutes it abandoned hope and shook every house in the neigh- 
borhood for three hundred seconds with one dismal swing per second as a 
groan of despair." 

Not altogether of despair, for the bells had sweet revenge. 
They had the power of saying to the laggard people, " If you will 
not come here, you shall not go there. We have closed all the good 
places in the city except the churches, because we fear not the 
competition of evil, but only the rivalry of good " That is the 
sentiment of the churches in Chicago now ; and up there in the 
steeples we can hear the threat of discordant theologies warning us 
that if we will not come to church we shall not go to the Exposi- 
tion. One step farther backward brings us to the law that com- 
pelled the people to go to church whether they would or no. During 
the war I had in my command a regiment of colored soldiers, and 
amongst them was a sergeant who had been a baptist minister. 
While we were stationed at Fort Smith he started a revival that 
lasted several days. He got many converts from the negroes round 
about, and he baptised them in the river. Among them was a 
zealous woman who did good service in singing, praying, and ex- 
horting ; but her own son, George Washington, was obdurate. 
Either he would not, or he could not get religion. Out of all pa- 
tience with him at last, his mother made a loud appeal to the 
minister, and said, "Sergeant, take dat good for nufEn George 
Washington by de scruff o' de neck and baptise him anyhow." I 
cannot help thinking that if the man who will not allow me to go 
to the Exposition on Sunday could have his own way, he would 
coax me to church "by de scruff o' de neck" and baptise me any- 

* * 

A motion for a rehearing of the Lake Front case has been filed 
in the Supreme Court of the United States by the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, which motion will very likely be denied, not 
on its merits at all, but for the insurmountable reason that the 
Supreme Court never grants a rehearing unless one of the judges 
who concurred in the decision expresses a doubt as to his own wis- 
dom ; and this of course he never does. Whether the property in 
dispute was owned by the city of Chicago or by the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad was the question, and it conspicuously seems as if 
seven "distinguished jurists" ought to have easily agreed in solv- 
ing so simple a conundrum ; but no, four of them thought it be- 
longed to the city ; and the other three decided that it belonged to 
the Railroad ; as nearly a tie vote as you could get without cutting 
one of the judges into two halves ; in which case, no doubt, one 
half of him would have decided for the city, and the other for the 
railroad. The motion offers many "legal" grounds for a rehear- 
ing, but carelessly enough, the common sense reason that the court 
was as evenly divided as it is possible for seven men to be, was not 
presented at all. In the Solomon-like wisdom of the law, the opin- 
ions of the minority count for nothing ; all the property in dispute 
goes to the city, and ethically, this appears to be unfair. I once 
tried a case in Marbletown concerning a kiln containing one hun- 

the: open court 


dred thousand brick, the ownership of which was disputed by two 
men. The jury after being out all night, came into court and re- 
ported that they were unable to agree ; that they stood seven to 
five, and would stand that way until the burning lake ' ' froze over. " 
I then proposed that as my client had a majority, we divide the 
one hundred thousand brick between the litigants, seven twelfths 
for my man, and five twelfths for the other. This was agreed to. 
and when the division came we had another law suit over the frac- 
tion, because neither of the claimants would accept a broken brick, 
and it was mathematically necessary to break a brick in order to 
make the division arithmetically exact. I merely mention the cel- 
ebrated Brick-Kiln case to illustrate a principle which ought to 
govern in the Lake Front case. As there were seven judges, four 
on one side, and three on the other, equity requires that the prop- 
erty in dispute be divided according to the judicial ratio, four sev- 
enths to the city, and three sevenths to the railroad. 

In spite of evidence to the contrary, envious persons, and even 
some of the Chicago papers, persist in slandering the city by re- 
tailing the stale calumny that the gambling houses are running 
" wide open," and that gambling in all its " hydra- headed " forms 
is flourishing in Chicago with the assistance and connivance of the 
police. It is a pleasure to contradict that libel, the falsity of which 
is proved by the following item which I quote from the Herald of 
to-day. "Officer Steve Rowan raided a crap game last night in 
the east corridors of the city hall. Twenty-five Italian newsboys, 
fifty cents in coppers and a ' come-seven-eleven ' outfit were the 
results of the raid." The success of this courageous raid upon a 
formidable gang of gamblers proves the vigilance and efficiency of 
the police. Not only that, it is hardly more than a month since a 
dashing raid was made by the police on a den of Chinese laundry- 
men. On that occasion the guardians of the city morals caught 
no less than ten Chinamen down in a cellar in the very act of play- 
ing ' ' bung loo, " for stakes amounting to as much as thirteen cents. 
All this proves that gambling in Chicago has been effectually 
" stamped out," because it stands to reason that the police would 
not suppress "come-seven-eleven" or "bung loo," and allow the 
gilded hells of the city to flourish on the profits of poker, faro, and 
roulette. M. M. Trumbull. 


International stealing is as bad as private stealing, but I can- 
not help thinking that there is somewhere a flaw in the idea that 
the annexation or conquest of a country is to be regarded under 
all circumstances as robbery, and that aggressiveness is once for 
all to be condemned. 

Taking possession of a country may be robbery, but it need 
not be. Those who hold property without a perfect title become 
in time real owners, ' ' by right of prescription, " as the phrase runs, 
on the condition that they do so in good faith. But stolen goods 
can never become the legal property of the thief. If conquest or 
annexation were to be classed as stealing, the thieves would be 
obliged to give up their stolen possessions. 

What a confusion would arise from this maxim ! To begin 
with ourselves, we should have to rehabilitate the redman in the 
possession of this country. The Norman aristocracy of England 
would have to give their titles and lands to their Saxon tenants. 
The Saxons again would have to yield their claims to the Britons, 
whom they providentially exterminated. That, however, is appar- 
ently no reason for leaving the lands in the possession of the Sax- 
ons, unless we accept the rule (sometimes adhered to in practical 
life) that the more paltry the offence, the severer the punishment, 
the greater the crime the higher the reward. 

If General Trumbull's idea were correct, and if humanity had 
always acted according to the rules of peaceful and inoffensive 
morality, where would civilisation be to-day ? The hunter would 

probably never have yielded his rights to the tiller of the soil, and 
progress would have become an impossibility. 

The fact is that struggle is an essential factor of progress, and 
the power of holding one's own is an indispensable attribute of 
the right of possession. The claims of the Indian to this country 
amount to about the same thing as the claims of the Bourbons to 
France, or the Guelfs to Hanover ; that is, their claims are simply 
ridiculous so long as they lack the power to uphold them. 

The better man has to prove his right of existence by sur- 
vival. He must not only be better in his own eyes, or from some 
idea! standard of a lamb-like, goody-goody morality, which avoids 
offence and keeps peace for the sake of peace, he must also be 
stronger. This is true of inventions of new institutions, of whole 
civilisations, of world-conceptions — in brief, it is true generally. 
Every step in advance must be struggled for and has often to be 
made under great sacrifices, not only of those who identify them- 
selves with the cause of progress, but also of those who advocate 
conservatism and are destined to be losers in the fight. 

Whether or not Hawaii is to be annexed, whether or not we 
have a right to either annexing or conquering it, whether or not 
annexation would only promote the interests of a few private per- 
sons, we do not presume to decide, for we are not sufficiently in- 
formed about all the details of the problem. We only wish to 
state that the grounds upon which our friend and contributor con- 
demns an aggressive policy are, in our opinion, insufficient. 

And truly if aggressiveness were reprehensible, how divided 
would the sentiments of those be who, like ourselves, are delighted 
with the undaunted, vigorous spirit which we are wont to find in 
General Trumbull's "Current Topics." If aggressiveness were a 
sin in international politics, would it not be a sin also in the world 
of authors and journalists ? Are not General Trumbull's remarks 
so pungent, pithy, and invigorating because he himself is a staunch 
wrangler for progress, freedom, and justice ? The truth is that the 
combative nature of the Saxon is extraordinarily strong in him, 
and it would be a great pity to eradicate it together with the aggres- 
sive spirit of international politics. p. c. 


The Rights of Women and the Sexual Relations. By Karl 
Hcinzen. Preface and Postscript by Karl Schmemann. Sec- 
ond Edition. Price, cloth Si. oo ; paper 50 cents. Detroit: 
Karl Schmemann. 
Despite the jests of newspaper paragraphers, the solemn warn- 
ings of the clergy, and the conservatism of courts, the rights of 
women remain a living issue. It must be met, and it cannot be 
adequately met by jokes, protests, or judicial appeal to precedents. 
Rights are radical, and the plea for them must therefore be made 
from a thorough radical standpoint. This is the great advantage 
of the plea made for women by Karl Heinzen in his book above 
mentioned. The character of the author appears in his writing, 
and what that was may be known from his motto : " Learn to en- 
dure everything, only not slavery ; learn to dispense with every- 
thing, only not with your self-respect ; learn to lose everything, 
only not yourself. .\11 else in life is worthless, delusive, and fickle. 
Man's only sure support is in himself, in his individuality, resting 
in its own power and sovereignty." Here, then, was a man who 
had little respect for authority in matters of opinion. What he 
thought he said with directness, and with indifference to the preju- 
dices which might be offended. "Besides, he was a writer who 
knew how to wield his pen as none of his German contemporaries 
in this country ; who as none else, knew how to express his thoughts 
in the most pregnant, incisive, and energetic form — a master of 
pure classical style," quoting the words of the publisher of the 

He opens up his subject with an historical review of the legal 
position of women from the age of savagery, and in this illustrates 



the origin of the circumstances which have hedged them round 
and kept them in one degree of slavery or another ever since. 

From this review of the history of woman the author passes 
into the heart of his subject and discusses the nature of marriage, 
what constitutes it, etc. He is dealing with obstinate vices, and 
he goes at them with energy, convinced that the first thing to do 
is to destroy them. Consequences he would leave to take care of 
themselves. He believes that nature will take care of itself if left 
alone. He denies that it is inherently bad, and holds that it has 
been made so because of the restraints upon it. 

Summing up his teachings, Heinzen says, women must see 
that ' ' their degradation is founded on the rule of force, the rule of 
money, the rule of priests. It must, therefore, have become clear 
to them that they cannot depend on an improvement of their lot 
before the liberty and right of all men have been attained, the ex- 
istence of all men have been secured, and the essence and dignity 
of all men have been recognised in purely human conceptions. 

Everything that they can be and can wish for depends on these 
three points : their liberty, their rights, their dignity, their social 
position, their marital happiness, their love, their education, their 

Women must enter the ranks of the revolution, for the object 
is the yer'olution of humanity .^^ x. 


An interesting article in the Century for February entitled 
"Preliminary Glimpses of the Fair," by C. C. Buel, makes refer- 
ence to the part played by cranks in life. Mr. Buel says : 

"As was to be expected, the fair has attracted the indigenous 
and numerous American " cranks," as well as foreign persons with 
mental and moral crotchets These, and also youthful geniuses, 
have besieged, personally and by letter, the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. A few examples will indicate how much of human nature 
as it really is will not be on exhibition at the fair : An American 
was early in the field with a divine revelation of the site which had 
been foreordained for the fair when the foundations of the world 
were laid, and an Englishman has desired to be put on exhibition 
as the Messiah. Two boys " of respectable parentage " in western 
New York have offered to walk to Chicago, and to camp on the 
Exposition grounds with the purpose of illustrating the life of 
tramps, and of lecturing on its vicissitudes. Another boy of six- 
teen recommended that a number of nickel-in-the-slot phonographs 
fixed to repeat amusing fish stories might be placed in the Fisheries 
Building and about the grounds ; he urged that a royalty on the 
suggestion would enable him to help his widowed mother. An en- 
terprising dealer in cosmetics asked space to exhibit an old woman, 
one half of whose face was to be smoothed out with his prepara- 
tion and the remainder left with its mortal wrinkles until the end 
of the fair, when he would smooth out the other half in the pres- 
ence of the multitude. The parents of a "favorite orator" of six 
years offered his services as introducer of the chief orator at the 
dedicatory ceremonies, which would, they thought, lend emphasis to 
the portentous importance of the occasion. A mathematician [sic !] 
asked for standing-room where he might show the world how to 
square the circle. Out of Indiana came a solver of perpetual mo- 
tion ; he was informed that space could not be alloted for the ex- 
hibition of an idea, so he would have to bring on his machine ; 
later he informed the committee that his self-feeding engine, which 
had been running a sewing-machine, had unfortunately broken 
down, " but the principle remained the same." A Georgian asked 
for a concession to conduct a cockpit, and another son of the South 
knew of a colored child which was an anatomical wonder, and 
could be had by stealing it from its mother ; for a reasonable sum 
he was willing to fill the office of kidnapper. Innumerable freaks 
of nature have been tendered ; and the pretty English barmaid has 
in several instances inclosed her photograph with an offer of assist- 

ance to the fair. A very serious offer came from a Spaniard, who 
had been disgusted with the weak attempts to give bull-fights in 
Paris during the recent exposition. . He offered to fill the brutal 
void at the Columbian fair if he could be assured the privilege of 
producing the spectacle "with all his real and genuine circum- 

Whether or not the managers have succeeded in keeping the 
cfank out, remains to be seen ; for there are voices heard in Chicago 
that some cranks have even been smuggled into the headquarters 
of the fair, and that especially the World's Fair Auxiliary is full 
of them. 

The February N'ew England Magazine opens with an excel- 
lent description, by William Morton Payne, of the literary awak- 
ening in Chicago, with a commentary upon the most notable lite- 
rary characters who have made their reputations there. The 
article is well illustrated. "There are many indications of an in- 
tellectual development near at hand that will give to Chicago a 
prominence porportioned to her wealth and population," writes 
Mr. Payne. "Two causes in particular are going to operate 
powerfully in bringing about this result. Within a very few years 
Chicago will be the second, if not the first, library centre of the 
country. The Public Library, the Newberry Library, the Crerar 
Library, and the University Library will be four of the largest 
and richest collections of books in the United States, and their 
combined influence will attract scholars of all sorts from all direc- 
tions. The new University of Chicago, just opening its doors to 
the public, begins its career with an equipment of men and means 
that place it at once in the front rank of educational institutions, 
and it cannot fail to have a leavening influence upon the whole 
community. It does not seem unreasonable to think, in view of 
these facts, that Chicago, having sufficiently astonished the world 
by her commercial prosperity, is preparing a final astonishment in 
the form of an intellectual development that will overshadow her 
material achievements, until of her, in Mr. Ruskin's phrase, 'It 
shall not be said, 'see what manner of stones are here,' but 'see 
what manner of men.' " 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


THE MONISTIC METHOD. W. Stewart Ross 3551 


Editor 3553 

HOLY DAYS. The Rev Perry Marshall 3554 

CURRENT TOPICS : Annexing Hawaii. Inteinational 

Piracy. Sunday Closing of the Fair. A Divorce Court. 

Gambling Suppressed. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3555 


Editor 3557 


NOTES 3558 



The Open Court. 



No. 286. (Vol. VII— 7.) 


j Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



What is science? The dictionary will say that it is 
systematised knowledge. Dictionary definitions, how- 
ever, are too apt to repose upon derivations ; which is 
as much as to say that they neglect too much the later 
steps in the evolution of meanings. Mere knowledge, 
though it be systematised, may be a dead memory ; 
while by science we all habitvall}' mean a living and 
growing body of truth. We might even say that knowl- 
edge is not necessary to science. The astronomical 
researches of Ptolemy, though they are in great meas- 
ure false, must be acknowledged by every modern 
mathematician who reads them, to be truly and genu- 
inelj' scientific. That which constitutes science, then, 
is not so much correct conclusions, as it is a correct 
method. But the method of science is itself a scien- 
tific result. It did not spring out of the brain of a be- 
ginner : it was a historic attainment and a scientific 
achievement. So that not even this method ought to 
be regarded as essential to the beginnings of science. 
That which is essential, however, is the scientific 
spirit, which is determined not to rest satisfied with 
existing opinions, but to press on to the real truth of 
nature. To science once enthroned in this sense, 
among any people, science in every other sense is heir 

And what is religion? In each individual it is a 
sort of sentiment, or obscure perception, — a deep rec- 
ognition of a something in the circumambient All, 
which, if he strives to express it, will clothe itself in 
forms more or less extravagant, more or less acci- 
dental, but ever acknowledging the first and last, the 
A and D., as well as a relation to that Absolute of the 
individual's self, as a relative being. But religion can- 
not reside in its totality in a single individual. Like 
every species of reality, it is essentially a social, a pub- 
lic affair. It is the idea of a whole church, welding 
all its members together in one organic, systemic 
perception of the Glory of the Highest, — an idea hav- 
ing a growth from generation to generation and claim- 
ing a supremacy in the determination of all conduct, 
private and public. 

Now, as science grows, it becomes more and more 

perfect, considered as science ; and no religionist can 
easily so narrow himself as to denj' this. But as re- 
ligion goes through the different stages of its history, 
it has, I fear we must confess, seldom been seen so 
vitalised as to become more and more perfect, even as 
judged from its own standpoint. Like a plucked 
flower, its destiny is to wilt and fade. The vital sen- 
timent that gave it birth loses gradually its pristine 
purit)' and strength, till some new creed treads it 
down. Thus it happens quite naturally, that those 
who are animated with the spirit of science are for 
hurrying forward, while those who have the interests 
of religion at heart are apt to press back. 

While this double change has been taking place, 
religion has found herself compelled to define her po- 
sition ; and in doing so, has inevitably committed her- 
self to sundry propositions, which, one by one, have 
been, first questioned, then assailed, and finall)' over- 
thrown by advancing science. Seeing such a chasm 
open before her feet, religion has at first violently re- 
coiled, and at last has leapt it; satisfying herself as 
best she might with an altered creed. In most cases 
the leap has not seemed to hurt her; yet internal in- 
juries may have been sustained. Who can doubt that 
the church really did suffer from the discovery of the 
Coppernican system, although infallibility, by a narrow 
loophole, managed to escape? In this waj', science and 
religion become forced into hostile attitudes. Science, 
to specialists, ma}' seem to have little or nothing to 
say that directly concerns religion ; but it certainly 
encourages a philosophy which, if in no other respect, 
is at any rate opposed to the prevalent tendency of 
religion, in being animated by a progressive spirit. 
There arises, too, a tendency to pooh-pooh at things 

It would be ridiculous to ask to whose fault this 
situation is chargeable. You cannot lay blame upon 
elemental forces. Religion, from the nature of things, 
refuses to go through her successive transformations 
with sufficient celerity to keep always in accord with 
the convictions of scientific philosophy. The day has 
come, however, when the man whom religious expe- 
rience most devoutly moves can recognise the state of 
the case. While adhering to the essence of religion. 



and so far as possible to the church, which is all but 
essential, say, penessential, to it, he will cast aside 
that religious timidity, that is forever prompting the 
church to recoil from the paths into which the Gover- 
nor of history is leading the minds of men, a cowardice 
that has stood through the ages as the landmark and 
limit of her little faith ; and will gladly go forward, 
sure that truth is not split into two warring doctrines, 
and that any change that knowledge can work in his 
faith can only affect its expression, but not the deep 
mystery expressed. 

Such a state of mind may properl}' be called a re- 
ligion of science. Not that it is a religion to which 
science or the scientific spirit has itself given birth ; 
for religion, in the proper sense of the term, can arise 
from nothing but the religious sensibility. But it is a 
religion, so true to itself, that it becomes animated by 
the scientific spirit, confident that all the conquests of 
science will be triumphs of its own, and accepting all 
the results of science, as scientific men themselves ac- 
cept them, as steps toward the truth, which may ap- 
pear for a time to be in conflict with other truths, but 
which in such cases merely await adjustments which 
time is sure to effect. This attitude, be it observed, 
is one which religion will assume not at the dictate of 
science, still less by way of a compromise, but simply 
and solely out of a bolder confidence in herself and in 
her own destiny. 

Meantime, science goes imswervingly its own gait. 
What is to be its goal is precisely what it must not 
seek to determine for itself, but let itself be guided by 
nature's strong hand. Teleological considerations, that 
is to say ideals, must be left to religion ; science can 
allow itself to be swayed only by efficient causes ; and 
philosophy, in her character of queen of the sciences, 
must not care, or must not seem to care, whether her 
conclusions be wholesome or dangerous. 


There is no limb or organ of the human body which 
is entirely separated from the rest or leads an inde- 
pendent existence ; and in the same way, there is not 
one action or operation or domain of operations in 
man's being which can be regarded as disconnected 
from his other activities : for man's entire activity 
constitutes one interconnected whole. Thus, when we 
speak of science and religion, of art or of ethics we 
create certain artificial boundaries more or less defi- 
nitely determined, but which do not constitute separate 

Science may briefly be characterised as the search 
for truth, and religion as a certain conviction regulating 
our conduct. Now whenever the result of thought or 
inquiry is of such a nature as to be a conviction which 

serves as a norm of our moral life, a scientific idea has 
become a religious ideal. 
Says Professor Peirce : 

"Teleological considerations, that is to say ideals, must be 
left to religion ; science can allow itself to be swayed only by effi- 
cient causes ; and philosophy, in her character of queen of the 
sciences, must not care, or must not seem to care, whether her 
conclusions be wholesome or dangerous." 

Certainly, when we search for truth we must not 
approach a problem with a foredetermined conclusion. 
Scientists and philosophers must make their inquiries 
without any anxiety about theconclusions to which their 
results will lead. In this way alone truth will be found. 
But to say that "teleological considerations," that is 
to say, ideals "must be left to religion" is in so far 
incorrect as we cannot dispense with science as a critic 
of our ideals. We cannot by mere religious sentiment 
determine whether or not an ideal is truly feasible, 
practical, and advisable. There are some ideals so- 
called which closely considered are mere dreams or 
mirages, and to pursue such will-o'-the-wisps would 
not only be a loss of time but might even lead us into 
danger. If there is anything that must be subjected 
to the most rigorous critique of an unbiased inquiry 
into truth, it is our teleological considerations. If our 
purposes, plans, and ends are not in concord with the 
real state of things, we shall soon find our position to 
be very difficult. And this is true not only of our busi- 
ness enterprises when we attend to affairs which seem 
to concern merely ourselves and our own well-being, 
but also and even more so of our religious convictions 
which serve us as guides for the regulation of our moral 
relations to our fellow beings and to mankind in gen- 
eral, including the future of the human race. 

We can nowhere, neither in practical life nor in our 
religious sentiments and convictions, dispense with a 
rational inquiry into truth ; that is to say, religion is 
inseparable from science. p. c. 



An important discovery has been made within this 
century by writers of history. The discovery consists 
in the recognition that the "personal adventures of 
kings and nobles, the pomp of courts and intrigues of 
favorites," "drum and trumpet history" in short, is 
not so vital a subject for investigation and record as 
the manifold quiet, common incidents of that "con- 
stitutional, intellectual, and social advance in which 
we read the history of the nation itself." 

A corresponding discovery awaits recognition in 
literature. In the coming of the people to their own 
in literature, as in government, consists the real event- 
fulness of the time. If literature is to deal with this 
it must paint it in the imaginative glow that belongs 



to it as truly as it ever belonged to knightl}' adventures 
and media-val coils, or to edifying specimens of aristo- 
cratic sighs and smiles. In the day when feudal ideals, 
or aspirations of the rnil'/cssc, and proprieties of the 
bourgeoisie were timely, literature shaped itself to fit 
and to lead the best impulses of the people. These 
old-time ideals are not dead while they live in their 
appropriate literature and body forth the impress of 
man's growth : but if they are to be echoed forever in 
modern books, present-time ideals will become as 
dead, and current literature will be able to tell the 
future of nothing but its clever pedantry. If literary 
advance is still to be an intimate and necessary part 
of life, then the annalist of the inner experiences, the 
emotions and desires of the race, must follow the his- 
torian along the path that leads away from the throne 
and up and down among men of all sorts and condi- 
tions. To trace the beginning and development of 
the new power of the commonalty in the intellectual 
life will be more to the point than to furbish up repre- 
sentations of literary art in affected imitation of meth- 
ods grown archaic. 

Writers have not been lacking who have felt the 
stirring of the new impulse and sought to show it 
forth, but they have lacked public comprehension of 
their purpose and appreciation of their bold new art. 
For almost no critics have yet contemplated a method 
of criticism that would take account of new literary 
phenomena. At each original work they are stag- 
gered. They look at each other and shake their aca- 
demic curls and sneer. They can measure any new 
phenomenon only by rods cut the length of certain safe 
old patterns, and if any one venture to say: "But 
these measures do not fit," they howl against the im- 
pious impudence that claims superiority over classic 
standards, regardless of the fact that the true conten- 
tion is not for superiority, but for difference and adapta- 
tion to the time. And so, in an age when the critic, 
such as he is, is omnipresent, intervening everywhere 
between authors and readers, and when, therefore, he 
might hold a more useful office than ever before, his 
increased influence is turned against literary progress 
instead of towards it. Does any one know of any long- 
established periodical in this country which does not 
throw its weight backwards instead of forwards? Mr. 
Howells, indeed, has ventured to doubt the present 
propriety of antique literary canons ; he has lifted up 
a single voice, gainsaid by other pages of the maga- 
zine he served, and a flood of malevolent personalities 
has come down upon him in lieu of counter-argument. 

Our need is not only a literature true to the Pres- 
ent, however enriched by the Past, for we have had 
signs of that, here and there, in contemned pioneer 
writers, who yet have made their way against the 
pricks; we need, also, a new criticism that will recog- 

nise the fact and the good of evolution both in literary 
subject-matter and in literary art. If hesitating critics 
with scholarly prejudices lack originality enough to 
find the right criterion for new literary portents or can- 
not relate these new portents rightly and without con- 
tradiction to the Past that bred the Present and all its 
witty inventions, then a new race of critics must arise 
who can. As old history must have new historians 
and new methods when the centres of civil life shift, 
so the old literature, with the new that has grown out 
of it, must have new critics and new criteria when it 
is evident that the corresponding centres of literary 
life also have shifted. For the existence of a new 
ideal is, virtually, a new fact. Towards it civilisation 
tends, no matter under what obstacles it pursues its 
way, no matter in how few heads the dream dwells, or 
how crazy most heads think those few heads are. It 
implies, necessarily, the formation of a new literature. 
Former methods in authorship and in hterary criticism 
were of a piece with the government and manners of 
a lapsing society. Exclusiveness was their distinguish- 
ing mark. Inclusiveness, on the other hand, — inclu- 
siveness for the sake of thorough knowledge, complete 
experience, and the fit and timely freshly energised 
ideal — must be the beacon of the democratic movement 
in literature and in literary criticism. 

When the new ideal of cosmopolitan or democratic 
brotherhood is accepted, every original phase of art, 
whether in subject-matter or workmanship, will have 
a right to receive due consideration as such ; and every 
nation will have a claim to let its poets and expressers 
contribute their share to the commonwealth of literary 
life and world-experience. A criticism of literature 
which shall be a criticism of the life in literature is in 
prospect from this mount of observation. Within the 
limits of the old, aristocratic, narrowly patriotic sys- 
tem, on the other hand, the critic's eye is shut, and 
the mouth of him open only to eulogy of picked men 
and properly selected subjects and to the exact label- 
ling of styles according to set standards. All talents 
outside the line must be ignored as barbarous, or pa- 
tronised as foreign ; and philological study of the clas- 
sics may be indulged, in order to stick a feather in the 
cap of the specialist, to which end, also, there may be 
an endless threshing of the old straw of texts, techni- 
calities and antiquarianisni, but all quite bare of vital 
relation to the present wants of a democratic world. 

So, also, it is in literature itself, in creative litera- 
ture, that is, considered apart from criticism : if the new 
ideal of the separate worth and development of each 
individual integer of the social sum-total be accepted, 
then new literary territory must be added to the old 
domain of art. Everybody has a right to be found, or 
to be made, interesting in a democratic era. But the 
"process of the suns" towards this equality has been 



long. Literature tells the tale of growth towards it 
even more clearly than history, for it shows not ques- 
tionable facts alone, but that which is more trust- 
worthy — the state of thought. In a drama of the first 
rank, in India, only gods could be the dramatis pcr- 
sothc and only mythological tales could constitute the 
plot. Demigods and mortal heroes of war and con- 
quest were admissible in stories of a lower order. The 
play in which the common people were introduced be- 
longed in the lowest grade. In early European litera- 
ture the conquering hero, son of the gods, or miracu- 
lously befriended by them, was the master-theme of 
the minstrelsy which ministered to his social pre- 
eminence. The unreality and wonder of the inter- 
play in poesy of gods with heroes magnified the deed 
the bard celebrated in the interest of his liege lord, 
and set it aloof from the every day life of the unchron- 
icled and unprivileged classes. Not only the spacious- 
ness and perspective of the Greek theatre made the 
mask and the cothurnus requisites of the stage; the 
conventional notions of beauty they subserved helped, 
also, to conserve the old order, civil, religious, and 
literary. It was undermined by such touches of real- 
ism, such allusions to matters of common experience — 
to everyday talk and manners — as that dangerous fel- 
low Euripides introduced in his versions of time-hon- 
ored myths. The revolutionary moral and social ideals 
that lay at the root of Euripides's innovations were 
buried in the Roman conquest and the darkness of the 
Middle Ages. They emerged again, strangely enough, 
in the popular approach English literature made in 
Shakespeare towards the literary artist's command of 
the real. Mixed though this splendid popular art was 
with real and mock euphuism and with other aristo- 
cratic literary freaks and class obeisances, its distinc- 
tion above the other work of the time lay in the 
breadth of its realism. Yet this humanisation of art 
got no further by way of the stage in England. The 
Latin supremacy that entered by way of the universi- 
ties stifled originality and freshness. The Shake- 
spearian heir-apparent, prophesying anew of the "mar- 
vels of the real," was born at last in the novels of 
Dickens and George Eliot. . Fresh ranges of subject- 
matter, new modes of treatment congenial with mod- 
ern ways of living and thinking are the tokens of this 
new-old power of humanised art. 

In the golden days of caste, demi-gods and courtly 
heroes wore the crown the story-teller weaves. Now, 
various sorts and conditions of men may make up the 
body of subject-matter, literary and poetic, as they 
make up the body politic. Under the prevailing theory 
of civil society no one is privileged to receive consid- 
eration as a theme of art merely on the score of super- 
ficial attributes — "^i,ooo a year and good gifts." 
The creative attention of the artist cannot be refused 

to one whose condition is altogether unblessed exter- 
nally. Inquiry must go deeper, below surfaces, whether 
promising or unpromising. So, indeed, has it always 
penetrated in the best creative literature of every 
period. But deeper yet must be the literary insight, 
and more freshly constructive the literary art which 
shall use the time and sift it with the energy derived 
from it. Nothing may be scorned, nothing may be 
accepted, all must be proved, all 

" virtues, methods, mights. 
Means, appliances, delights. 
Reputed wrongs and braggart rights. 
Smug routine and things allowed ; 
Minorities, things under cloud." 

Artists and critics alike may understand that the 
new literary task will need their utmost force and fire. 
For it requires not less but more imagination and 
spiritual control to portray and put in vivid action the 
genuine regal power of the commoner undistinguished 
by the conventional badges of kingship; and it takes 
not less but more culture and critical acumen to per- 
ceive and enjoy the uncrowned good in contempora- 
neous tendencies. 



If those theories be sound, according to which 
each planet during its extreme youth is as a sun, glow- 
ing with fervent heat, and in extreme old age is like 
our moon, cold, (save where the sun's rays pour upon 
it,) even to its very centre, we should regard the vari- 
ous portions of the middle age of a planet as indicat- 
ing more or less of vitality, according as the signs of 
internal heat and activity are greater or less. As- 
suredly, thus viewing our earth, we have no reason to 
accept the melancholy doctrine that she is as yet near 
the stage of planetary decrepitude. She still shows 
signs of intense vitality, not, indeed, that all parts of 
her surface are moved at the present time by what 
Humboldt called "the reaction of her interior. " In 
this respect, doubtless, changes slowly take place, the 
region of disturbance at one time, becoming after 
many centuries a region of rest, and vice versa. But 
regarding the earth as a whole, we have every reason 
for believing that she has still abundant life in her. 
The astronomer who should perceive, even with the 
aid of the most powerful telescope, the signs of change 
in another planet, (for instance, Mars, our nearest 
neighbor among the superior planets,) the progress of 
the change being actually discernible as he watched, 
would certainly conclude that our planet was moved 
by mighty internal forces. While mountain ranges are 
being upheaved, or valleys depressed, race after race 
are living out their life on earth, and underground 
subterranean forces are still engaged upon their great 
work. Mountain ranges are being raised to a differ- 



ent level, old shore-lines shift their places, table-lands 
are being formed, great valleys are being scooped out, 
whilst the sea advances in one place and recedes in 
another. Nature's plastic hand is still modelling and 
remodelling the earth, making it ever a fit abode for 

In an article on "Great Earthquakes," written b}' 
my father in the year 1885, he remarked as follows : 

" We have had such remarkable evidence during the last ten 
or twelve years of the energy of the earth's internal forces, that 
many are asking whether the earth's vitality has not of late been 
increasing rather than dying out, as had been supposed, or rather 
whether her normal vitality has not for a while changed into fever- 
ish disturbance. If we consider, however, the real nature of the 
processes which are going on in the earth's interior, (so far as the 
evidence enables us to judge,) we shall see that while on the one 
hand there is no reason to expect any recognisable loss of energy 
in periods so short as a tew thousands of years, there is, on the 
other, no reason to fear any great accession of subterranean activ- 
ity. In former times, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes were 
attributed to internal fires, generating from time to time great 
volumes of gas and vapor, (steam, in particular, was recognised as 
a potent disturbing factor,) by which, at length, the resistance of 
the crust was overcome, and an outlet of escape found for the im- 
prisoned gaseous and molten matter, the crust rending as the out- 
l^nrst was effected. While we still recognise internal heat as the 
immediate cause of subterranean movements, we recognise as the 
cause of this heat the energy pervading the earth's mass. It is the 
earth's attracti\e energy, steadily acting upon her crust, which 
generates the heat by which that crust is disturbed. ' By virtue 
of this force, [as he pointed out in a number of TVu' Conliinporai-y 
Rez'ie-ii, published during the year' 1884,] the crust of the earth is 
continually undergoing changes, as the loss of heat and consequent 
contraction, or chemical changes beneath the surface, leave room 
for the movement inward of the rock-substances of the crust, with 
crushing, grinding action, accompanied by the generation of in- 
tense heat.' Thus, so long as the force of gravity continues to 
have matter to act upon efficiently, the earth's vitality will con- 
tinue. The force of gravity itself will last forever, we may be 
well assured, but as the matter of the earth's crust is steadily 
drawn inward, terrestrial gravity will have less and less work of 
contraction to do, and the earth will show less and less of that 
kind of vitality which is shown by earth-throes. But the amount 
of contraction taking place in a year, or in a life-time, or even in 
the life-time of a nation or a race, is so small that it might be re- 
garded almost as nothing. The earth's vitality is apparently the 
same now as it was a thousand years ago, and as it will be a thou- 
sand years hence." 

Earthquakes and volcanic disturbances are the out- 
ward and visible signs of the inexhaustible vitality 
within the earth's crust. For several centuries Ve- 
suvius was at rest before the great outburst nearl}' two 
thousand years ago, when the crater, supposed to have 
been extinct, suddenly sprang into new life, and since 
then it has sometimes been at rest for more than a 
century, and at other times in active eruption many 
times in twenty years. During the years 1S83 and 
1884 foolish prophecies were promulgated, respecting 
the perihelion passage of the giant planets, the inter- 
nal passages of the great pyramids, and other such 
absurdities. But there have been far worse years than 

1883 and 1884. Consider the year 17S4 for example. 
The Grimmers of those days, (for these gloomy proph- 
ets are always with us, ) pointed out that surely now at 
last their predictions of the world's coming end were 
about to come true — after a few thousands of years of 
failure. Not to mention an extraordinary number of 
minor earthquakes, six thousand lives were lost in a 
single shock in Armenia, and in Iceland a volcano 
flung forth from fifty to sixty millions of cubic yards of 
lava and scoriae. Not only was there a widespread de- 
struction throughout the soutli-east parts of Iceland, 
but the very depths of the sea were invaded. Flames 
broke forth through the sea- waves, and the sea was 
covered with pumice for more than a hundred miles 
from the shore. Iceland was covered by a thick canopy 
of ashes for a year, and atmospheric currents carried 
the ashes over Europe, Asia, and America. "The 
very sun was darkened, and showed only as a ball of 
fire," says Gilbert White, of Selborne, "while, through- 
out the year, frightful hurricanes and tremendous 
thunderstorms prevailed in such sort, that many be- 
lieved the world was coming to an end." 

Yet a century has passed, and the world still rolls 
on undestroyed. 

In an article read at the Academy of Sciences, at 
Paris, on January 30th, 1870, by M. St. Meunier, ref- 
erence was made to the time when the air and ocean 
must pass away, when all living creatures on the earth 
must perish, and how the final desolation of the earth 
shall come about. 

' ' At present, the interior of our planet is described as a molten 
fluid, with a solid crust outside. As the world cools down with 
age this crust will thicken and crack, and crack again as the lower 
part contracts. This will form long, narrow chasms of vast depth, 
which, like those of the moon, will traverse without deviation the 
mountains, valleys, plains, and ocean-beds; the waters will fall 
into these, and, after violent catastrophes arising from their boil- 
ing by contact with the hot interior, they will finally disappear from 
the surface and become absorbed in the pores of the vastly thickened 
earth-crust, and in the caverns, cracks, and chasms, which the 
rending contraction will open in the interior. These cavities will 
continue to increase, will become of huge magnitude, when the 
outside crust grows thick enough to form its own supporting arch, 
for then the fused interior will recede and form mighty chasms, 
that will engulf not merely the waters, but all the atmosphere 

At this stage the earth will be a middle-aged world 
like our moon : but as old age advances, the contrac- 
tion of the fluid beneath the outside solid crust will 
continue, the rainures will increase in length, depth, 
and width, as M. St. Meunier maintains they are now 
growing on the moon. This must continue till the 
centre solidifies, and then these cracks will reach the 
centre, and the world will be split through in frag- 
ments, corresponding to the different rainures. Thus 
we shall have a planet composed of several solid frag- 
ments, held together only by their mutual attractions ■ 



but the rotatory movement of these will, according to 
the French philosopher, become unequal, as the frag- 
ments present different densities and are situated at 
unequal distances from the centre. Some will be ac- 
celerated, others retarded, and others again will rub 
against each other and grind away those portions 
which have the weakest cohesion. The fragments thus 
worn off will, "at the end of sufficient time, girdle with 
a complete ring the central star." 

At this stage the fragments become real meteors, 
and then perform all the meteoric functions, except- 
ing the seed-carrying theory of SirW. Thomson; "the 
hypothesis, that life originated on the earth through 
moss grown fragments of another world." 

Sir W. Thomson has calculated "that the earth 
must have solidified at some time a hundred millions 
or two hundred millions of years ago ; and there we 
arrive at the beginning of the present state of things, 
the process of cooling the earth, which is going on 
now. Before that time it was cooling as a liquid, and 
in passing from the liquid to the solid state, there was 
a catastrophe which introduced a new state of cooling. 
So that by means of that law we come to a time when 
the earth began to assume its present state. We do 
not find the time of the commencement of the uni- 
verse, but simply of the present structure of the earth. 

If we went further back we might make more cal- 
culations and find how long the earth had been in a 
liquid state. We should come to another catastrophe, 
and say at that time, not that the universe began to 
exist, but that the present earth passed from the gas- 
eous to the liquid state. And if we went still farther 
back, we should probably find the earth falling together 
out of a great ring of matter surrounding the sun and 
distributed over its orbit. The same thing is true of 
every body of matter if we trace its history, for we 
come to a certain time at which a catastrophe took 
place ; and if we were to trace back the history of all 
the bodies of the universe in that way, we should con- 
tinually see them separating up into small parts. What 
they have actually done is to fall together and get solid. 

If we could reverse the process, we should see them 
separating and getting fluid ; and, as a limit to that, at 
an indefinite distance in past time we should find that 
all these bodies would be resolved into molecules, and 
all these would be flying away from each other. There 
would be no limit to that process, and we could trace 
it back as far as ever we liked to trace it. So that on 
the assumption (a very large assumption) that the 
present constitution of the laws of geometry and 
mechanics has held good during the whole of the past 
time, we should be led to the conclusion that at an in- 
conceivably long time ago the universe did consist of 
ultimate molecules all separate from one another and 
approaching one another. Then they would meet to- 

gether and form a great number of small hot bodies, 
and there would be the process of cooling going on in 
those bodies exactly as we find it now. 

But we have no evidence of such a catastrophe as 
implies a beginning of the laws of nature. We do not 
come to something of which we cannot make any fur- 
ther calculation. We find that however far we may 
like to go back, we approximate to a certain state of 
things, but never actually get to them. Thus we have 
a probability, about as great as science can make it, of 
the beginning of the present state of things on the 
earth and the fitness of the earth for habitation. 

According to Professor Clifford : 

"We know with great probability of the beginning of the 
habitation of the earth about one hundred or two hundred millions 
of years back, but that of the beginning of the universe we know 
nothing at all." 

Now, with regard to the final catastrophe, we know 
that existence upon our earth depends upon the heat 
given by the sun. The process of cooling is going on 
in the sun, as the process of cooling is going on on our 
earth. When the heat of the sun is exhausted, we 
shall be frozen. On the other hand, if we consider 
the tide which the earth makes upon the sun, instead 
of being a great wave lifting the mass of the sun up 
directly under the earth, it is carried forward by the 
sun's rotation ; the result is that the earth, instead of 
being attracted to the sun's centre, is attracted to a 
point before the centre. The immediate tendency is 
to accelerate the earth's motion, and the final effect of 
this upon the planet is to make its orbit larger. That 
planet disturbing all the other planets, the consequence 
is, that we have the earth graduall}' going away from 
the sun, instead of falling into it. In any case, all 
that we know is that the sun is going out. If we fall 
into the sun we shall be scorched ; if the sun goes out, 
or we get further away from it, we shall be frozen. 
So far as the earth is concerned, we have no means of 
determining what will be the character of the end, but 
we know that one of these two things must take place. 

An end of life upon the earth is as probable as 
science can make it, but in regard to the universe we 
have no right to form any conclusion at all. Long 
after the earth shall have ceased to be the abode of 
life, other and nobler orbs will become in their time 
fit to support millions of forms, as well of animal as of 
vegetable existence ; and the later each planet is in 
thus putting on life, the longer will be the duration of 
the life-supporting era of its own existence. Every 
orb may in turn become the scene of busy life, and 
after its due life-season become inert and dead. We 
see, in imagination, change after change, cycle after 
cycle, till : 

" Drawn on paths of never-ending dutj', 
The world's eternity begun ; 
Rest absorbed in ever-glorious beauty 
On the heart of the All-Central Sun." 




The death of a party chieftain is a political advantage which 
his old followers like to improve. In that hour of amnesty when 
his enemies must be silent his friends can speak. In the shadow 
of the pall we have a right to speak well of the dead, and if we ex- 
pand the funeral privilege so as to say a little evil of the living, we 
may properly do so in vindication of the "time honored" party 
on the one hand, or the "grand old" party on the other. The 
funeral orations lately delivered on eminent Republicans have been 
tender as Minie bullets to the opposite party. Like Falstaff's men, 
the Democrats have been ' ' well peppered " ; and the best of it was, 
that under the laws of magnanimity they could not fire back. I 
contend that no funeral praise is too extravagant for a dead states 
man who for years was the leader of my own party ; and when I 
hear that in eloquence, diplomacy, and all political wisdom, he was 
a combination of Bismarck and Gladstone, I approve the flattery, 
and add a few superlative qualities which I pretend were lacking 
in the German and the Englishman. When a very eloquent eulo- 
gist at the solemnities appointed by the Union League Club says 
that the departed leader had " the courage of a Patrick Henry, the 
originality and the creative genius of an Alexander Hamilton, the 
logic and comprehension of a Daniel Webster, the magnetism and 
the eloquence of a Clay," I applaud the tribute, for the orator is 
bravely doing his duty. He is appointed to say nothing but good 
of the dead, and as much good as it is possible to say. At the same 
time, party loyalty requires him to "improve the occasion," to as- 
sail his political opponents, and challenge controversy at the grave. 
Otherwise there is no political profit in a great man's death. Even 
Julius Caesar, "foremost man of all this world," does no good by 
dying, unless Mark Antony can make a little "party capital" at 
the funeral. 

Filibustero is not mixing so much gunpowder with his whiskey as 
he was a week ago. There is an opinion growing among our states- 
men that the project of annexation is not yet ripe, and that we had 
better wait until the Islands drop into our lap like apples out of a 
tree. This picturesque figure is borrowed from the rhiladc-lphia 
Tinu's, which, jealous tor international justice, declares that "we 
must defend those people from foreign aggression and see that no 
other power shall interfere with their independence. The apple 
will fall into our lap when it is ripe, and we do not want it pre- 
maturely." There is hardly anything so disinterested as that in 
the annals of political morality. No "aggressions" but our own 
must be allowed ; and "no other power" but ourselves must "in- 
terfere with their independence." The PhilaJclphhi Pilss appears 
to think that the Islands are worth stealing, not only for their own 
value, but also for the sake of practice, as it were. "It will fa- 
miliarise the public mind," says the /'/£■.( J, "with the acquisition 
of other territory which must be contemplated in the near future "; 
and the Philadt'lpliia Lcd^i'i\ rural and innocent as a confidence 
man asking what o'clock it is, says, "The first impulse of nearly 
all Americans is to oppose annexation, this country being singu- 
larly free from any desire to extend its dominions ; but there is a 
possibility at least that annexation of Hawaii, Cuba, Canada, and 
IVIexico may become necessary some day." Why people should 
go to comic books for humor when they can get it every day in 
editorial moralising, is marvellous to me. We propose to take 
Hawaii, Cuba, Canada, and Mexico "some day," but in the mean- 
time the world must understand that we are " singularly free from 
any desire to extend our dominions." And those are the senti- 
ments of the Quaker city founded by William Penn, who never 
would take any territory from the aborigines, without giving them 
some glass beads for it, or something. 

In its own way, the funeral oration delivered at the Union 
League Club in honor of Mr. Blaine, was as politically ingenious 
as that made by Mark Antony at the funeral of Caesar. Cutting 
off reply by warning the other side that " there is no partisanship 
in the mourning of American patriotism," the orator applied the 
sentiment in the following non-partisan way. He described those 
who had opposed the aims and policies of his departed friend as 
"detractors who may have to shield their own eyes with the 
smoked glass of party prejudice to find the spots that may exist on 
the full orbed sun of his splendid and undying fame" ; and he at- 
tributed their opposition to ' ' unthinking ignorance, or the envy and 
jealousy of ambitious mediocrity." This funeral oration may not 
have been magnanimous, but- it was as sound in party doctrine as 
anything we can get, even in the excitement of a political cam- 
paign. Just after the surrender of Lee and Johnstone, a general 
in the National Army had command in one of the cities of the 
South, and some of the returned confederates, assisted by the cit- 
izens, made themselves rather disagreeable, so that he issued an 
order forbidding certain manifestations which he thought were 
disrespectful to his flag. A committee of the offenders complain- 
ing of the order as harsh and tyrannical, reminded the general that 
magnanimity was due from the victors to the vanquished ; and his 
answer was, " magnanimity is due also from the vanquished to the 
victors." They accepted the rebuke, and confessed that they had 
never thought of that. So it ought to be at the funeral of a great 
political chieftain. The orator of the occasion speaks under a 
flag of truce which he should be careful to respect. At such a 
funeral there ought to be magnanimity on both sides. 


There seems to be a painful calm just now in our "aggres- 
sive" politics, due to a suspicion that the scheme of the Hawaiian 
revolution is not so much to annex the Sandwich Islands to the 
United States, as to annex the United States to the Sandwich Islands. 
This gives the subject a different appearance, and Gineral Jingo 

The strike of the preachers at Columbus threatens a spiritual 
scarcity, and still farther complicates the labor question. The 
legislature of Ohio has been in the reprehensible habit of using 
non-union religion, and even getting it for nothing; a practice 
which has brought forth a protest and the promise of a boycott 
from the Pastors' Union. At a meeting of the Union held last 
Monday, it was determined that spiritual grace be withheld from 
the legislature unless paid for at regular union rates. A feeble 
show of resistance was made by the Rev. Mr. Patt of the First 
Baptist church, who thought it "would be too bad to deprive the 
legislators of all spiritual advice without warning" ; but the ma- 
jority thought it would be serving them just right, and so the re- 
solution was unanimously adopted, after an eloquent speech by the 
Rev. W. C. Holiday of the Mount Vernon Avenue Methodist 
church, who declared with proper indignation that he had "long 
ago resolved that he would make no prayers in the General As- 
sembly without remuneration." It is thought that the strikers will 
win, that the legislature will surrender, that non-union prayers 
will be discontinued, and that hereafter all prayers offered in the 
General .\ssembly of Ohio will bear the blue label of the Pastors' 
Union. I think the Union is right, because if the Ohio legislature 
is worth praying for, the prayers are worth paying for ; but, on the 
other hand, if the honorable members are past praying for, there 
is no use in wasting money for prayers. Thirty-five years ago, 
when I was member for Marbletown, every preacher at the capital 
acted as chaplain in his turn, so that we got every variety of spir- 
itual grace that could be had for cash. The Union rate at that 
time was three dollars a prayer, which we cheerfully paid, — out of 
other people's money, — drawing the line, of course, at Universal- 
ists and Unitarians, whose prayers were under a boycott of the 
Pastors' Union, and therefore worth nothing. 

The prayer question seems to be making some discord among 
the Directors of the World's Fair. It appears that the executive 



committee has voted $5,000 for the opening ceremonies, and has 
omitted from the programme both poetry and prayer. At first it 
was thought that the omission was merely an oversight, but it 
seems not, for the committee, on cross-examination, confessed 
that it was intentional and deliberate. The Pastors' Union re- 
fuses to accept the insufficient excuse that the dedication ceremo- 
nies in October bad prayers enough in them to last the Exposition 
all through the sickly season and far away into the fall. The 
Union maintains, and with reason, that the whole Board of Di- 
rectors and all the field and staff will need a great deal of praying 
for about the first of May, and from that time on to the end of the 
Exposition. I have no doubt that the pastors will win in this con- 
test, for if they are not allowfed to pray for the Exposition, they 
may pray against it and ruin it altogether. Besides, they may 
appeal for help to Congress, because if that highly religious as- 
sembly has the right to make a law closing the Exposition on Sun- 
day, it certainly has the right to command that it be opened with 
prayer on Monday. The Poets' Union has not yet been heard 
from, and there will probably be no protest made against cutting 
out the "ode." I hope not, for among all the minor torments of 
this life there is hardly one so able as an "ode" to create "that 
tired feeling" in the human soul. 

» -s 

In the Imiiauapolis Journal I find the following appeal, which 
I present as a very creditable specimen of what I call oblique im- 
peachment, a charge in the form of a question, or a puzzle to be 
solved : 

"The country would like to know jnst how much truth there is in the 
rumor that President-elect Cleveland held a large block of stock in the Whis- 
key Trust and got caught in the recent slump in prices. If he is in a position 
to make a positive and explicit denial of the statement he cannot do it too 

It is to be hoped that Mr. Cleveland will immediately explain 
this matter, either by going to Indianapolis, or by letter to the 
Journal, if that organ will kindly excuse him from personal at- 
tendance. The editor of the Journal, as the censor of public 
morals and public men, is merely performing a melancholy duty. 
He would not insinuate anything ; he is merely speaking for the 
country. It is the country that would "like to know," you know. 
As soon as Mr. Cleveland has answered that conundrum, the 
Journal will want to know how much truth there is in the rumor 
that the President-Elect formerly served as a pirate under Cap- 
tain Kidd. The comical audacity of this mode of political war- 
fare puts me in mind of a joint debate which I once heard in Iowa, 
between two rival candidates for Congress, where one of them 
thus addressed the other, who happened to be editor of a news- 
paper : " What I want to ask my honorable friend is this : How 
did he get the money to start his newspaper ? Did he or did he 
not live in Ogle county, Illinoy ? Did he or did he not insure his 
father's life for five thousand dollars ? Did he or diti he not mur- 
der his father, draw the money, come to Iowa, and start a news- 
paper with his ill-gotten gains ? Let him answer those questions if 
he is in a position to do so." 

* * 

I acknowledge with many thanks the receipt of an invitation 
to the " first meeting of the American Psychical Society." I hope 
to attend, so that I may get some revelations of, by, or from a dis- 
embodied soul ; some sign of immortality visible to the mortal 
eye, palpable to the sight as the ghost of Hamlet's father, and able 
to talk like that uneasy spirit ; able to tell of deeds done that I knew 
not of, and of deeds that shall be done. For this evidence I have hith- 
erto sought in vain, or found it only in unreliable dreams, when my 
reason, sleeping on duty like a drowsy sentinel, left me defence- 
less. I am sceptical of all psychical phenomena, but not irreve- 
rent, for I am not vain enough to doubt that there are minds more 
purified from earthly dross than mine ; minds able to see spiritual 
realities invisible to me, and to hear warnings and prophecies that 

my faculties are not refined enough to hear. I may not believe it, 
and yet it may be true that just men have "walked with God." 


* -X- 

Mr. James Payn, in his delightful " Note Book," on the first 
page of the Illtistrateit London iVews for December 24th, sprinkles 
a little sarcasm on the Psychical Society of England, and re- 
proaches the society, because Mr. D'ickens failed in all his experi- 
ments with psychic science. Mr. Payn says: "Charles Dickens, 
though disposed to give things a fair trial, had in his later years 
very little patience with the haunted-house theory. At one time, 
whenever he heard of such a dwelling, he used to obtain permis- 
sion, with his friend Mr. W. H. Mills, to pass a night in it, — some 
of his experiences were published in one of his Christmas num- 
bers, — and they turned out to be unmitigated frauds." He means 
that the haunted houses and the ghosts, not the experiences, were 
"unmitigated frauds"; and in either case his language is too 
harsh ; and besides it was based on a mistake, as appears from a 
letter printed by Mr. Payn in the " Note Book" for January 7th. 
That letter was written to him by Mr. Charles Dickens the 
younger, who says: "You are not quite accurate in the "Note 
Book " as to my father and the haunted houses. He never 
obtained permission to pass a night in one. He tried to do so 
often enough, but the difficulty was that no haunted house could 
ever be found. The most promising stories melted into thin air 
on close examination. There was a party always ready to investi- 
gate any phenomena anywhere : it consisted of my father, W. H. 
Wills, Edmund Yates, myself, and the two big dogs who lived in 
the stable-yard at Gad's Hill. But no employment was ever found 
for us." No wonder. The reason for the failure is plain enough, 
and I submit that Mr. Dickens did not give the ghosts a "fair 
trial." He ought to have gone alone. No prudent ghost is likely 
to expose himself, evcv. in a haunted house, to the criticism of 
four vigorous men and " two big dogs who live in a stable-yard." 

M, M. Trumbull. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Puulishe 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



Charles S. Peirce 3559 

lotte Porter 3560 


CURRENT TOPICS : Partisan Funerals. Not Quite So 
"Aggressive." The Strike of the Preachers. Shall the 
World's Fair Be Opened with Prayer ? Oblique Im- 
peachment. What Are Psychical Phenomena ? Gen. 
M. M. Trumbull 3565 


The Open Court. 


No. 287. (Vol. VII.— 8.) 


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Moral philosophers have often expressed the opin- 
ion that no change in the by-laws of ethics will ever 
affect the stability of certain conventional maxims — 
not strictly compatible, in all cases, with our present 
conceptions of ideal justice. Among the numerous 
proofs demonstrating the permanence of those inter- 
national compromise axioms we might mention the 
facts that Might has always biased the standards of 
Right, and that no protest against the atrocity of in- 
dividual sufferings has ever been permitted to inter- 
fere with the promotion of principles supposed to in- 
volve the supreme welfare of the community. 

Alexander the Great, in his sober moments, ap- 
pears to have been anything but a despot, and some 
of his paladins were men of conspicuous clemency, 
and represented the most cultured cities and countries 
of the universe, but they all agreed on the necessity of 
striking terror to the heart of their Asiatic foe. The 
welfare of Greece seemed to demand the intimidation 
of her Eastern rivals, and the staff of that army of civi- 
lisation, in cold blood, ordered the crucifixion of twelve 
thousand prisoners of war. 

The law of Lycurgus, as a rule, sacrificed both 
class-privileges and the claims of mercy to the princi- 
ples of stern justice, but state interests suggested an 
exception in the case of the rebellious Helots, and the 
multiplication of the obnoxious race was prevented by 
a combination of barbarous cruelty and worse than 
barbarous treachery — perpetrated by men who in their 
dealings with other enemies often preferred death to 
a breach of faith. 

The ecclesiastic diatribes against the despotism of 
the Roman Caesars are refuted by the simple fact that 
for centuries an empire of 4,500,000 square miles 
could be kept quiet with a standing army of 95,000 
men, and the Pax Romana, inaugurated by policy of 
the Emperor Augustus, will perhaps remain the near- 
est earthly approach to the realisation of the millen- 
nium dream. But the successors of Augustus recognised 
the fact that the turbulent elements of the vast metrop- 
olis could be pacified by means of liberality more easily 

than by daily massacres. They also believed in the 
necessity of popular pastimes, and realised the wisdom 
of propitiating the leaders of victorious armies, and 
under the best as well as under the worst of the twenty- 
six world-kings the significance of the vce victis was 
brought home to vanquished foes and captured crimi- 
nals in those orgies of bloodshed which have been 
called the "foulest stain on the records of the human 

Yet among the Roman writers who utterly failed to 
anticipate that verdict of posterity, there were some 
exemplars of Stoic ethics, and some who frequently 
denounced acts of wanton cruelty to animals and men. 
Cicero, who treated his slaves more kindly than our 
modern Caesars their soldiers, and entrusted his fortune 
to the care of one of his freedmen, defends the arena- 
games on the ground that "compelling guilty men to 
fight is the best possible discipline against effeminacy 
that can be presented to the eyes of the multitude." 
The second epistle of the praefect Symmachus, after 
urging the wisdom of equanimity and the renunciation 
of what Christian moralists would call the vanities 
of earth, mentions the "impious suicide" of some 
prisoners, which he had purchased for the purpose of 
making them fight at the funeral of his son, and who 
would have exhausted his patience under the spite of 
fate if he had not recalled the fortitude of the mar- 
tyred Socrates. (Symmachus, "Epist." II, 46.) Pliny, 
the eloquent advocate of humane reforms, extols the 
merit of Trajan in "discouraging amusements that 
enervate the souls of men," (dancing and the comic 
drama, etc.,) and giving preference to those inspiring 
a noble contempt of wounds and even of death." The 
same writer endorses the petition of the citizens of 
Verona, who had asked permission to establish a cir- 
cus of their own, and remarks that "to refuse so gen- 
eral a request any longer would be cruelty rather than 
firmness." ("Epist.," \T, 34.) 

Trajan, the idol of the golden age of paganism, de- 
voted at least 200,000 men to the spectacles of the 
arena, (10,000 of them once on a single day,) and Ti- 
tus, whose kindliness of disposition had so endeared 
him to his subjects that the news of his death threw 
the inhabitants of all the Mediterranean coast-lands 



into mourning — the same "World's Delight" ruler 
attested, in the opinion of his biographer, his amia- 
bility of character by "jesting with the people during 
the combats of the gladiators." (Suetonius, "Ti- 
tus," VIII.) 

The inhumanities practiced by hundreds of mediae- 
val abbots in the treatment of their monks reached the 
ne plus ultra of systematic cruelty — since additional 
afflictions would have produced a speedier death, and 
the tortures of heretics in many parts of southern 
Europe were such as to justify the belief that pity had 
flown from the world ; yet a plurality of those same 
ministers of woe were undoubtedl}' men of humane 
disposition and of unselfish devotion to what they 
considered the best interests of the human race. Their 
creed had made them connect the promotion of that 
interest with the sacrifice of natural reason and the 
natural instinct of pity on the altar of faith, and in 
their crusade against the champions of rationalism 
they would have considered it a preposterous aberra- 
tion of weakness to weigh the transient horrors of an 
auto-da-f(5 against the eternity of torture prepared for 
all whom the influence of the condemned sceptic 
might have caused to swerve from the path of ortho- 

Pedro Rodriguez, one of the most active of the 
Spanish inquisitors, was so averse to the sight of hu- 
man suffering that he always withdrew from the ses- 
sions of his tribunal when the judges ordered the tor- 
ture of a witness, and the personal appeals of some of 
the condemned caused him more than one sleepless 
night and repeatedly made him pray for death as the 
only refuge from the cruel conflict between duty and 

The Dominican Planedis, who signed innumerable 
sentences of death, was so scrupulous in the examina- 
tion of evidence that he sacrificed the fortune of his 
family in paying expenses exceeding the available re- 
sources of the court, and at last lost his life (1235) on 
a journey undertaken for the purpose of examining 
additional witnesses. Torquemada himself was a man 
of charitable and even generous impulses, and his re- 
plies to the appeals of his victims often suggest the 
answer of the Gascon captain, whose regiment had re- 
ceived orders to grant no quarter: "■ Detnandez-woi 
touU chose, monsieur, mais pour la vie, pas moyen," said 
he, when a captured ensign asked to be spared in con- 
sideration of his youth. 

Torquemada darkened the sunlight of Spain with 
the fumes of burning misbelievers, but the absolute 
sincerity of his religious zeal is attested by a list of the 
legislative amendments enacted at his advice. He di- 
minished the emoluments of the church by abolishing 
the privilege of suspected heretics to waive examina- 
tion and furnish coined security for his promise of sub- 

mission. He extended the time of grace intervening 
between an ecclesiastic injunction and the institution 
of criminal proceedings, and he multiplied the number 
of indulgences granted to minors and "pagans" (Mo- 
hammedans, etc.) recently arrived from foreign parts. 
He was, in all his private transactions, a righteous 
man, and his thousands of ultra-savage and ultra- 
bestial cruelties were not acts of passion or malevolence, 
but in the strictest sense, acts of faith. 

In i86g the gardener of Capt. Elphinstone was torn 
to pieces in the suburbs of Lucknow by a mob of Hindu 
fanatics who had seen him shoot a Hanuman monkey. 
That mob was composed of men who treat their chil- 
dren and servants with infinite kindness and who would 
rather submit to the decimation of their crops than lift 
a stone against a rice-bird, but they were firmly con- 
vinced that the murder of a sacred ape would call 
down the vengeance of heaven, and they lost no time 
in averting the ruin of the community by the sacrifice 
of the reckless offender. Autos-da-f6, in honor of 
Brahmin dogmas, are not limited to the present cen- 
tury, for three thousand years ago the mild rulers of 
Hindostan enforced a law that punished with death 
every participant in a riot against the authority of a 
Brahmin. He who contradicted a priest of Brahm was 
punished with the loss of his tongue ; a blow was 
avenged by the amputation of the right arm, intruders 
upon the privacy of a praying Rishi could be attacked 
with a club, and slain on the spot, if they refused to 
leave. It was the barbarity of dogmatism, the aber- 
ration of a mild-mannered, patient, and passive people, 
becoming cruelly active in the interest of faith. 

The decadence of religious fanaticism has not ob- 
viated the possibility of such aberrations. The glare 
of publicity shed upon the recent fire-orgies of Judge 
Lynch at Paris, Texas, puts that fact in the clearest 
light. The perpetrators of that portentous outrage 
were no border-ruffians. They were, as a class, men 
of education, of charitable habits, of rather liberal 
views on questions of politics and municipal adminis- 
trations. They have abolished oppressive rent-laws 
and seem to favor the cause of temperance. Their 
school-commissioners discourage Knout-methods of 
education. Their county rejected a proposed tramp- 
law, rather than involve the destitute home-seeker in 
the fate of the shiftless vagrant. But they emphatically 
believe in the expediency of self-helps in dealing with 
certain forms of crime which seem to defy the remedies 
of the law, and which are never condoned in commun- 
ities where a penchant for manslaughter is included 
among the venial foibles of an impulsive character. 
The managers of the public auto-da-fe also believed 
in the necessity of purging their county from the re- 
proach of judicial delays, and above all, they asso- 
ciated the welfare of their community and their state 



with the necessity of maintaining the supremacy of the 
Caucasian Race — at the cost even of another civil war. 
The dread of poHtical subjection to their former Helots 
overshadows the prospects of their country like a dark 
cloud, and stimulates all classes of white citizens to a 
passionate readiness for summary and instant cooper- 
ation in averting the impending danger. "The truth 
is, we dare not break the solidity of our battle-front," 
said the Southern correspondent of a leading political 
journal, "our prosperity, our very existence, depends 
upon the chance of maintaining our ground against the 
common foe." 

If a Mexican, an Englishman, or even a notorious 
partisan of the Republican faction, had harangued the 
mob in the name of humanity, the emphasis of his re- 
marks might have been condoned in consideration of 
his motive ; the slightest protest on the part of the 
black fellow-citizens of the victim would have been 
answered with a volley of rifle-balls. 

On the Rio Grande the bugbear of a Mexican re- 
volt is sometimes paraded for oratorical purposes, but 
the plurality of the Saxon colonists do not believe in 
the reality of that danger and discourage acts of vio- 
lence against the life or property of their Spanish- 
American neighbors. They do believe in the possi- 
bility of Negro rule with its train of odious conse- 
quences, and the efforts of the State Government will 
utterly fail to secure the punishment of a participator 
in the horrid cruelties of an act of predominant faith. 


The importance of understanding the process and 
scope of abstraction is very great, for abstraction is the 
very essence and nature of man's method of thought. 
The ability of thinking in abstracts distinguishes him 
from the rest of the animal world. 

Abstraction is a very simple process, and yet some 
of the greatest philosophers have misunderstood it. 
He, however, who is not clear on this subject, or 
neglects the rules of abstraction, will never be able to 
attain lucidity or accuracy of thought. 

The greatest difficulty for a child when he learns 
to walk is, not to stumble over his own feet. Similarly, 
the greatest difficulty with philosophers is, not to stum- 
over their own ideas. All our ideas are abstractions, 
and different abstractions represent different qualities 
of the objects which we meet in experience. In order 
to preserve clearness of thought, we must not confound 
the different ideas, and must not transfer a certain ab- 
stract that belongs to one set of abstractions into 
another quite different domain of abstractions. At the 
same time, we must never leave out of sight that the 
reality from which our abstractions are made is one 
inseparable unity. 

The very existence of many problems proves how 
little the nature of abstract ideas is understood. There 
is, for instance, the question which has again and again 
been raised, whether the soul can be explained from 
matter or energy. The question itself is wrong, and 
proves that the questioner stumbles over his own ideas. 
We might just as well ask whether matter can be ex- 
plained from energy, or energy from matter. Matter 
and energy are two different kinds of abstraction, and 
feelings, or states of consciousness, are again another 
kind. We cannot explain any idea by confounding it 
with other heterogeneous ideas. What would we say, 
for instance, of a man who spoke of blue or green 
ideas, or who attempted an explanation of mathemat- 
ical problems from the law of gravitation ? What 
should we say of a philosopher who proposes the prob- 
lem whether ideas can be explained from the ink in 
which they are written ? 

Our abstracts are stored away, as it were, in differ- 
ent drawers and boxes. Any one who expects to solve 
problems that confound two sets of abstractions, has 
either stored his ideas improperly or searches for them 

in the wrong box. 

* * 

If a problem is hopelessly entangled, we cannot 
solve it, and being led to regard the confusion of our 
mind as a true image of the world : we come to the 
conclusion that the world is incomprehensible; that 
is, we fall into agnosticism. But such is the con- 
fusion which generally prevails, that the man who 
reaches the conclusion that all things are at bottom 
utterly unknowable, becomes the leading philosopher 
of the time. Mr. Spencer actually declares in his fa- 
mous work "The Data of Psychology" that "the sub- 
stance of mind" (sic!) is unknowable. 

Mr. Spencer searches for his explanation of mind 
in the wrong box. 

Misunderstand the nature of abstraction and an 
impenetrable mist will cover all our thinking and phi- 

Says Professor Huxley in an address on Descartes's 
" Discourse " : 

" If I say that itiipi'iielrabilily is a property of matter, all that 
I can really mean is that the consciousness I call exiendoii and the 
consciousness I call lesislaiue, constantly accompany one another. 
Why and how they are thus related is a mystery." 

He first abstracts two qualities, viz., extension and 
resistance, from one and the same thing, and then won- 
ders why they are constantly found together. By the 
bye, extension and resistance are not always joined un- 
less we identify both ideas. The surrounding air is 
extended but does not perceptibly resist unless so 
closed up that it cannot escape. Extension and re- 
sistance, of course, always accompany one another if, 
as in physics, extension is used as a synonym of re- 



sistance, if extending means exercising a pressure or 
resisting. Where is the mystery that fluidity is always 
accompanied by liquidity, that inflammability is al- 
ways found together with ignitability, etc., etc.? 

Professor Huxley has stored ideas which belong in 

the same box in different boxes. 

* * 

Some philosophers forget very easily that our ideas 
are not reality itself, but representations of reality. 
They are symbols, representing certain features of real- 
ity. While our ideas of different spheres partly over- 
lap, partly exclude each other, reality itself from which 
they have been abstracted, is not a "combination" of 
heterogeneous existences. On the contrary, we must 
always bear in mind that the totality of the world is 
an inseparable unity. All reality is one great whole 
and our ideas draw limits between the different prov- 
inces that are of a purely ideal nature. 

Ideas, and especially abstract ideas, are symbols 
which serve for orientation in the world. They help 
us to find our bearings. Energy is not matter, and 
matter is not energy, but for that very reason there is 
no matter without energy, or energy without matter. 
In the same way consciousness is neither matter nor 
energy, but consciousness for that reason is not a thing 
in itself. It is not an independent existence that exists 
apart from matter or energy. Things in themselves, 
in the sense of separate and independent entities, do 
not exist. But philosophers are too apt to regard their 
abstract ideas (their noumena) as representing things 
in themselves. Thus time is not space, and space is 
not time, and neither the one nor the other is material ; 
but therefore we are not justified in conceiving of time 
or space as things in themselves. In brief, all abstracts 
represent features of that great inseparable whole 
which is called reality, the world, the universe, or na- 
ture. Matter is not an inscrutable entity but a name 
for that quality which all material things have in com- 
mon. Space and time are thought-constructions built 
of abstract notions representing certain relations of 
things. And the inside world of man, the states of 
his consciousness, his sensations, perceptions, and 
ideas, no less than all other abstracts, form one special 
sphere of abstraction — the domain of psychology. 

The words abstract and abstraction are derived from 
the Late Latin abstractum and ahstractio, the latter be- 
ing the act of abstracting, the former the product of 
abstraction. The old Romans did not use the words 
abstractio and abstractum in a philosophical sense. 
These ideas are a product of the great nominalistic 
controversy and appear first in the twelfth century. 
Abstraction was originally used in contrast to "sub- 
traction." Abstraction was the consideration of form 

apart from matter, and subtraction the consideration 
of the essence without heeding its form.* 

Modern usage has dropped the scholastic dis- 
tinction between "abstract" and "subtract" entirely, 
and places the abstract in opposition either to the 
"concrete " or to the "intuitional," i. e. the direct per- 
ception of objects. 

Abstraction means "to single out, to separate and 
hold in thought." 

For instance : when observing the whiteness of 
snow, we concentrate our attention upon the quality 
of whiteness to the neglect of all the rest. Attention, 
accordingly, is the condition of abstraction. Special 
wants produce special interests ; special interests pro- 
duce a special attention, and a special attention singles 
out and keeps in mind that which is wanted. 

Abstraction is first a concentration of attention, 
which involves a neglect of everything else, then a men- 
tal separation of the part or quality upon which the at- 
tention is concentrated, and finally the establishment of 
a relative independence of the product of abstraction. 
This completes the function of abstraction, and as this 
can be done only by naming, abstract thought is iden- 
tical with rational thought, which is the characteristic 
feature of the thought of speaking beings. 

This is the reason why abstract thought is upon 
earth the exclusive prerogative of man ; and why 
brutes are incapable of abstract thought. The process 
of naming is the mechanism of abstraction, for names 
establish a mental independence of the objects named. 

As soon as the color of the snow has been denoted, 
the word denoting snowish color or whiteness becomes 
applicable as a thought-symbol to the same quality 

wherever it is found. 

* * 

The verb, "to abstract," is used, according to 

Drobisch, either in a logical or psychological sense ; 

in the former we abstract certain qualities of a given 

complex, in the latter we abstract our attention front 

certain objects. (SeeMansel, "Prolegomena Logica," 

3d ed. , p. 30.) Hamilton regards the former usage as 

improper. Says Hamilton : 

" I noticed the improper use of the term abstraction by many 
philosophers, in applying it to that on which the attention is con- 
verged. This we may indeed be said to prescind, but not to ab- 
stract. Thus, let A, B, C be three qualities of an object. We 
prescind A, va abstracting from B and C, but we cannot without 
impropriety say that we abstract A." 

In agreement with Hamilton, Sully remarks: 

"Abstraction means etymologically the active withdrawal of 
attention from one thing in order to fix it on another thing." 

The Century Dictionary adds to this quotation : 

" This is all founded on a false notion of the origin of the 
term " 

* See Century Dictionary, s. V. abstract, 



The old quarrels between Nominalists and Real- 
ists, important though they were, are forgotten. The 
distinction between "abstract" and "subtract" has 
lost its meaning. Hamilton and Sully's usages have 
not been accepted outside some narrow circles of Eng- 
lish scholars ; and the most natural and common usage 
of the verb "to abstract," it seems to us, is in the 
sense "to form abstracts," or "to make an abstrac- 
tion." We abstract a certain quality of a certain thing, 
(say whiteness,) and treat it in our thought as if it 
were a thing itself. 

Intuition, in the proper sense of the term, furnishes 
the immediate data of our sense- impressions. Intuition 
is the German Anschauuiig, an exact analogous term to 
which does not exist in English. We have coined the 
word "atsight," to supply this defect. Like Anschau- 
uiig it denotes that which we look at, or the present 
object of our sight.* Although an innovation, this 
word seems to be the most appropriate substitute for 

The terms "Atischauung," "intuition," "atsight," 
originally denote the contents of the most important 
kind of sense-perceptions, those of sight; but they 
have been extended to mean the perceptions of all 

Man's thought, i. e., the properly human mind-ope- 
rations, consists in an analysis and reconstruction of his 
Anschauungcn, intuitions, or atsights, i. e., of the data 
given him in his sense- impressions. With the assist- 
ance of language, man separates and recombines cer- 
tain features of his atsights ; he constructs ideas, 
which enable him to find out in the events of nature 
the determining factors and to make them, on a large 
scale, subservient to his wants. 

Man's ideas, and most so his general ideas or gene- 
ralisations, in so far as they are represented by names, 
are products of abstract thought. The idea "horse" 
is not the actual and concrete reality of the sight of an 
individual horse, but a generalisation ; it is a name 
representing to every English-speaking man the com- 
posite image of all horses, or pictures of horses seen, 
and including, in addition, all the knowledge he has 
of horses. The general idea of a horse thus stands in 
contrast to real horses; it is not the horse itself, but a 
thought-symbol signifying horse in general. 

Abstract thought is decried as pale, colorless, shad- 
owy, and unreal. True enough, in a certain sense, 
for abstract thought is not intuition, it is not Anschau- 
uiig, and therefore it cannot possess the vivid glow of 
sensuous activity, the reality, individuality, directness, 
and immediateness of the objects presented to our 

* See the article " What Does Anschauung Mean ? " in The Manisf, Vol, 
11, No. 4, p. 527. 

senses. Yet, in another sense, abstract ideas are by no 
means unreal. 

The atsights of our sense-experience are the basis 
of all abstract ideas. The atsights are the real facts, 
our abstract ideas, however, are artifices invented for 
the purpose of better dealing with facts ; they are real- 
ity-describing symbols and well-designed mental tools. 


The main mistake of former philosophers has been 
the habit of regarding abstracts as independent real 
entities, or essences. The pagans represented beauty 
as a goddess and worshipped it, and Plato thought 
that ideas were beings that possess an independent ex- 
istence outside and above the sphere of reality, of that 
reality which is faced by us and depicted in our sensa- 

It is customary at present, as the pendulum swings 
from the one extreme to the other, to regard abstract 
ideas in contradiction to the old view as mere fictions 
and nonentities. One error is naturally followed by the 
opposite error. But abstracts are not mere fictions, 
they are symbols representing feaiu^s of real existence, 
and as such they cannot be overestimated, for they 
form the properly human in man, they create his dignity 
and give him the power he possesses. 

Even our systems of mathematics, arithmetic, and 
other sciences of pure thought are not mere fictions 
or arbitrary inventions, but constructions made of ele- 
ments representing actual features of reality, of pure 
forms and of the relations of pure forms. To be sure, 
they are fictions in a certain sense ; they are inven- 
tions, but they are not mere fictions and not arbitrary 
inventions. To operate with pure forms, as if pure 
forms as such existed, is a fiction. But exactly in the 
same way it is a fiction to speak of whiteness as if 
whiteness in itself existed. The processes of addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division, involution, evo- 
lution, the usage of logarithms are inventions, but they 
are as little arbitrary inventions as, for instance, the 
method of naming things. All these inventions (like 
other useful inventions) have been called forth by spe- 
cial wants ; most of them have been eagerly searched 
for, and they serve certain practical purposes. 

* * 

Abstract thoughts are comparable to bills or checks 
in the money market. Bills and checks are not real 
values themselves, but being orders to pay out a cer- 
tain amount, they represent real values, thus serv- 
ing to facilitate and economise the exchange of goods. 
In the same way the realities of life are the data of 
experience as they appear in o\xx Anschauung; abstract 
ideas, however, are derived from and have reference 
to these basic facts of our existence. If the values of 
our abstract ideas are not ultimately founded upon the 



reality of the given facts of experience, they are like 
bills or drafts for the payment of which there is no 
money in the bank. 

It is comparatively easy to palm off counterfeit ab- 
stracts at their nominal value upon ignorant or uncrit- 
ical people who know not the difference ; for the poor 
fellows who have thus been cheated are likely to die 
before they discover the fraud. 

Most people being uncritical, we need not wonder 
that the philosophical world is flooded with abstracts 
that possess no merit beyond being high-sounding 
words. There are plenty of philosophical wild-cat 
banks flourishing and booming, and this is quite nat- 
ural, for our average public are no better than the sav- 
ages of darkest Africa with whom glass pearls pass for 

money, the same as if they were genuine pearls. 

* * 

The term "abstract" is confined to such products 
of thought-operations as "whiteness, goodness, virtue, 
courage,"etc. ; but it is sometimes also employed to de- 
note generalisations such as "star," meaning any kind 
of a star, or "triangle, "meaning any kind of a triangle. 
The fact is that g^eralisations can be made only by 
the method of abstraction. The term "abstract" is 
not used, however, to denote sensations. Sensations 
are the materials which by abstraction are analysed 
into their elements, for sensations are that which is 
given in our intuition, i. e. our Anschauung, and ab- 
stracts are contrasted to the intuitional. 

This is very well, and we do not blame this usage 
of the word ; but we wish to point out that even sen- 
sations are in their way a kind of abstraction. Our 
sense-organs perform the function of abstracting cer- 
tain features of the objects impressing us. Thus the eye 
abstracts only certain ether- vibrations called light, and 
transforms them into vision, the ear abstracts only air- 
vibrations and transforms them into sounds, the mus- 
cular sense abstracts resistance and transforms it into 
the notion of corporeality, the skin abstracts tempera- 
ture and transforms it into sensations of heat and cold. 
The tongue and the nose actually abstract and bodily 
absorb certain particles, and transform the awareness 
of this process into taste and smell. 

Thus it is evident that abstraction is a function of 
fundamental application in the domain of psychic life, 
and the method of abstraction is, properly considered, 
not limited to that sphere which, according to the gen- 
erally accepted terminology, is called the domain of 
abstraction. p. c. 


The Chicago Board of Education is making vigorous efforts 
to limit the scope of education in the public schools, under the pre- 
tense of abolishing what they classically call "fads." This war 
upon certain kinds of learning is itself a mischievous " fad." Its 
capital stock consists largely of nicknames, and the reformers who 

are conducting the campaign of non-education think that any study 
in the school is quite sufficiently condemned when they choose to 
stigmatise it as a " fad." In the scornful vernacular of those crit- 
ics modelling in clay is "mud pie making," and the satire is ap- 
plauded by a generation of fools. One of the most useful employ- 
ments for children is the making of mud pies, and clay modelling 
is merely an advance from that to experimental and solid lessons 
that make abstract learning easier. The Board of Education met 
last night, and a committee appointed at a previous meeting brought 
in a report recommending that the following " fads " be abolished, 
namely, clay modelling, German, physical culture, drawing, sew- 
ing, and singing. The report was referred to the committee of the 
whole which will meet February 23d. There are some Boards of 
Education that make me nervous whenever they handle educa- 
tional questions. They make me feel just as I would if Jack Hicks 
who used to fiddle ' ' hoe downs " for us on the frontier, should with 
profane fingers attempt to play the o\'erture from Semiramide on 
Ole Bull's violin. His brother Joe used to rattle on the tambourine 
what passed with us for a Beethoven symphony, and he played it 
quite as intelligently as the Chicago Board of Education plays on 

" fads." 

* * 

The public interest at this time seems to be almost equally 
divided between statesmen and prizefighters, the advantage, if there 
is any, being on the side of the prizefighters. The following im- 
portant piece of information appears in the telegraphic dispatches 
of this morning, and is dated New York, February 13. "Austra- 
lian Billy Murphy was about town to-day for the first time since 
his recent fight with Griffin. Outside of a broken nose and a couple 
of scars he is looking pretty well." By a queer psychological coin- 
cidence the very same consolation — in finer language of course — 
was offered by Col. Turner, the orator of the occasion, to his fellow 
members of the Marquette Club in Chicago at the Lincoln banquet 
held on that identical February 13, when he introduced the Re- 
publican party for the admiration of the company. Translated 
into ordinary prose, his remarks were these : " Outside of a broken 
nose and a couple of scars the Republican party is looking pretty 
well." Col. Turner is described in the papers as the " famed post- 
prandial speaker"; and allowing the usual discount on "post- 
prandial " talk, it must be admitted that his oration was more elo- 
quently inconsistent than is usual even in speeches of the after 
dinner kind. He condemned the Republican party for attempting 
to give the colored man political rights, or as he called it "black 
supremacy." In addition to that, he said, " the Republican party 
is in defeat for clinging to dead issues," also "through lack of 
statesmanship " ; likewise for " lack of ability in leadership " ; and 
because " in the Republican Senate money has superseded brains." 
Supplementing these reasons, were "pension laws which offer a 
bribe for cooperative perjury," together with other bad legislation 
which caused the orator to regret that the new leaders of the Re- 
publican party were not "in the grave" instead of the old ones. 
,\fter talking like Dick Deadeye until all the wine turned sour. 
Col. Turner made a "post-prandial" contradiction of himself by 
proclaiming that the hope of the country lay in " the garnered in- 
telligence and stalwart courage of the Republican party." He 
meant, of course, the Republican party as it will be when all its 
present leaders are " in the grave." 


Although I may never know what the Monroe doctrine is, I 
am very sure that it is a piece of national property ; and as a proud 
citizen I like to see it bring a high price whenever it is offered for 
sale in a foreign market ; a price corresponding to the size and 
dignity of this nation. With patriotic pleasure I learn that the 
Panama Canal syndicate was compelled to pay several million dol- 
lars for the Monroe doctrine, but no more than it was worth, be- 
cause, without it the syndicate could not have swindled anybody. 



not even the French people. This is clear from the testimony/ 
given yesterday by Mr. Seligman before the investigating commit- 
tee appointed by Congress, and Mr. Seligman was the man who! 
negotiated the purchase of the profitable doctrine. He admitted! 
that the effort to obtain subscriptions in Paris for the Panama! 
Canal had failed "because of the apprehension in France that theV 
United States was hostile and would put in force the Monroe doc-?' 
trine." Any man with a genius for " business " must admire the . 
American statesmanship that created the " apprehension," without 
which the Monroe doctrine would have brought nothing in the 
market. It soon became evident to De Lesseps and his colleagues 
that before the French people would make subscriptions to the 
Panama scheme, the Monroe doctrine must be bought and paid 
for, so the "American Committee" was formed by the Seligmans 
" to protect the interest of the canal and secure the neutrality of 
the United States in relation to it." It was important that some 
great American should be at the head of the committee, so they 
baited the trap for General Grant, but although the cheese on the 
hook was tempting he would not nibble. Seligman offered him 
$25,000 a year for life, but the offer was rejected, and Grant es- 
caped from an enterprise that would have steeped his name in 
scandal. The chairmanship with a salary of $25,000 a year was 
then given to Mr. Richard W. Thompson, a member of the cabinet, 
The result of it all was the ruin of thousands of innocent French 
people whose confidence having been gained by those proceedings 
threw their money into the canal. In spite of the ruin wrought, 
Mr. Seligman gave his testimony with a cynical gaiety that reminds 
us of the camplacent equanimity of Mr. Jay Gould. 

Commenting, in The Open Court, some weeks ago on the fan- 
tastic substitutes for law and equity doled out by the courts of Illi- 
nois, I advised all disputants before becoming litigants to put the 
whole subject of controversy into a poker game and gamble for it. 
Or, easier yet, flip a penny and settle the difference by the appeal 
of "heads or tails." I showed that by the laws of chance alone 
the verdict of the copper would be right six times out of twelve, 
which is more than can be said of the judgments of our courts ; 
and besides, expense, vexation, anxiety, time, and a large quan- 
tity of profanity would be saved- Although I gave that advice 
in serious good faith, some persons erroneously thought I spoke 
in irony or jest. It is, therefore, with some pride and satis- 
faction that I see my plan surely, although slowly, penetrating 
that very dense thicket of confusion, which is called the "public 
mind"; and even the press is giving some approbation to my 
scheme. In The Chicago Herald of this morning I find the follow- 
ing indorsement : " Out of nineteen cases considered by the appel- 
late court of this district, in which opinions were rendered on 
Tuesday, thirteen were reversed and remanded. The fact is sig- 
nificant of the quality of law and justice dispensed — or dispensed 
with — in our local courts. In view of such a state of affairs, it 
would be far cheaper for litigants to 'flip a penny ' in order to reach 
a decision of the questions at issue, and the chances are far greater 
that by such a course they would reach a legal and equitable ad- 
justment of the difficulties than by appealing to the courts." Thir- 
teen from nineteen, and six remains, so that of all the causes de- 
cided by the "jurists" in our trial courts, a little more than two- 
thirds of them are reversed by the "jurists" in the Appellate 
Court ; and when those lucky six go up to the Supreme Court, the 
most of them will be reversed and remanded by the "jurists" 
there. And rarely the right comes uppermost, and seldom is jus- 
tice done. 


We are indebted to the .Associated Press dispatches of this 
morning for a revelation of clerical crime peculiar in its enormity, 
the delinquent being the Rev. E. P. Gardner, pastor of the Con- 

gregational Church of Marion, Mass., " at which Mr. and Mrs. 
iCleveland worshipped while they were residents of Marion." Re- 
ligion can hardly be sufficiently grateful to such eminent people 
for their patronage, and as a loyal snob I wriggle with joy to know 
that the President of my country not only attended the Congrega- 
tional Church at Marion, Mass., but also that he "worshipped" 
there. The crimes and misdemeanors of the preacher would not 
have been so trying as they are to the nerves of cringing sycophants 
if we had not known that he was pastor of the very church where 
Mr. and Mrs. Cleveland formerly "worshipped." I think the cham- 
pion psychologist will be the man who can pick out the "worship- 
pers" from any congregation ; and I doubt that any mortal man 
will ever be able to do it, because the genuine worshippers may 
not be among those who preach, or pray, or sing. Only the angel 
appointed for that purpose can perform the feat, and some of us 
who think that we are prominent worshippers may be surprised at 
the "great day" to find that he has passed us by. Nothing but 
the awful fact that Mr. and Mrs, Cleveland once worshipped in 
the Congregational Church at Marion could magnify the trivial 
doings of the pastor into crimes worth printing in a newspaper. 
Had not Mr. and Mrs. Cleveland once worshipped in the church, 
the accusations against the pastor would not have been thought 
worth laying before the people. What else could have made it a 
high misdemeanor that Mr. Gardner "had promised to call on a 
sister and had not kept his word"? That he " had made false 
statements about a coal scuttle " ? That he ' ' had contradicted him- 
self in regard to the day of his birth"? and "last and finally," — I 
quote from the indictment, — and "last and finally," plagiarising 
" ten sermons on Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's Progress,' and palming them 
off as his own." The church "where Mr. and Mrs. Cleveland 
worshipped " seems to have been rather punctilious and exacting, 
making it very hard for Brother Gardner to tell which way he 
ought to go. If he had kept his promise to call on a sister, he 
would probably have been tried for that. In fact, I believe this is 
the only case to be found in the records of ecclesiastical jurispru- 
cence where a pastor has been tried for not calling on the sisters. 
So, in the case of the ten sermons ; while I think that any man 
hardened enough to preach ten sermons on Bunyan's " Pilgrim's 
Progress " deserves punishment, yet I think he has a right to plead 
in extenuation of his fault that he did not write them. Here is 
another case where plagiarism deserves praise. 

M. M. Trumbuli,. 


Goethe's Faijst. Edited by Calviii Thomas, Professor of Ger- 
manic Languages and Literature in the University of Mich- 
igan. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. 1892. 
" In undertaking this edition of 'Faust,'" says Professor 
Thomas, " I was chiefly actuated by a desire to promote the study 
of the poem as a whole." To effect this end, in every aspect from 
which Goethe's masterpiece might be viewed, the editor conceived 
that the publication of the revised text of the poem, with suitable 
notes, would be the best method, and one much preferable to the 
publication of a commentary. The present volume contains the 
text of the first part of the poem, and it is promised that the sec- 
ond will soon follow. The text is preceded by an introduction of 
eighty-two pages, in which the editor discusses the importance and 
literary status of the poem, the data of the Faust legends, the 
preparatory experiences of Goethe, the history of the execution of 
the poem, and gives short sketches of the principal characters. It 
is an exact reprint of the Weimar edition ; the notes occupy one 
hundred and four pages, the appendices fifteen pages. In dealing 
with the vast literature which has grown up in the criticism of the 
Faust poem. Professor Thomas's aim has been "to be useful, 
rather than to seem acute or learned." It has been his rule to 



avoid controversy and the rehearsal and discussion of conflicting 
views. He has formed his opinions independently, from an exam- 
ination of the original data, and corrected and revised them by 
comparison with the views of the commentators. Then he has 
presented in the notes the results of his judgment, without argu- 
ment. Everything has been done to attain the utmost brevity 
consistent with the satisfactory treatment of the real difficulties 
that a student is likely to encounter. Everything that has not 
been needed for scientific illustrations has been excluded. "Ac- 
cording to my conceptions," he says, "the one great purpose of an 
editor's notes to a classic should be to help the reader to enter 
more than he otherwise might into the thought and feeling of the 
author." No philological lore has been admitted that does not 
illustrate the author's peculiarities of diction and give the author's 
exact linguistic point of view. Yet the editor has, confessedly, 
"wrought as a philologist and a lover of definiteness." The ain> 
sought is the understanding of the poem, and this could not be at- 
tained without some attention to philological details. He has not 
imparted into the poem any philosophical views of his own, but 
has treated his subject from an entirely objective standpoint. 

We can only say that Professor Thomas has very well accom- 
plished the task which he has set himself, and that the book will 
be a very useful one, both for the general reader and the class- 
room student. fiKpn. 


Mr. Moncure D Conway kindly sends for our inspection a 
letter of Madame Renan, incidentally saying, "It is, I fear, too 
complimentary to me for publication." We hope we commit no 
indiscretion in publishing Madame Renan's letter, for the ob- 
jection made by our esteemed contributor does not appear suffi- 
cient. Mr. Conway's address, given at South Place Chapel, Lon- 
don, on Ernest Renan, appeared in the last number of The Monist, 
January, 1893. This is the letter : 

^'■Le J F^vrier i8g^. 
Cher Alonsieur Aloncure Conway, 

y'ai re(u "The Monist" et je veux vous dire combien j'ai eie 
touchie du discours que vous avez prononc^ h South Place Chapel, ye 
le lis et le relis avec imotion., car personne n'a mieux compris que 
vous les iddes philosophiques et religieuses de nion mari bien-aime . 
Vous avez compris aussi son grand caur^ sa bonte. La seule consola- 
tion que Je puisse iprouver est d^ entendre parler de celui que je pleure 
conime vous en avez parle. ye vous remercie done encore et vous prie 
de Vie rappeler au bon souvenir de Madame Co7iway et de voire Jille. 

Veuillez agr^er nos sentiments affectueux et d^vou^s. 

Cornelie Renan^ 



True man is he, who doth all joys eschew. 

All doubts, hopes, fears, griefs, promptings — everything 
That cajoles conscience, of his mind sole king. 
Whose barricades no furious thoughts burst through. 
He subdues minds who can his own subdue 
By trampling Passion down, whose senses cling 
To Truth and all its duties, combating 
Hell's fiends at every point, who sleuth-hounds, too, 
Each separate passion with unsleeping eyes. 

Lest in one evil hour he trip and fall. 
O Moses, Prophet ! thou wert surely wise. 

Yet thy great virtues could not keep in thrall 
Thy scornful pride — hush ! they immortalise 
The statue gone from Sinai's pedestal. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. Ill, NO. 2, (JANUARY, l8g3,): 

The Doctrine of Auta. By PROF. C. LLOYD MORGAN. 


Renan : A Discourse Given at South Place Chapel, London. By MONCURE 

Intuition and Reason. By CHRISTINE LADD FRANKLIN. 
Cruelty and Pity in Woman. By GUILLAUME FERRERO. 
Panpsychism and Panbiotism. EDITOR. 
Literary Correspondence. 

1) France— LUCIEN ARREAT. 

2) Germany— CHRISTIAN UFER. 
Criticisms and Discussions. 

Book Reviews. 

Terms of Subscription : S2.Q0 a year, post-paid, to any part of the United 
States, Canada, and Mexico ; to foreign countries in the Postal Union, S2.25 ; 
single numbers, 60 cents. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


AUTOS-DA-FE. Dr. Felix L. Oswald 3567 

ABSTRACTION. Editor 3569 

CURRENT TOPICS : Fads in toe PuDlic Schools. The 
Causes of Republican Defeat. The Sale of the Monroe 
Doctrine. Law and Justice Dispensed With. Who Are 

' ' Worshippers " ? Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3572 


NOTES 3574 


Moses. Arthur A. D. Bayldon 3574 


The Open Court. 



No. 288. (Vol. VII.-9.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 2, 1893. 

J Two Dollars per Year. 
* Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



In the attention which lias been given to the grad- 
ual disappearance of the lower races of mankind, there 
is danger that we may lose sight of an allied movement 
which promises ere long to culminate in one of the 
mightiest changes in the domain of organic life ever 
experienced since the advent of man. The passing 
away of the barbarian is in some respects of even minor 
importance when compared with the extermination of 
the brute. The savage is going to the wall in almost 
recent times — the lower animal has been engaged in 
his unwilling retreat since the glacial period. And 
the beginning of his retrocession carries us back to a 
period when all that there was of humanity lay amid 
the angry elements of the lower life like an islet which 
the flood is about to engulf. It is not easy to realise 
that the beast we now ostracise once occupied every 
habitable part of the globe. It is even more difficult 
for the ordinary mind to look back to a period when 
the lower animal was not only tolerated as an equal, 
but sometimes worshipped as the abode of the divine. 
All the more need is there to recognise that we inherit 
from the brute much that we are accustomed to regard 
as distinctively and exclusivel)' human. The lower 
animal is our ancestor in a far truer and deeper sense 
than is the Goth, the Roman, or the Greek. Not only 
has it yielded us the general features of its structure : 
it imposed upon man the first conditions of nascent 
human life during immense periods, arid may thus be 
said to have laid the foundations of his civilisation. 
By far the greater part of the stress of competition 
through which the human ascent was made possible 
came from the brute environment. Even when man 
definitely gained the upper hand, the lower animals 
ruled his imagination in spite of the superiority of his 
intellect : they supplied symbols for his earliest reli- 
gious conceptions, and tinged with their influence the 
whole fabric of his mental life. Impressed with the 
immense power wielded by the beasts around them, 
and understanding power only as expressed in organic 
shapes generically like their own — knowing the malefi- 
cent and beneficent forces of the external world only 

through the familiar animal, now hostile to them as 
enemy, now useful to them as food — our ancestors not 
unnaturally imaged their earliest deities in brute form. 
The first religions were thus, in one aspect, great so- 
cieties for the protection of animals — systems of propi- 
tiation whereby honors were paid to the few to secure 
more or less immunity from the many. Gradually, as 
men became more self-conscious, and grew to under- 
standing of their superiority over the brute, human 
characters began to modify the purely animal shape 
of the primitive gods. The first stage of this mental 
ascent is represented by the wholly brute divinities of 
certain tribes of American Indians, the Hindu elephant 
deity Ganesha, the bird god of the Japanese, the fish 
deity of the islander of the South Pacific, the divine 
snake of the Aztecs, pictured as the mother of the hu- 
man race, as well as by numerous other forms familiar 
to students of mythology. In the second stage come 
shapes like those of the Egyptian pantheon, where the 
deity is half human, half animal — where, on human 
shoulders, rest the heads of lion, ape, giraffe, croco- 
dile, ram, serpent, ibis, jackal, and hawk ; the fish 
god of the savage now acquires a human face ; man 
and brute m.ingle together in the winged colossi of As- 
syrian halls ; to the same stage belong the cherubim 
of the Hebrew, the horse-headed Kinnaras of the Hindu, 
the satyr, the centaur, the minotaur of the Greek. 
There is thus a gradual fall in the dignity of the ani- 
mal that takes place /(?;•/ /<m-// with the rise of human 
self-consciousness, the slow ascent of man to recogni- 
tion of his superiority ; and when, in the last stage of 
popular religion the deity appears in wholly human 
shape, the brute is ipso facto pronounced to be no lon- 
ger worthy of association with man in symbolic repre- 
sentations of the divine. But this gradual degradation 
of the animal does not culminate until Christianity 
adds to the discrimination against it the crushing 
weight of a belief that gives man the hope of an im- 
mortal destiny from which the brute is for ever ex- 
cluded. Under the influence of the new faith, some 
of the fairest "humanities of old religion" are pro- 
nounced pagan ; organisms once protected in the name 
of the All-Father are banished in his name from the 
mercy of the universe ; and at last numerous animal 



• forms make grotesque or horrible the sacred temples 
to which they were once welcomed as divine. Through 
a change due not to the spirit, but to the mental atti- 
tude, of Christianity, the tolerant gospel of the one- 
ness of life passes away; with the apotheosis of man 
there comes, naturally enough, the diabolisation of the 

As the sons outgrow the fathers and come to look 
upon them as rough, uncultured, and inferior, so hu- 
man beings have come to treat with contempt the an- 
cestral forms that gave them being and made even 
their highest endowments possible. No sooner have 
we made good our ascent than we hasten to kick away 
the ladder which has made it possible. As civilisation 
advances, nature retreats ; as man spreads in swarms 
over the habitable globe, the lower animal shrinks 
fearfully from the territories once his own, until at last 
we find the most fair and wonderful of its kind in a 
few forgotten tracts where the savage man still lingers, 
flourishing there for a while under the shelter of pagan 
customs that still picture the brute as half divine. 
And if a few of the lower wild have been hemmed in, 
as it were, by the advancing tangle of cities, we shoot 
these down for amusement, even when we do not need 
them for food. In our modern ethics of progress, the 
larger brute not in the service of man, yet strong enough 
to carry on the business of existence for himself, is an 
outlaw by common consent. 

Though each age may have chosen its special vic- 
tims and exterminated in its own way, the disappear- 
ance of the larger animals may in almost every period 
be traced to the same human agency. If the New 
Zealanders could kill out the stately moa, we may be 
sure that our ancestors were not more merciful to the 
dinotherium, the palapteryx, or the dinoceras. In the 
American South the wandering children of the pampas 
first overcame the megatherium, and then built their 
fireplaces in his bones. It was no doubt owing to the 
assaults'of man that the roaring of the sabre-toothed 
machairodus so soon died out from the Pentelican 
Hills, that the glyptodon finally threw aside its armor 
in tropical Brazil, and that the arrow-hunted mastodon 
and mammoth laid their bones in tundra and morass, 
in river bank, and ocean marge, of every continent 
under the sun. Where, now, is the hipparion that 
swarmed more plentifully than the quagga ; the great 
auk, once known to both shores of the Atlantic ; the 
dodo and the solitaire ? As of old, with arrows, with 
poison, and with pits, one culture stage was used to 
supplant another, so to-day we let light into dark con- 
tinents with hunting-knife and Remington rifle. A few 
]^ears hence the river-horse will be seen no longer, and 
thus an animal already made picturesque by the poet 
will come to be known only through the descriptions 
of the paleontologist. A like fate is rapidly overtaking 

the rhinoceros : in the Valley of Opam, along the 
Ganges, by the water courses of Abyssinia — in Borneo, 
Sumatra, the land of the Malay — this beast with plated 
sides is fast yielding to the assaults of the hunter. The 
far West persecuted the bison till the prairies ran with 
buffalo blood ; in the far East the giraffe is yielding to 
the pressure of civilisation, and when Africa shall have 
been converted to the gospel of progress — which sig- 
nifies the progress of the most mighty — this beautiful 
high-feeder will have gone the way of its extinct con- 
gener, the helladotherium — into museums of compara- 
tive anatomy. Remembering that the reindeer was 
exterminated in Europe ages before climate would 
have become its persecutor, and that the stag, formerly 
slain in England by hundreds, is now kept in precari- 
ous existence as a species by the careful nursing of 
armed gamekeepers and the interested protection of 
the law, we need not ask how long the American moose 
will survive the attacks of those who pursue it in the 
name of legalised sport. 

Extermination goes on in river as well as on shore, 
by sea as well as on land. Note how rapidly the beaver 
is disappearing. Once this animal was known through- 
out the world : scarcely a rood of territory where water 
kissing land did not bring to the busiest commune that 
ever thrived, the bliss of a familiar environment. In 
countless shores, in the banks of lakes, rivers, and 
ponds — under fifty skies and climates — the social ro- 
dents blithely pursued their handicraft. They had the 
franchise of nature and nature's expansive smile. But 
when man came he cursed their innocent industry with 
avocations of his own. Where, now, is the weaver 
with branches, the builder of dams? Twenty centuries 
of human quest for pelt and pelf have left him scarcely 
a foothold even in the Siberian north, to which he has 
been driven in one hemisphere, or in the New World, 
where his presence is becoming rarer day by day. So 
a like pursuit menaces with early extinction the levia- 
than of the deep. Time was when this mightiest of 
mammals could suckle her young unharmed in waters 
arctic and antarctic — in meridional oceans and Polyne- 
sian seas. From the Bay of Biscay and the coasts of 
Britain and France ; from the Persian Gulf, the Ara- 
bian Sea, and the Indian Ocean, the fleets have thrust 
her farther and farther poleward into the regions of 
unyielding cold. During ages of pursuit the whaler's 
needle of assault has pointed the northward way until 
Greenland knows the shrinking shoals no longer, and 
their spouting has died out from the waters of Baffin's 
Bay. So vast has been the slaughter that for hundreds 
of miles along the Polar Sea men have used the bones 
of the slain for the habitations of the living. In warmer 
oceans — off the coasts of Africa, Patagonia, New Zea- 
land, and the Sandwich Islands — cetacean blood marks 
the track of the blubber hunter : for a few barrels of 



oil the giant product of countless ages of nature's tra- 
vail must be flung upon southern waters as the food of 
the petrel and the albatross. Yet commerce is not 
content. Once she armed the whaler with a mere 
barb of iron, and a ruin was wrought that threatened 
to turn the seas putrid. Now she gives him the How- 
itzer shell, the bomb lance, and the explosive bullet 
charged with gunpowder, strychnine, and curari. As 
long as a single carcase remains to be converted into 
money, she will follow it to the ends of the earth. 

The habitants of forest and jungle are never much 
respected when the territory they occupy is needed 
for the uses of men. Yet the sportsman is usually far 
in advance of the civiliser, and wild animals are shot 
down by wilder men long before there can be any pre- 
tense that the good of human society demands their 
removal. To one of the proudest and most magnifi- 
cent of forest animals — feeding, like man, on oxen, 
and therefore denounced for his carnivorous habits — 
no mercy has been shown. Since Tiglath-Pileser "de- 
stroj'ed 920 lions, of which 120 were laid dead at his 
feet, and Soo captured with his chariots of war," the 
slaughter of this ruler among lower organisms has gone 
forward unceasingl}'. Upon ruthless exterminators 
like Gumming, Anderson, Baker, and Gerard, the world 
has lavished more praise of the mature, more admira- 
tion of the young, than has fallen to the lot of all the 
philanthropists that ever lived. The lion of rocky 
Macedonian fastnesses, that dared dispute with Xerxes 
the Great his passage through Thessaly — the lion fig- 
ured by classic stor}' and modern picture as nightly 
prowler among Egyptian ruins — the lion of Syria and 
of Palestine — all these have vanished, and the green 
kingdoms they once ruled lie buried beneath the dust 
that clings to the feet of men. A few generations 
more, and the maned carnivore will have ceased to ex- 
ist. The rising tide of Anglo-Indian domination has 
driven him to forest islets soon to be submerged : al- 
ready he ceases to be the alarm of the jungle, the vic- 
tim of the shikar. Even in Africa the camp fires of 
progress obliterate his footsteps where to-day, between 
hunter and Hottentot, our enlarging civilisation hems 
him in. 

The elephant, too, — by far the grandest and most 
marvellous of all organisms reared on forest lands, — 
is passing away in the very countries which nature 
made his own. Thousands of years distant from ours, 
men hunted him in the Tigris Valley, and the fashion 
thus set bj' Assyrian monarchs never died out. From 
Africa's northern fringe of culture they have hurled 
him back until scarcely a forest, however hidden, can 
give him shelter from the native spears. In India we 
see him driven southward into Ceylon, and northward 
to the chain of the Himalayas. From the Punjaub, 
where the Hindu Baber held imperial hunts ; from the 

jungles along the upper Indus, once the place of royal 
sport for Alexander, the Greek ; out of Dshema for- 
ests and from Nepaul, the "one handed beast" has 
vanished utterly. The Indian potentate wasted his 
energies in the petty pomps of state ; the European 
hunter massacred whole herds of his kind for the wan- 
ton pleasure of seeing giants fall ; the native dug him 
pits, gave him poison, roasted him in the corral alive. 
But the deadliest of his enemies have been the lovers 
of ornament, the users of ivory, the world over. Men 
have coveted him for his tusks since the beginning of 
commerce. Is it wonder, when so large an organism 
can be slaughtered for so small a thing, that the ele- 
phant is dying out? 

The time is thus near at hand when all these or- 
ganisms — and many gentler and fairer than they — 
shall have become extinct ; when the children of our 
successors will learn of their former existence only in 
books and museums ; when naturalists will study them 
as a philologist studies a dead language. A later age 
than ours will fail to comprehend, not only the beauty 
of many aspects of brute existence, but also that won- 
der and fascination which particular animals impose 
upon us in spite of ourselves — feelings, such as Wil- 
liam Blake has expressed in the lines : 

"Tiger, tiger, burning bright. 
In the forests of the night : 
What immortal hand or eye 
Framed thy fearful symmetry? 

In what distant deeps or skies 
Burned tliat fire within thy eyes ? 
On wliat wings dared he aspire ? 
What the hand dared seize the fire ? 

When tlie stars threw down their spears, 
And watered lieaven witli their tears. 
Did He smile His work to see '' 
Did He who made the lamb make thee ? " 

It cannot be regarded as strange that the savage 
found something of the divine in the mysterious on- 
goings, the stealthy tread, the extraordinary might of 
the great carnivores, each reflecting, as it were, in its 
glittering eyes, the flashing lights that symbolise uni- 
verse power in the heavens — each suggesting, in its 
tearing jaws and talons, its monstrous grip, the over- 
whelming forces of wind and wave. But when the day 
finally comes in which no man can say that he ever 
saw, or ever heard from any one who saw, a lion or 
tiger, a deer or a gazelle, a serpent or a jaguar — in 
which our posterity will have ideas as vague and in- 
accurate of the elephant as we to day have of the me- 
gatherium—in that day the living key to the mysteries 
of ancient myth and religion will have been for ever 

There are, of course, two aspects of this movement 
of extermination, and in ordinary speech they may be 
described as the sentimental and the practical. For 
while it is natural that we should regret extermination 



and look with horror on the cruelties with which it is 
so often carried on, it seems to be equally natural that 
we should practice extermination, and stop our ears 
to the cries of the wounded animal which we pursue 
in sport or butcher for food. In these two aspects we 
see what we may call the synergic and the sympathetic 
attitudes of an organism towards its parts, and of the 
parts towards each other. An individual organism of 
which the parts are in closest relation to one another, 
all of them being subject to the will of the whole, is 
ever seeking to eliminate such of its parts as are use- 
less and dangerous to its welfare, such as threaten its 
comfort or existence. In doing this it is exercising the 
function of synergy — the acting of all the parts as 
whole in the interest of all. In this case the function 
of sympathy is absent because the essential condition 
of sympathy is sense of likeness, and because an or- 
ganism cannot have co-feeling with a minute part of 
itself. But in the collective human organism, where 
the parts are discrete individuals, generically like each 
other, each possessing feeling and will of its own, there 
exists both synergy and sympathy — on the one hand, 
the organised force of the whole mass dissociating or 
destroying parts inimical to it, on the other the sym- 
pathy of the individual part with another part or parts 
that suffer and are under stress. The application will 
now be clear to the case of animals. As men have 
spread over the earth and come more and more into 
contact with the lower life, the larger brutes, at any 
rate have entered into such close relations with human 
beings as to form with them co-parts of a great organ- 
ism of terrestrial life. Man is naturally the dominant 
part of that organism ; and while on the one hand, ex- 
ercising the function of synergy, he has been eliminating 
elements hostile or useless to him, there has grown up 
within him as individual the new and essentially modern 
function of sympathy — the power of co-suffering with 
the injured, of feeling harm done to others as harm done 
to self. The wider aspects of these two functions can- 
not, of course, be discussed here. It is none the less 
important to bear in mind that the synergic function 
is destined to decrease, and the sympathetic function 
to increase in importance, as time goes on. In the 
lowest stage of human society the synergic function 
is at its highest and the sympathetic function at its 
lowest ; in the highest stage of that society synergy 
will be at its lowest and sympathy at its highest. For 
sympathy is one of those characters of the higher in- 
dividuality — here to be carefully distinguished from 
egoism, or lack of individuality, in the savage — which 
are destined to re-shape the whole social structure, 
for the reason that the social structure, being a pro- 
duct of the individualities which compose it, must take 
part in and express their ascent. It is this gradual 
modification of synergy by sympathy which is mani- 

fested in all the humanitarian tendencies of modern 
life ; it is the same movement of ascent by which men, 
at first co-feeling only with their fellows, have acquired 
the power to co-feel with and protect the lower ani- 
mals. But the movement is one which will culminate 
far too late to operate to the advantage of the larger 
organisms now awaiting their coup de grace at the hands 
of civilisation. It is already clear that only those can 
survive which are either useful to man as food, or cap- 
able of being employed in his service. And if we view 
the process which is going on in the light of the con- 
version of energy, it may be shown that, in a very 
true, if not literal sense, the lamb is devouring his old 
enemy the wolf, and the ox is eating up his ancient 
tormentor the lion, while the tiger, the giraffe, and the 
elephant are being as rapidly converted into show 
heifer and prize pig. Only when this metamorphosis 
has been fully accomplished can it be veraciously said 
that man wields dominion over the beasts of the field. 

One other aspect of the relation of man to the lower 
animals is the remarkable fact — correlated with a triple 
aspect in the movement of mental development — that 
in the last stage of the human ascent men tend to go 
back to the essential characters of the pagan attitude 
towards the animal. In the first stage (apart from re- 
ligious beliefs), men regarded themselves as on the 
same plane as the brute. In the second stage they 
deem themselves superior, the animal inferior. In the 
third stage the brute is viewed as belonging funda- 
mentally to the same class as the human being. Sci- 
ence now formally recognises the lower animal as dif- 
fering from man only by a difference of degree, and 
not by a total difference of kind. It is a manifestation 
of the tendency of the third stage that we have begun 
to regard domestic animals as entitled to our protec- 
tion, and that even from a theological point of view 
man discusses the question whether the lower organ- 
isms are not as much entitled to a future life as our- 

It is also to be noted that men pass through like 
stages in their views of the universe. In the sacred 
song of the Hindu we read of Purusha, and that from 
the sacrifice of him sprang horses and all animals — 
the moon from his soul, the sun from his eyes ; from 
his navel arose the air, from his head the sky, and 
from his feet the earth. The Scandinavians also pic- 
tured the universe as one ; for the sons of Borr took 
the universe-giant Ymir, and of his flesh they formed 
the earth, of his blood the seas and waters, of his 
bones the mountains, of his teeth the rocks and stones, 
of his hair all manner of plants, of his skull the firma- 
ment, and of his brains the clouds. In Chaldean story, 
Bel, having cut the world-woman Omorca in twain, 
converts the two halves of her body into heaven and 
earth. For Egyptian, as for Greek, plants, stones, 



metals, and other natural objects arose by like meta- 
morphosis from the bodies of once worshipped gods. 
Among the Iroquois Indians Chokanipok was a uni- 
verse-giant, whose limbs, bones, and blood had been 
utilised to the making of the world. To this day the 
South Australian regards the universe as the Great 
Tribe, to one of whose divisions he himself belongs, 
and all things animate or inanimate which belong to 
his class as portions of the body corporate, of which he 
himself is part. 

What the savage thinks, what early man thought 
about the external world, is what science is thinking 
and proving more and more every day, namel)', that 
the universe is no other than the living God of the theo- 
logian, and that out of the energy which constitutes 
it have been made all perceptible shapes and struc- 
tures ; that the universe is in truth the Great Tribe, 
that the differences which men note in their classifica- 
tions are merely divisions of that tribe, and that all 
things, whether we call them "animate" or "inani- 
mate," are portions of the body corporate of which 
man and the lower animals are themselves but parts. 


The Rev. B. Rother Plj'mouth has written again in 
reply to the remarks made in connection with his letter 
to The Open Court, (published in No. 284, p. 3549,') 
as follows : 

• ' To thi Editor oj The Open Court : 

"Thank you for the copies of February 2d, containing the 
letter that I hastily scratched off to you without second thought, 
never imagining that it would appear in print. 

"I intimated no fear of the most rigid examination for the 
Christian religion, only irritation at having a paper like yours sent 
to a clergyman who is supposed to know what ground he stands 
on in professing that religion. 

"A righteous man has no fear of the bar of justice, but is it 
not an insult to bring him there ? So with the religion of Christ. 
It has been attacked over and over again, and since it has success- 
fully met every assault, it is a little vexing to have the same old 
weapons burnished up or remodeled and pointed against its im- 
pregnable walls, and those inside called on to examine their de 
fences, that they may surrender before it is too late. 

"The Christian faith courts examination from the honest in- 
quirer, but some would attempt the pick and dynamite and call it 

"Unbelief should, I confess, awaken in me, as it did in my 
Master, only grief. Truly yours, B. Rother Plv.mouth." 

Is this grief at unbelief justified? We think not. 
True Christianity should be grieved at indifference 
only ; it should welcome doubt and unbelief, for unbe- 
lief and doubt lead to inquiry, and inquiry is the search 
for truth. Truth, however, is exactly that which we 
want, not Christianity, nor dogma, nor blind faith. 
We want Christianit)' only if it is truth. 

There are two kinds of Christianity : the one is the 
spirit of the lesson taught mankind in the life and 
death of Christ, the other is a system of dogmas which 

historically originated with Jesus and claims that the 
acceptance of these dogmas is the indispensable con- 
dition of salvation. The former Christianity is the 
very soul of our civilisation, the latter an embarrassing 
dead weight on the feet of mankind obstructing all 
progress and higher development. The Jesus of the 
Gospels speaks in parables, but his followers prefer to 
have the dead letter to believe in, for, (as says Mephis- 
topheles in Goethe's "Faust,"): 

■'An Worte liisst sich trej/lich gtauben. 
Von eineitt Wort It^isst sich kein Iota raubene' 

[On words 'tis excellent believing. 

No word can ever lose a jot from thieving.] 

It is SO convenient to take parables literally. While 
it is troublesome to understand the living spirit, it is 
very easy to believe in a dead letter. The letter of 
Christian parables has been formulated by the fathers 
and ancient bishops into a system of beliefs, confes- 
sions of faith so called. There is a wonderful logical- 
ity about them, and they are admirably constructed in 
their joints ; but let us not forget that they are subject 
to criticism, for they are the work of man, not of God, 
and, indeed, we have at present outgrown these old 
formulations of a past creed. But the authors who 
fashioned these confessions of faith stepped boldly 
forward and said to the people : "These be thy gods, 
O Israel"; and there are to-day many who still be- 
lieve that these historical documents are the words of 
absolute truth." 

We do not deny that parables are good things. On 
the contrary, parables are the vehicles which convey 
truth. All our words are symbols, and we communi- 
cate our ideas through symbols. Greek poets symbo- 
lise beauty as Aphrodite, time as Kronos, etc. There 
is no objection to this method ; but he who ingenu- 
ously believes in the symbol itself, and not in the 
meaning conveyed by the symbol, is a pagan, an idol- 
ator, a heathen ; and the Christian who believes in the 
literal truth of his symbolic books, parables, and con- 
fessions of faith stands upon the same standpoint : he 
also is a pagan, and we may qualify him as a Christian 

Christianity, the true Christianity, is a moral factor 
in the world,— nay, it is tJie moral factor in the evolu- 
tion of mankind. 

Christianity teaches us that life is serious, it is not 
mere play. We do not live for happiness, but for the 
• performance of duties ; and the performance of our 
duties can be perfect only if the main-spring of our 
actions is love — love of that which is our duty, love of 
our neighbor, love even of our enemy. And our path 
naturally leads (>er aspera ad astrei, per eriicein ad lucevi, 
through self-sacrifice to victory. This truth, mytho- 
logically and allegorically expressed in the Gospels in 
so many various ways, is a truth that science corrobo- 



rates more and more. Let the mythology of Chris- 
tianit}' go, the significance with which its symbols are 
filled is true. 

This is the Christianity which animates the columns 
of The Open Court. This is the Religion of Truth, 
taught in those revelations of the All-Beings in whom 
we live and move and have our being, which surround 
us daily, and which in common parlance are called 
"facts." And this truth being provable by the usual 
scientific methods, has been called by us the Religion 
of Science. 

Unbelief, doubt, the spirit of keen criticism, should 
not cause in the soul of anybody grief. Let him who 
doubts search for the truth, and he will find, perhaps 
after many anxieties, that the truth quickens and com- 

If Jesus of Nazareth were in our midst to-day, and 
if he came unto his own, they, most assuredly, would 
receive him not. Think of Jesus in our churches of 
to-day ! Would not the scene in the temple be re- 
peated ? Would He not again cast out those that sell 
and buy, and overturn the tables of the money-chang- 
ers? And would not afterwards the result also be the 
same or similar ? 

We do not pursue the method of Jesus in the tem- 
ple, for we are convinced of the impracticability of the 
task. We do not regard it as our duty to purge the 
temple of paganism and impurities. We leave the 
negative work of denunciation and destruction to 
others. Our work is constructive. We endeavor to 
build up, in the hope that errors will crumble away as 
soon as the positive truth has been recognised. 

Christ's Christianity is not the dogmatism of the 
Christian churches, and we boldly claim that there is 
more of the spirit of Christ's Christianity in the unbe- 
lief, so called, that is propounded in the columns of 77;,? 
Open Court, than in the unshaken belief in dogmas 
taught in most of those journals which call themselves 
Christian. p. c. 


There was a great meeting of liberal clergymen at Chicago 
last Monday, concerning which the Rev. Dr. Jenkin Lloyd Jones 
writes to the Chicago Sunday Post as follows : 

" For me the recent coming together of the liberal ministers 
of Chicago in social compact for cooperative study, and, if possi- 
ble, for cooperative work, is an event that deserves more than a 
passing notice. These men are forced together by outside pres- 
sure. The distrust in which they are all held by the so called or- 
thodox religionists of this city establishes their first bond of union. 
But there are more central forces that lead to this union. The 
unity of negations is cold and always uncertain. These men are 
finding each other, not on account of their common denials, but 
on account of their common affirmation. Not having to legislate 
about their convictions, discarding all creed tests and creed stand- 
ards, they can the more cordially recognise the common principles 
that inspire them. 

"These men find themselves inspired by a common faith in 

progress, a common reverence for law, a common gratitude to sci- 
ence, a common openness for new revealments further on. These 
men find themselves in substantial agreement as to the nature and 
purpose of the church, the scope and power of religion. To them 
the church is a comradeship in the interests of the higher life, a 
school of the humanities, a training school for those who would 
help the miserable, a workshop where love is foreman. The church 
is for this world and not the next ; character is the aim. 

"The evangelical churches so called have been forced into 
the wisdom of cooperation. They present a common front not 
only against the moral evils of society but also against what to 
some of us seem to be great intellectual and social good. They are 
suspicious of intellectual progress, they are pledged to curtail the- 
ological thought. They call philosophers, naturalists, and theo- 
logical investigators : heretics, infidels, foes of religion and danger- 
ous to the spirit. We recognise in these men helpers of the spirit, 
friends of the higher life, allies, not foes to religion. When the 
laymen and women that are in essential accord with these liberal 
ministers find each other out and stand together they will be able 
to make a dent upon the superstition and bigotry that bans so 
many men and things religiously which are blessing immeasur- 
ably these very men. 

" These liberal ministers represent an organised strength in 
the city of Chicago, which, taken together, already outweighs in 
influence, wealth, and intelligence probably any one of the great 
onhodox sects in the city. This fraternity includes in Chicago 
and immediate vicinity the independent societies presided over-by 
Professor Swing, Dr Thomas, and Dr. Acton, of Aurora ; five Uni- 
versalist societies under the pastoral charge of the Revs. Canfield, 
Harris, Dinsmore, White, of Englewood, and Johonnot, of Oak Park; 
three congregations of Reformed Jews, represented by Drs. Hirsch, 
Moses, and Stolz ; six Unitarian societies in charge of Messrs. 
Fenn, Milsted, Blake, Jones, Gould, of Hinsdale, and Penny, of 
Geneva ; the Ethical Culture Society, led by Mr. Mangasarian, 
and that large, uncounted class of people, the thoughtful, truth- 
seeking, unchurched, but earnest believers in the fundamentals of 
universal religion. For, as Dr. Thomas says, ' there are no out- 
siders in our fellowship. In our collective capacity as liberal min- 
isters, at least, we propose to take them all in and offer our hand 
to any one who is willing to take it. Believing with Longfellow : 

" 'That in all ages every human heart is human, 
That the feeble hands and helpless. 
Groping blindly in the darkness. 
Touch God's right hand in that darkness 
And are lifted up and strengthened.' " 

" We have no revolutionary plans, no startling departures to 
suggest. We do not propose to interfere with the autonomy of 
any existing society or denomination. Thus far these ministers 
are but haltingly following, not leading, a great movement — a 
movement so great and so deep that it is hardly felt ; it is a ground- 
swell and not a wind ; it is a movement towards the great free 
church of America, democratic in its recognition of the intellectual 
liberty of each individual, and republican in its government that 
will brook no hierarchial or priestly interference. 

"There are not many indications that this coming liberal 
church of America is to take the name of any of the most liberal 
denominations now in existence, but there are many indications 
that the liberal denominations are making great and direct contri- 
butions to this liberal church. In the West, at least, there will be 
few churches organised in the future that will take distinctively 
the name 'Unitarian' or ' Universalist.' The three liberal or- 
ganisations perfected within the last few months in the State of 
Illinois have avoided the name in order to better get the thing, viz. , 
the people's churches at Princeton and Peoria and the Church of 
Good-Will at Streator. But all the same the coming church will 
be the church of Channing's faith in man. Theodore Parker's thirst 



for truth and love of progress, Ballou and Chapin's and Whittier's 
trust in the eternal goodness, the redeemed and released thirst 
after righteousness of Judaism and Emerson's 'Gospel of Light ' 
The West is full of ' people out in search of a religion.' Will 
not a religion that is scientific and a science that is religious, a 
reverent reason and reasonable reverence, satisfy them ? 


When Robinson Crusoe rescued his man Friday who was 
about to be roasted at the cannibal barbecue, the grateful heathen 
crawled in the sand and placing his head under the foot of Crusoe 
signified thereby that henceforward Friday would be the slave of 
his deliverer. The gratitude of the barbarian atones for his act of 
self-abasement, but what shall redeem from utter contempt the 
servility of those degenerate Americans who from pure 'umbleness 
grovel in the sand before a hero, and figuratively place his heel 
upon their heads. Man worship in this country has nearly reached 
idolatry, and the ancient spirit of self-respect is fading out of us. 
The office of laureate has been abolished in England, but not in 
the United States. Here, every newspaper employs professional 
flatterers and laureates to praise the very shoestrings of a Presi- 
dent, and metaphorically stick his hat like old Gesler's, on a pole, 
for the admiration and homage of a people whose fathers fought a 

A laureate on the staff of The C/iicago Herald telegraphs from 
Washington that "Mr. Cleveland, Mrs. Cleveland, and Baby 
Ruth, will stop at the Arlington Hotel." This relieves the public 
anxiety concerning little Ruth, and we shall no longer be afraid 
that her parents will leave her on the road somewhere, or send her 
to some second class hotel ; a proceeding not altogether without 
excuse if what the laureate says is true that "The presidential 
board bill will be S475 a day. I thought at first it was $4.75, but 
I find that there is no misprint, and that it means S475 (four hun- 
dred and sevent) -five). It is none of my business, of course, but 
I think the figures are high, especially when "as soon as it was 
learned that Mr. Cleveland had engaged quarters at the Arlington 
the proprietor was obliged to refuse applications almost daily from 
persons who offered S50 a day and upward " ; not $0.50 nor $5.00, 
but S50 a day. With such a profitable guest causing such a rush 
of idolaters 10 that hotel "the proprietor" might afford to board 
Mr. Cleveland, and Mrs. Cleveland, and even Baby Ruth for noth- 
ing ; as he very likely will. 

* * 

Reading a little further down in the dispatches, I am not so 
sure that S475 a day is too much, considering the style and splen- 
dor of the furniture, a catalogue of which is given by the laureate 
who describes it all in the exuberant and superlative rhetoric of an 
auctioneer; "soft draperies, delicately wrought lace, and lustrous 
silk." Of course " the walls are covered with rare pictures, and 
rich rugs adorn the floor." A vein of poetry runs through the in- 
formation that ' ' luxurious chairs and divans invite indolence, " but 
the rest of it seems to have been copied from an advertisement 
which the laureate found in the Herald, "a glittering array of 
china and cut glass, handsome bronzes, famous pottery, beautiful 
and frail"; all of which combine, says the laureate, " to render 
the apartment most regal in its splendor." But all that "regal 
splendor," all that glory and magnificence are but the array of an 
ordinary lodging house compared with the imperial spoons, bor- 
rowed especially for this occasion to give a tinge of monarchy to 
the rest of the furniture and remove any taint of democracy that 
might linger in the rooms. All snobdom throbs with ecstasy to 
learn that those American carpets and other paraphernalia are to 
be presented at court, as it were, under the patronage of some sec- 
ond hand cutlery and crockery from the palace of St. Cloud. " It 
may be interesting to know," says the laureate, " that Mrs. Cleve- 

land will use a knife and fork and spoon which were once the 
property of the Empress Eugenie, and that Mr. Cleveland will 
drink his cofiee from a cup that once belonged to Napoleon Bona- 
parte " "Interesting to know" is too mild a phrase for it. We 
cannot be sufficiently grateful for the information that our Ameri- 
can manners are to be ornamented by some faded veneering from 
the old curiosity shop of an empire. 


* * 

So many hypocritical excuses, mostly patriotic, have been of- 
fered for the pension system, that I feel as if I were taking moral 
refreshment when I hear an honest politician frankly declare in 
the United States Senate that the public money is a campaign 
fund available to both parties as payment for the soldier vote. 
With admirable candor Senator Palmer in opposing some amend- 
ment aimed at the pension system said that no political party 
" would ever refuse to make proper appropriations for pensions." 
This, while unusually ingenuous, might have been more sincere if 
he had said "proper and improper," for that was what he meant, 
or there is no force in the rest of his argument. He said, "it has 
been a race between political parties for many years as to which 
should be most earnest in its liberality to the old soldiers." This 
was very true, and then like a magician taking an audience into 
his confidence and showing how his tricks were done. Senator Pal- 
mer thus uncovers the reason for this munificent "liberality"; he 
"apprehended that that race would continue so long as the old 
fellows amounted to so much as they now do at the polls." With 
such a confession as that made in the United States Senate, I won- 
der not that the country waits impatiently for the veterans to die. 
What the "old fellows" amounted to in the war counts for noth- 
ing ; the question is, what do they amount to now ' ' at the polls " ? 
I think a pension must be a perpetual enjoyment, but if I should 
get one for the battles and the marches, I would rather not hear 
it proclaimed in the national senate that I got it for my services 
"at the polls." 

Yesterday was Washington's birthday, and Chicago honored 
the anniversary in a somewhat stilted and artificial way. The 
celebration, while not exactly exclusive, was a very select ' ' affair. " 
There was no spontaneous uprising of the people, no patriotic 
magnetism in the streets, no enthusiasm among the multitude. 
There was a good deal of sounding brass at the Auditorium, and 
some tinkling cymbals at the Union League Club, but the popular 
spirit was not warmed ; it was not even appealed to, for the genius 
of the American revolution was not welcome at the festival. The 
Tory patronage bestowed on Washington gave a chill to that re- 
sistance-to-tyranny Americanism, that fight-for-Iiberty American- 
ism, of which Washington was the most illustrious example in his 
day. It seemed as if the intention was to conceal rather than to 
reveal Washington. Edward Everett Hale, himself a great Amer- 
ican, a man of genius whose massive head is crowned with the 
glory of a life of work well done, was so limited and fettered by 
the spirit of aristocracy hovering about him, that at the banquet 
of the Union League Club the colossal Washington shrunk in his 
hands until it became the statuette of a country squire ; and some- 
thing even smaller than that, "the ideal American gentleman." 
And he "hoped that some young American artist would be in- 
spired by his hint to picture Washington acting as foreman of a 
county grand jury." I hope not. Let the young artist paint 
Washington at his greatest and his best ; as President of the Con- 
stitutional Convention, if he will ; or better yet, as President of 
the United States; or, best of all, as the chief of a brave and lib- 
erty-loving people fighting for independence. 

* * 

At the beginning of his oration on Washington, Mr. Hale gave 
us a key to the mysteries of the festival in these words: " When 
Putnams, the great publishers, asked me to write for them the life 



of Washington, I said I would do so on one condition ; I must 
omit all reference to the French war ; I proposed to say nothing 
about the American revolution, and I proposed to leave the Presi- 
dency to some other historian." This explains the reason why 
there was no backbone in the celebration. Mr. Hale was to speak 
of Washington, and "say nothing about the American revolution," 
a subject which is rather disagreeable at a high toned meeting; 
for 'pon honor, you know, there is nothing so rasping lo the nerves 
of Lord Dundreary as a reference to the American revolution ; 
and we have more Dundrearys in America than they ever had in 
England. The biography of Washington, leaving out of it the 
French war, the American revolution, and the Presidency of the 
United States, would fit hundreds of other men of his time ; and 
so far as Mr. Hale described Washington, outside of all there was 
of Washington, he did his work excellently well ; as also did a lit- 
tle girl, nine years old, who lives in the same street with me. The 
other day she went to her grandfather and said ; "I have to write 
a composition on George Washington ; will you help me to do it ? ' 
And the old man said : "No, it is not fair to the other children 
that grandfathers help little girls to write their compositions; you 
must do it yourself"; and she did it in these words : "George 
Washington was the first President of the United States. He was 
born in Virginia, and his birthday was the 22d of February. He 
never went to college, and his school-books are still kept, and they 
are very neat. He was a strong boy and could manage horses 
well ; and he was the only boy that never told a lie." Now, that 
biography, expanded so as to fit the Auditorium, is very much like 
the composition of Mr. Edward Everett Hale. Although the little 
girl does say something about the Presidency, she agrees with Mr. 
Hale in leaving out all reference to the French war and the Amer- 
ican revolution. 

* * 

Under the present law in Illinois a two years' course of study 
is necessary before an aspirant can be eligible for admission to the 
bar, but a bill is now before the legislature, which, if enacted into 
law, will add another year to the length of this probationary term ; 
the intention being to make it thirty-three per cent, harder than it 
is now for a man to adopf the lawyer trade for a living. In its own 
feeble way the proposed law will help to make liberty dearer and 
life harder. It is the old mendicant appeal of mediocrity for pro- 
tection against genius. The excuse for the change is that it will 
"raise the standard of the profession" and give us better lawyers, 
the very reverse of which is true, for excellence in the profession 
will be more easily attained by throwing down every barrier to 
genius, and by making the law trade absolutely free to every form 
of talent and to every variety of learning. Let any man practice 
law who feels within himself that he has a "call" to the bar; and 
instead of adding another string to the barb-wire fence, let us re- 
move the two strings that are already there. If our law-makers 
are not willing to do that, let them leave the bar as it is for the 
present and try to raise the standard of the bench. Let them pass 
a law, declaring that before any man shall be eligible to the great 
office of judge, he shall spend five years in the diligent study of 
the law, and two years more in the equally diligent study of moral 
science. Then let him be examined by competent men, who shall 
decide whether or not he has learned anything in the seven years. 

M. M. Trumbull. 
Socialism from Genesis to Revelation. By the Ri-v. F. A/. 
Spragne Boston : Lee & Shepard. 1893. 

"This work," says the author in the preface, "was begun as 
an investigation, continued as a study, and completed as a convic- 
tion. That conviction is, that some form of Christian Socialism 
affords the only basis of peace between the hostile forces of so- 
ciety." Mr. Sprague is a serious thinker and an enthusiastic be- 

liever in this peculiar solution of the labor problem. We find 
many admirable sentiments in his book, but must confess that he 
has not succeeded in convincing us. c. 


The author of " The Dear Old Hand," the beautiful poetical 
tribute paid to a mother, which appeared in No. 284 of T/w Open 
Court, makes the following statement as to how the poem came to 
be written : 

" The poet of poets assures us," he writes, "that there is a 
'destiny that shapes our ends' I assure you that we had a provi- 
dence in the form of a loving mother, who provided for our ex- 
tremities stockings and mittens for a period of over three-quarters 
of a century. The stitches taken must have reached far into hun- 
dreds of millions, for she passed her ninetieth year before she sur- 
rendered the knitting needles. The song refers to a son, Thomas 
Henderson, who fell at the battle of Shiloh, fighting in defense of 
his adopted country. Another son lost a leg at the battle of Co- 
rinth, and she continued to knit his stockings as long as her hand 
retained its cunning and her eyes the light of love, and even after 
their light was partially quenched in the gloom that ends in that 
night called death. Perhaps the amount of yarn consumed during 
the seventy-five years of her motherhood would fill a large room 
from carpet to ceiling, and the threads would surely reach at least 
three times around the planet. The double click of the knitting 
needles seemed always to say, ever and ever : ' I love them ! I 
love them ! ' 

" The author of the song had been the glad recipient of two 
pairs of soft, white lamb's wool stockings on a cold December 
evening, knit by the dear old hand after she was ninety years of 
age. He sat down and composed these verses before he slept and 
sent them to her at Dale Delight, on Henderson Prairie, Iowa, by 
the next mail. 

" She lived six years longer and heard them sung annually on 
her birthday by a chorus of voices, including over sixty of her de- 
scendants, children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren." 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 


DR. PAUL CARUS, Euitor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of Thk Oi^kn Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS. Edmund Noble. 3575 



CURRENT TOPICS : American Laureates. Hero Wor- 
ship. Imperial Spoons. Pensions for Votes. Washing- 
ton Shorn. Say Nothing About the American Revolu- 
tion. Raise the Standard of the Bench. Gen. M. M. 

Trumbull 3581 




The Open Court. 



No. 289. (Vol. VII.— 10.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 9, 1893. 

j Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Dr. Paul C.a.rus, one of the editors of The Monist 
and The Open Court — periodicals which rank among 
the most important of the socio-philosophical reviews 
of the United States of America — proposes, in three 
lectures upon the " Ethical Problem," the adoption of 
a course which might be considered as a compromise 
between the utilitarian and the objective moral, or, as 
he terms it, the " intuitionalist " school. He meets 
the utilitarian principle at the outset by the following 
declaration : 

"We may say that the pursuit of happiness is a natural right 
of man, but we cannot derive the moral ' ' ought " from the pursuit 
of happiness. And the mere pursuit of happiness is not sufficient to 
make a complete and worthy human life. On the contrary, the 
mere pursuit of happiness wherever it prevails unchecked in the 
soul of man is a most dangerous tendency, which unfits man for 
business as well as for family life, and above all for ideal aspira- 
tions. What is the reason that trustworthy persons, competent 
workers, dutiful men and women are so rare ? It is simply be- 
cause most people are too eager in their pursuit of happiness. 

" The pursuit of happiness is not wrong. Enjoyment is not a 
sin, and recreation is not improper. Yet it is wrong to make hap- 
piness the sole aim of existence. We cannot live without enjoy- 
ment; enjoyment keeps our minds healthy and buoyant; yet en- 
joyment is not the purpose of life. Recreation is the rest we take 
after our work is done. We do not work in order to have recrea- 
tion ; but we seek recreation in order to do more work. 

"If the pursuit of happiness is not sufficient to make man's 
lite complete and worthy, what then is needed to make it so ? We 
all know what is needed : it is ethics. Then let us have ethics — 
not mere theories about pleasurable sensations, but true ethics — 
ethics that are nobler than the mere pursuit of pleasure." 

If these lofty conceptions do not suffice to gain our 
sympathies for him, the author acquires a new claim 
on us by virtue of the following declaration : 

" I shall be glad to learn from my critics; and wherever any 
one will convince me of an error, he will find me ready to change 
my opinion and to accept the truth whatever it be." 

Both from a scientific and a practical point of view, 
I find his disagreement with those who would promote 
the elevation of moral life without regard to philo- 
sophical or religious opinions, or without fundamental 
principles, a very serious matter. 

* Translated from the Italian. The article appeared first in II Nuovo Ri- 
sorgiinento Rivista di Filosojia, Scienze, Lettere, Educazionf e Studi Sociali 
(Milan), a Roman Catholic magazine, and was republished in pamphlet form. 

Dr. Carus's book had its origin in a controversy 
between the author and the "Society of Ethical Cul- 
ture," represented by The Etliical Record, of Philadel- 
phia. Although we cannot agree with him in his posi- 
tion that supernatural revelation is an impossibility, 
we, nevertheless, approve of his conception of the 
necessity of a philosophico-scientific basis of ethics — a 
necessity which, in our opinion, is a logical objective 
exigency of speculative thought, and, socially, a sub- 
jective exigency of our time and of modern education. 
This view is, in our opinion, fully in accord with An- 
tonio Rosmini's "Philosophy of Ethics" and "Phi- 
losophy of Right [Diritto)." 

The author, possessed of a happier memory than 
ours, very well recollects the time when man was an 
animal, living in herds with others of his kind ; and 
he knows also, that at that early day higher ethics had 
received but little development. But, as little by lit- 
tle a higher ethics grew, society emerged from bar- 
barism into the light of civilisation. And here criti- 
cism grows somewhat laborious ; for, notwithstanding 
his earnest profession of scientific research, the author's 
method of procedure is that of the statement of aphor- 
isms and definitions, each of which we should be jus- 
tified in calling in doubt. In fact, it is these ver}' 
aphorisms and definitions from which he proceeds, 
that should, first of all, have been submittted to crit- 
cal examination — even from a historical standpoint — 
if the author really wished to give ethics a scientific 
basis. In agreement with Comte's conceptions of the 
three natural stages of development, he declares that 
the question, whether ethics is a science and can be 
founded upon a scientific basis, is the same as that of 
the reconciliation of religion and science, or of the de- 
velopment of religion from infancy to its state of ma- 
turity, from dualism to monism, from the mysticism 
of a vague supernaturalistic speculation to the light of 
positive certainty, from an authoritative and credulous 
faith to the faith of scientific knowledge. 

However correct and honest the intentions of the 
author may be, we consider as truly deplorable his 
arbitrary conception of religion, which, in his presup- 
position undiscussed, and, for him, admitting of no 
discussion, is nothing but a human fact, while to us 


THE OjPEN court. 

the elevation of man to the Absolute is itself a work 
of God. If the author's supposition were true, his 
course would have to be approved of, although the 
difficulty would remain, whether a scientific religion 
could be understood by the multitude, who might 
know it generally, but not scientifically. 

Nor are we less surprised at the author's confound- 
ing the ideas "vague," "supernatural," and "fan- 
tastic "; the fantastic, the ideal, and the supernatural 
being three orders much at variance with facts. Alto- 
gether, Dr. Carus's point of departure differs in noth- 
ing from that of Comte. 

And thus, when he comes to establish the "basis" 
of ethics — always in aphoristic form — he states the 
hypothesis, that knowledge is a representation of 
facts — a definition of which our readers know, beyond 
doubt, is disputable. 

It is true, the author attempts to found ethics upon 
reason, upon the immutable and necessary order of 
things, and he deserves praise for thus having elevated 
himself above the level of the utilitarian ; but, in de- 
fault of tradition and through excessive fear of the 
supernatural and mystical, he falls into the error of a 
material monism and fails, at the same time, to give 
his doctrine a foundation. 

However, the author is worthy and capable of 
something better, as may be seen in his beautiful ob- 
servation in censure of the ferocious and pharisaical 
theory, which pretends to derive all moral sentiment 
from egotism. Here he is entirely in accord with the 
Italian school, and I doubt if the remarks he makes 
could be improved upon. 

Only it is deplorable that, owing to his disregard- 
ing a great part of ancient and modern philosophic 
speculation, he should not be able, while face to face 
with the utilitarians, to perceive others than the ranks 
of those whom he terms intuitionalists, wrongfully 
accusing them of ignoring and of refusing to demon- 
strate, by natural and scientific methods, the reasons 
or motives underlying morality, of making duty a 
mystery, etc., etc. All this we naturally read with 
something akin to ill-will here, in the home of the 
philosophy of right (diritio) ; in fact, in Europe gen- 
erally, where for so many centuries the supreme mo- 
tives of the good have been scientifically investigated. 

He likewise touches upon the problem of freewill 
and believes to have found its solution, but does not 
seem to be well aware of the main difficulty, which 
consists in this, that, on the one hand, the fact of free- 
will is attested by the consciousness ; on the other 
hand, that will without motive is an absurdity. Cer- 
tainly. But, with the usual defect of Anglo-Ameri- 
cans — the tendency to vaporings, as in the McKinley 
bill, so in philosophical speculation, — the work of cen- 
turies, — he falls into a twofold error: historical and 

philosophical. His classification of those who have 
entered into an investigation of this problem into theo- 
logians, who hold freewill a will without motive and 
an inscrutable mystery, and freethinkers, so called, 
who place it among illusions, is much too superficial. 
Assuredly, these two views are both false ; but, if our 
author had kept accurate account of philosophical tra- 
dition, and above all, if he had paid closer attention 
to Italian philosophy, and to that of Rosmini in par- 
ticular, he would have observed that the difficulty has 
been by many not only recognised, but also sur- 

In fact, the doctrine of practical judgment, in our 
opinion, while, on the one hand, it justifies the e.xist- 
ence of freedom of choice, is not satisfied with merely 
affirming it, but demonstrates the operation by a keen 
analysis ; and, on the other hand, confutes in the best 
possible manner determinism, physiological, as well 
as psychological and rationalistic. And what is this 
"best possible manner"? That of conceding, or 
rather, of comprehending whatever truth there may be 
in those views, in order the better to avoid the fallacies 
they may contain. An act not determined by a rea- 
son is an absurdity. Decidedly. But a free will con- 
sists precisely in the ability to determine, in the abil- 
ity to make real a given reason, a given impulse, a 
given sentiment. How is freewill reconcilable with 
the evident subjection of our acts to the status of the 
nervous system, the status of health or disease, ad- 
ventitious or constitutional, individual or hereditary? 
Free choice is an act of reflection, or rather, one of 
the higher acts of reflection. Now, reflection requires 
a certain status of order and calmness in our functions, 
which, for instance, does not exist, at least not with- 
out great expenditure of force, in fever, hysterics, ex- 
cessive pain, extraordinary somnolence, or any ardent 
superexcitation. But it is none the less true that these 
same conditions, favorable or unfavorable as they may 
be to reflection, and to the exercise of free choice, have 
for the most part their origin in liberty of choice itself, 
as in disease which has been neglected or aggravated, 
or criminally transmitted to descendants, or in cases 
of exaltation not restrained at the outset, or to assume 
a less ignoble case, in any excessive lassitude or strain, 
whether of muscle or brain, consequent upon hard 

At times Dr. Cams recognises the difficulty, but 
then again, following the imperfect theory of some 
German moralists, he confounds liberty of will with 
freedom from passion, and ends by admitting liberty 
solely in connection with the Good. Now, it is very 
true that liberty makes for the Good. It is very true 
that he who does good is freer than he who works 
evil ; that the practice of virtue not only educates and 
refines sentiment, but also strengthens freedom of will, 



just as, on the other hand, yielding to certain vices 
weakens, and, in the end, almost entirely nullifies it. 
But it is none the less true that liberty presents itself 
in connection with the Evil as well as in connection 
with the Good. So true is this that, before entering 
on the examination of certain crimes, men dften sus- 
tain fierce struggles with themselves in the endeavor 
to silence the voice of nature, of conscience, of blood ; 
as may especially be noticed in criminal cases of a 
political nature, and in all those which are executed with 
open predetermination and which are designed to some 
end of vast importance. Nor is it the case that those 
who have preceded Dr. Cams have not well distin- 
guished between necessity and compulsion — a very old 
and well-known distinction. On the contrary, he him- 
self does not well distinguish Uhcrtas a coactioiic from 
libcrtas a iicicssHatc, in which freedom of choice pre- 
■ cisely consists. Lihcrias a ncccssiiale, we repeat, does 
not in itself denote absence of reason, but determines 
to itself the preponderant reason. 

We must say, however, b}' way of causcrie, as the 
French would put it, that we have been better enter- 
tained than \''i& at first expected to be, by this work 
of the author of "Meliorism."* We find two good 
reasons for not being displeased with it. 

The first is the author's innate goodness and lofti- 
ness of spirit, which constantly reveals itself in his 
combating egotism, in his lifting up his readers out 
of the slough of " Spencerianism," and in the fact 
that he reposes the supreme ethical law in ijiitli. Al- 
though rejecting his doctrine of representation, f we 
cannot but congratulate Dr. Carus on his happy dec- 
laration : that ethics should recognise as its principal 
basis the search for truth and adaptation thereto ; 
that an honest inquiry into truth is the condition of 
all ethics, and that faithfulness and obedience to truth 
includes all the laws that a system of ethics could 

Prof. L. M. Billi.^ is a Roman Catholic and a dis- 
ciple of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. There is a deep- 
seated and radical difference between our view and 
that of our critic, and 3'et there is also in some points 

* This is the title of another of the author's works, and, in fact, the one 
which he applies to his system. 

t For the convenience of our readers, especially the young and strangers, 
we may repeat the reasons upon which we reject the theory of representation : 
That which is known is the truth ; that which is known is the idea. Idea and 
truth are entirely wholly one, and are wholly one also with the object thought 
of. If, instead of saying that the idea is the object thought of, we say that the 
idea is, through sense-reminiscence, a representation of the object, it would 
come to pass that we could never think of any object, but always of its repre 
sentation : therefore, I could not think: one, two, three — the thought itself 
would be impossible. Moreover, the representation could not be thought, if 
not by means of a certain resemblance or similitude with the object thought 
of; this similitude is what is actually thought : it is a common element ; it is 
the unity of the representation and that which is represented. Idea in this 
sense is the representation of many things similar to eacli other, but this is 
not its definition. ( See Rosmini, Psychology, vol. II, p, 1339. J 

of great consequence a striking agreement. As there 
is no hope of a conversion on either side, we may for- 
bear arguing the case and be satisfied with a simple 
statement, which will contrast the two world-concep- 
tions. But before entering into a discussion of the 
present subject, it seems advisable to sketch the phi- 
losoph)^ of Professor Billia's great master, who may 
fairly be regarded as the most representative Roman 
Catholic thinker of modern times. 

Rosmini was born in March, 1797, in Roveredo, 
Tyrol, the eldest son of a wealthy and noble family. 
He attended the Lyceum atTrient and the University 
of Padua, and selected in 1821 the ecclesiastical call- 
ing with the avowed purpose of giving to theology a 
sound philosophical basis. In his love of the church 
and eagerness for reform, he became the founder of a 
new religious order, the Society of the Brothers and 
Sisters of Charity, popularly called in Italy "The Ros- 
minians." He joined Piedmont in 1830 and Pope Pius 
IX. in 1848, under whose reform-ministry he became 
the papal minister of education. At the outbreak of 
the Roman revolution, he retired from public life and 
died July ist, 1855 at Stresa. 

In spite of all his devotion not only to the church 
but also to the Pope personally, whom he followed 
into his exile at Gal-ta, one of his writings "On the 
Five Wounds of the Church " has been placed upon 
the Index. 

Rosmini's numerous, and partly very ponderous, 
writings are little accessible to the English speaking 
world. His works were collected (according to Meyer's 
Konversations-Lexikon) in seventeen volumes (Milan, 
1S42-44), and he wrote, according to Davidson, not 
fewer than ninety-nine various publications, books, 
and among them very voluminous books, articles and 
pamphlets, on philosophical, theological, ethical, legal, 
and miscellaneous subjects. Among them are claimed 
to be the most important ones, " Nuovo saggio suU' ori- 
gine delle idee," 3 vol. ; and " Philosophia del diritto." 
The best known Italian works on his life are by Tho- 
maseo (Turin, 1855) and Bernardi (Pinerolo, i860). 
There is a translation extant of Rosmini's " Nouvo 
saggio suir origine delle idee," entitled "New Essay 
on the Origin of Ideas " (London, 18S3-84), published 
by the English branch of the Rosminians which is at- 
tached to the ancient church of St. Etheldreda, Ely 
Place, Holborn. The most convenient work for Eng- 
lish readers will be Davidson's book " Rosmini's Phil- 
osophical System" (London, 18S2). 

In order to overcome doubt and unbelief Rosmini 
attempted to establish a rational basis of the Christian 
faith, thus to work out a conciliation of reason and re- 
ligion. He opposed the sensualism and empiricism as 
represented in Italy by Gioja and Ramagnosi, and pro- 
pounded a philosophical system which in accord with 



Descartes's idealism was expected to be in agreement 
with the doctrines of the church. 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica characterises Ros- 
mini's philosophy as follows : 

" Rosmini, contemplating the position of recent philosophy 
from Locke to Hegel, and having his eye directed to the ancient 
and fundamental problem of the origin, truth, and certainty of our 
ideas, wrote : — ' If philosophy is to be restored to love and respect, 
I think it will be necessary, in part, to return to the teachings of 
the ancients, and in part to give those teachings the benefit of 
modern methods' (' Theodicy,' n. 148). Pursuing, therefore, the 
now generally approved method of the observation of facts, he most 
carefully examined and analysed the fact of human knowledge, and 
obtained the following results : 

" i) That the notion or idea of being or existence in general 
enters into, and is presupposed by, all our acquired cognitions, so 
that, without it, they would be impossible. 

" 2) That this idea is essentially objective, inasmuch as what 
is seen in it is as distinct from and opposed to the mind that sees 
it as the light is from the eye that looks at it. 

"3) That it is essentially true, because 'being' and 'truth' 
are convertible terms, and because in the vision of it the mind 
cannot err, since error could only be committed by a judgment, 
and here there is no judgment, but a pure intuition affirming noth- 
ing and denying nothing. 

"4) That by the application of this essentially objective and 
true idea the human being intellectually perceives, first, the animal 
body individually conjoined with him, and then, on occasion of 
the sensations produced in him }iol by himself, the causes of those 
sensations, that is, from the action felt he perceives and affirms an 
agent, a being, and therefore a true thing, that acts on him, and 
he thus gets at the external world, — these are the true primitive 
judgments, containing (a) the subsistence of the particular being 
(subject), and (/<) its essence or species as determined by the qual- 
ity of the action felt from it (predicate). 

" 5) That reflexion, by separating the essence or species from 
the subsistence, obtains the full specific idea (universalisation), 
and then from this, by leaving aside some of its elements, the ab- 
stract specific idea (abstraction). 

" 6) That the mind, having reached this stage of development, 
can proceed to further and further abstracts, including the first 
principles of reasoning, the principles of the several sciences, com- 
plex ideas, groups of ideas, and so on without end. 

"7) Finally, that the same most universal idea of being, this 
generator and formal element of all acquired cognitions, cannot 
itself be acquired, but must be innate in us, implanted by God in 
our nature. Being, as naturally shining to our mind, must there- 
fore be what men call the light of reason. Hence the name Ros- 
mini gives it of ideal being ; and this he laid down as the one true 
fundamental principle of all philosophy, and the supreme criterion 
of truth and certainty." 

We are in sympathy with the aspiration represented 
by Rosmini, of rationalising the Christian faith. We 
do not believe that Rosmini was successful in his ef- 
forts ; indeed, we think that he could not be, because 
he took a wrong start and was blinded by the firm and 
fore-determined conviction that the Christianity of the 
church was undeniable and indubitable truth. Never- 
theless, we regard the effort of any man of conciliating 
his religion with science and rational thought as praise- 
worthy, and we go so far as to say that the gist of Chris- 
tianity, i. e. the main tenets of Christian ethics, admit 

indeed of a perfectly rational foundation. We deny, 
however, the possibility of rationalising the dogmas of 
the church. We see in them only the crystallised myth- 
ology of past ages, which, when regarded as a myth- 
ology, is profound, venerable, full of oddly and mys- 
teriously expressed truths, but when regarded as truth 
itself, are utterly absurd. 

We agree with Professor Billia in substance while 
we disagree in form. We agree in rejecting hedon- 
ism, or the pleasure theory in ethics, and we agree in 
accepting the ethics of a stern search for truth. Neither 
of us can think of speaking of ethics as independent of 
a definite world- conception. Both of us regard moral- 
ity simply as the practical application of our deepest 
religious convictions concerning that which we have 
found to be the truth. Yet we disagree as to the form 
in which we cast our convictions. Rosmini and his 
school favor mystical expressions and extol the tradi- 
tion of the church in comparison to the results of mod- 
ern science. We, on the contrary, do not rest satisfied 
until the mysteries disappear like fog befoi'e the sun ; 
and while we place little reliance upon ecclesiastical 
traditions, we rely mainly upon that which God's rev- 
elation in nature teaches us through science. 

Thus my Roman Catholic critic who enjoys the ad- 
vantage of living in the cradle of an ancient civilisa- 
tion and the very home of the " Filosophia del diritto" 
jokes at my ingenuousness of accepting the theory of 
evolution. He does not attempt to overthrow the 
theory of evolution, and does not seem to expect me 
to take the trouble of proving it to him. I hope, he 
will not be offended when I openl)' confess that the 
smile was fully reciprocated on my part. It is not ig- 
norance of the philosophical and ecclesiastical tradi- 
tions, nor a horror of the supernatural that prevent me 
from accepting an ecclesiastical philosophy as is that 
of Rosmini's. Yet Professor Billia, it appears to me, 
does not appreciate the full weight of overwhelming 
proofs which give evidence to the truth of the theory 
of evolution. 

Professor Billia, so it seems to us, still regards re- 
ligious truths (i. e., the moral tenets which confessedly 
contain the gist of religion) as incompatible with the 
results of modern science. This may be excusable in 
the face of the fact that almost all modern ethicists 
who accept the theory of evolution, Spencer, Hoff- 
ding, Gizycki, etc., are hedonists. We trust that the 
theory of evolution, far from overthrowing the moral 
truths of religion will give them a scientific and relia- 
ble basis. If evolution is true, we must live in obe- 
dience to the law of evolution. In that case, we can- 
not fashion our lives according to our pleasure, for the 
facts of nature sternly demand, by penalty of degenera- 
tion and perdition, a constant progress and higher de- 
velopment of our souls. Here we are in accord with 



the old Hebrew and Christian tradition. Ethics is not 
subjective ; our rules of conduct are not self-made ; 
there is an objective authority which must be obeyed, 
whose will is plainly recognised in the laws of nature 
and in the course of evolution. 

We have no "fear of the supernatural"; we simply 
regard its conception as an error. To Professor Billia 
religious truths are acquired by a supernatural revela- 
tion, and scientific truths b}' a natural revelation. The 
former only are regarded as holy and infallible, not 
the latter, which are rather dubitable and unreliable. 
To us all truth is holy. In so far as truth is a state- 
ment of fact, a description of some feature or part of 
the objective reality in whicli and of which we are, 
truth is always divine. Thus religion, or our attempt 
of living the truth, no less than science, or our search 
for the truth, are in one respect "human facts" and 
in another respect "a work of God." 

The main difference between our Catholic critic 
and ourselves consists in this : that he regards the 
traditional authority of the Church as ultimate, while 
we replace it by the authority of objective truth, prov- 
able according to the usual methods of science. 

We do not intend to enter into a discussion of mi- 
nor points ; so we abstain here from repeating our doc- 
trine of freewill, simply stating that we do not feel guilty, 
as Professor Billia maintains, of having confounded 
" liberty of will with freedom from passion"; on the 
other hand, we do not see how the Italian school can 
boast of having solved the problem, while claiming to 
have confuted " in the best possible manner determin- 
ism, physiological, ps3'chological, and rationalistic." 
We further abstain from discussing whether or not and 
how far there is an agreement of our position with Au- 
guste Comte's positivism. We concur with Comte in 
the recognition of the scientific method ; we depart 
from his agnosticism and man}' details of his philo- 
sophical views ; and, finally, we only hint here that 
when the author of "The Ethical Problem" spoke of 
the " intuitionalists," he did not have reference to the 
" Objective school " of Rosmini. Intuitionalism is a 
peculiarly English phenomenon, which can only in one 
point, indeed, in the main point, be compared to Ros- 
mini's view, viz. : in its strange tenet of the intuitive 
apprehension of truth. This latter point, however, is 
of sufficient consequence to deserve a few additional 

Professor Billia regards it as a matter of course 
that "the doctrine of representation" is wrong. By 
doctrine of representation he understands our proposi- 
tion that knowledge is a representation of facts and that 
truth is a correct representation of facts. According to 
his view ' ' idea and truth are wholly one, and are wholly 
one with the object thought of." This sentence, if I 
understand this rather mystifying explanation cor- 

rectly, means, that ideas are directly perceived in the 
same way as sensations — the A/isi-haiittii^i-ii of our 
senses. Our sensations (i. e., in Kant's terminology 
our -■:/// ,f</i'(?///(','/^s,'-i:7/, often translated by "intuitions") 
are not subject to doubt ; they are immediately per- 
ceived as real ; and a similar immediateness has been 
attributed bj' many philosophers to certain very gen- 
eral or universal truths. 

Rosmini regards "being" and truth as identical. 
We make a distinction between reality and truth. 
Sensations are "real"; we cannot say that sensations 
as such are either true or untrue. For instance, 1 feel 
a slight pang of hunger in the stomach : Is there any 
truth or untruth in this feeling ? Or a certain color 
sensation takes place in the eye : Is there any truth 
or untruth in this sensation? Sensations are simply 
real ; they are the data of our experience, out of which 
we construct our ideas. But these ideas if they prop- 
erl}' represent the objects sensed, are true ; if not, 
they are untrue. Truth and untruth always presup- 
pose mental activity. If I, having a color sensation 
which is a subjective hallucination, judge that there is 
an object before me, I am mistaken ; the sensation in 
that case is not wrong, but my judgment of it is wrong. 
The sensation is right enough ; it is caused somehow 
according to the laws of nature; but I have allowed 
myself to be misguided by its appearance. 

Thus truth is never a thing of immediate percep- 
tion, but always the product of mental activity. The 
very laws of mind would have to be reversed, should 
truth be directly perceived as are sensations. 

Professor Billia assumes that if an idea, "through 
sense-reminiscence," were "a representation of the 

'■ It would come to pass tliat we could never think of any ob- 
ject, but always of its representation ; ttierefore, 

he adds, 

"I could not think one, two, three — the thought itself would 
be impossible." 

Why? Is this not self-mystification ? Let us not 
stultify ourselves. By having and thinking a repre- 
sentation, we think of the object represented. A cer- 
tain feeling, being caused somehow, say by a certain 
sense-impression, comes to represent an object, and 
thus it stands for it ; it symbolises it. This is the na- 
ture of thought. Whenever the symbol is felt, the 
object represented in it is thought of. 

There is a long distance between Alessandria in 
Northern Italy and Chicago in the prairies of Illinois, 
but it almost seems to us that the distance between 
the spiritual roads of Professor Billia and ourselves is 
greater still. Centuries seem to lie between us. But 
in spite of all our divergencies we observe with pleas- 
ure a certain concurrence in some most important 




points. We have in this sketch attempted to repre- 
sent the case with faithful impartiality, not attenuat- 
ing and not extending either the differences or agree- 
ments. P. c. 


We define knowledge (i) as a representation of facts 
in sentient symbols; and (2) as a description of facts 
(Kirchhoff). In the former sense we limit the term to 
sentient beings, in the latter we apply it generally. The 
usage of the verb "to know" is limited exclusively to 
the former sense, for we do not say, that a book 
"knows " something. The latter sense is more gen- 
eral. We say that a man has knowledge, and also 
that a book contains knowledge. 

The root of the words to know, gnosccrc, yiyvcoa- 
KEiv, erkennen, etc., is the same as in ken, can, konnen, 
denoting an ability to do something.* It signifies the 
mental disposition which makes a man fit to accomplish 
his purpose. It is his state of being acquainted with 
the facts with which he has to deal. 

What is the nature of this state, and how does it 
originate ? 

The origin of knowledge, i. e., the act of becoming 
acquainted with things, of acquiring knowledge, of 
perceiving, is called cognition. 

A sentient being is exposed to impressions of the 
surrounding world. The various objects make various 
impressions upon the different senses, and these im- 
pressions are remembered. Certain characteristic fea- 
tures of their forms remain and can be revived by an 
appropriate stimulus, so as to be felt again. As soon 
as a certain event (say a ray of sunshine previously 
registered by the eye as light and by the skin as a pe- 
culiar kind of warmth) impresses itself upon the sense- 
organs, it revives the memory-structures of the same 
kind. The feeling of the present sense impression is 
felt to be the same in kind as those prior sense-im- 
pressions, the vestiges of which are preserved in the 
revived memory-structures. The reference of a sense- 
impression to the memorj'-structure of its class is a 
primitive perception, and perception is the simplest 
act of cognition. 

Facts are pictured in sensations, and these pictures 
represent the facts. A certain feeling has come to 
stand for a certain object, event, or phenomenon. The 
presence of this feeling signifies the presence of its 

* The verb " to know " is used in Genesis iv, i, in the sense of " causing 
to bring forth, or to produce." So the German erkennen (a reflex causative verb 
oi kennen, meaning "causing one's self to know") and tlie Greek yiyin'jGKEiv 
have the same double meaning. Is it a strange coincidence only or a fact of 
deeper significance that these verbs are used to express two so heterogeneous 
acts as" knowing and begetting"? If it is a confusion between two roots of a 
similar or the same sound, it is certainly very, very old and dates back to the 
period before the separation of the various .^ryan branches. Should the co- 
incidence arise from the same conception which in more recent times gave 
two meanings to the words "potent " and " impotent "? 

respective and analogous object, event, or phenome- 
non, and this state of the representativeness of various 
feelings, in its higher perfection, is called knowledge. 
On a higher level of mentality facts are described in 
names or word-symbols,* and these names represent 
whole classes of facts. 

Knowledge is rendered definite by naming. A sen- 
tient being can be said to really know a thing only when 
he has named it. We know only that which we can 
clearly describe in words. Names label things and 
enable us to handle them in our minds without diffi- 
cult)'. They are symbols of the essential features of 

Briefly : Knowledge is an appropriate representa- 
tion of facts in mental symbols, and the purpose of 
knowledge is the ability of appropriately dealing with 

The amount of mentality of a mental being is meas- 
ured by its knowledge, or rather by its ability of operat- 
ing with knowledge. Knowledge is that which consti- 
tutes the power of mental beings, and without knowl- 
edge man's dignity would be naught. Knowledge is 
and must be the basis of all action; for actions with- 
out knowledge are mere reflex motions. 

Knowledge being of paramount importance, the 
acquisition of knowledge forms an indispensable and 
the most prominent department in human life. The 
acquisition of knowledge is the department of science. 
The aim of science is to make knowledge not onlj' 
reliable, but also handy. The former is obtained by 
critique, the latter by classification, and both are called 
" S3'stem." 

System means the arrangement of all parts into one 
whole. A set of facts or events (in order to be sys- 
tematic) must be formulated so as to include, in a 
methodical order, all possibilities. This will exhaust 
the subject and at the same time allow us to survey 
the whole field, as it were, at a glance. System ren- 
ders [acts i<bfrsichf/ich.'\ Having knowledge systemat- 
ically arranged, we can readily assign new facts of a 
well-known class to their proper places in the system ; 
we understand them at once and can predetermine the 
course of their events even before a renewed observa- 
tion. We can also exercise critique. We can judge 
of the reliability of accounts concerning facts, for we 
recognise at once contradictory elements as inharmo- 
nious with the rest. 

* Mathematical and algebraic symbols must in this connection also be 
regarded as words. 

t There is an appropriate word missing in English to denote the German 
iibersiclitlich and Uebcrsichtlichkeit, "surveyable and surveyability." Survey- 
ability is more than "clearness" or "lucidity"; it is a systematic arrange- 
ment in which one readily finds one's bearings. It is that order which makes 
a domain of science easily surveyed. Surveyability is attained by methodical 
arrangement ; it is the product of " system "; it is the advantage derived from 
methodical arrangement. 



Thus system, on the one hand, impHes the com- 
pleteness of parts presented with greatest economy, 
and on the other hand, affords the means of criticism 
for the elimination of faulty statements, contradictions, 
and errors. p. c. 


In a tone of apology the Chicago papers deplore the unavoid- 
able absence of Chicago "sports" from the prize tights at New 
Orleans. Even the suburban village of Oshkosh displays more 
public spirit than we do in this matter, as appears from the fol- 
lowing humiliating confession which I find in this morning's paper: 
"A delegation of twelve from Oshkosh will pass through the city 
bound for the fights to-day, but the Chicago contingent at the 
arena promises to be very small." The best that Chicago can do 
under the circumstances is to send "regrets" and the customary 
fashionable excuse of a " prior engagement," to meet the President 
of the United States There is also an explanation to the effect 
that the prize-fighting element, and the patrons of the prize ring 
in Chicago are all Democrats, whose presence is earnestly desired 
at Washington to give tone to the inauguration of Mr. Cleveland. 
A proper complaint is made of the bungling mismanagement by 
which two such interesting Democratic festivals as the inaugura- 
tion of the President at Washington, and a prize-fight at New Or- 
leans should have been appointed so near in time together, and in 
cities so far apart, whereby the Chicago "contingent" was pre- 
vented from attending both entertainments. The prize-fight should 
have been at Washington, or the inauguration at New Orleans. 

In the l-'tn-iiiii for March is an article on "The Science of 
Municipal Corruption," by a skilled professor who prudently with- 
holds his name. He speaks with the confidence of an expert. It 
is a very unpleasant article, because after you have read a page or 
two of it, you cannot help doubting your own honesty. When the 
professor says, and proves it, that of the "typical Legislature, 
City Council, orBca d of Education," two thirds are open to bribes, 
and only one third is honest, we cannot help thinking that the odds 
are two to one against ourselves, and that if we were members of 
the " typical Legislature or City Council " we should probably be 
numbered among the two thirds. Riches breed corruption, and 
character too often depends en opportunity. Considering the low 
standard of public life, we have reason to be proud that thirty- 
three and a third per cent, of our public men are honest men. 


Having, very likely, been for a long time in the business of 
buying and selling men, the professor has no trouble in sorting 
them into grades and qualities as if they were potatoes in the mar- 
ket ; and the information he gives about prices will be found valu- 
able to those who may have occasion to buy a few men for any 
particular purpose. He says that the cheapest are "the leaders 
of workingmen and farmers' political movements." I hope this is 
not true, but it agrees with the opinion of a railroad-lawyer of my 
own acquaintance who told me that a "granger" legislature was 
the cheapest he ever bought. Second in cheapness come "the 
editors of country newspapers, and newspapers in small cities," — 
the editors in big cities, of course, command higher prices, — but 
next in cheapness to the country editors come "country lawyers, 
and a certain class of city lawyers " ; and then come " clergymen 
who drift into practical politics " : these, remarks the professor, 
"can almost always be bought by indirect methods." It will be 
noticed that the scale of prices rises as men rise out of poverty, 
the poorest being the cheapest, and the gloomy moral at the bot- 
tom is this: never elect or appoint a poor man to office. "Moral 
reputation," says the professor, " is a flimsy security for conduct ; 
financial competence is a good security." While there may be a 

grain of melancholy truth in that, it only adds to the glory of the 
poor men who have characters above temptation, and the number 
of these is legion. They are immensely in the majority ; and I 
would rather trust with an office a poor man of "moral reputa- 
tion," than a rich man who is honest because he has money enough 
to make him so. 

An unfortunate accident happened last Tuesday at the Dem- 
ocratic convention ; an ,\merican was put on the ticket by mistake. 
His name is Gastfield, and he was nominated for the office of city 
clerk. The explanation of the blunder is that the convention was 
cheated by the German shape of his name. When the philologers 
of the party discovered the mistake it was too late to correct it, 
for the nomination had been made. They showed, however, that 
if the convention had possessed any linguistic sense it would have 
detected the imposition, for had the name been really German it 
would have been spelled Gastfeld, and not Gastfield, a very clumsy 
forgery or imitation of German. The leading Democratic paper 
of the city, referring editorially to the misadventure, says : " Gast- 
field was chosen on the mistaken inference that he was a German. 
A fair estimate of the convention's regard for and acquaintance 
with Germans and the German language may be gathered from the 
fact that the terminal syllable of Gastfield's name was accepted 
without question as an assurance of his being a German of the 
Germans. As a matter of fact Gastfield neither speaks nor under- 
stands the German language." Many strong partisans, interested 
in the success of the ticket, express a hope that Mr. Gastfield will 
yet be able to prove to the satisfaction of the party that he is not 
an American. 


Some time ago I made a plea in The Open Cmir/ in behalf of 
"distinguished," a flattery weary and worn. I thought it was lime 
to take the word "off post" as we used to say in the army, and re- 
lieve it of duty ; but my plea was disregarded, and the tired adjec- 
tive is working harder than before. If we must please one another 
by an exchange of genteel compliments why not press into the ser- 
vice " eminent," " celebrated," and " illustrious " ; handsome, full- 
sized words, which with scarcely anything to do, are idling their 
time away. Nearly all the work of mutual admiration is thrown 
upon "distinguished." Not long ago I visited the Illinois Legis- 
lature, and my first impression was that the General Assembly was 
not quite so refined a body of statesmen as a legislature ought to 
be, for every member was smoking like a Chicago tug boat, and 
the Speaker of the House was just faintly visible through a dense 
tobacco cloud that wrapped him in a halo like a London fog ; but 
I soon found that my estimate was wrong. I discovered that the 
Legislature was composed of extremely courteous men, for when- 
ever one member spoke of another he always referred to him as 
the "distinguished gentleman" from Pike, Jo Daviess, Cook, or 
whatever the county was. Not even a council of Spanish grandees 
could have been more punctilious in exalting one anolher, but the 
performance became insipid at last from pure monotony. It was 
like the tintinnabulations of a cow-bell. It had no musical "scale," 
no positive, comparative, and superlative degrees. Every man was 
"distinguished"; neither less nor more than that, and it would 
have been a relief to have heard the word "illustrious," or even 
" pusillanimous," for a change. 

* * 

It has been intimated that my former comments on "distin- 
guished" came from envy; and that I was merely jealous of 
greater men. I do not believe that, and yet I am not bold enough 
to deny it, for I doubt that any man can tell how much of the cen- 
sure he scatters about him springs from ignoble jealousy. The 
taunt, however, will not fit me now, for since I wrote that other 
criticism, the "distinguished" compliment has been given to me. 
Last week an eloquent writer of Chicago presented me with one 



of his books, and on the fly leaf he spoke of me as his "distin- 
guished friend." I am very proud of that, and I think better of 
the word than I did when almost everybody was "distinguished" 
except me. Still, I favor a change, for the flattery is becoming 
too promiscuous altogether. Within a week I have read of the 
"distinguished" fighter Corbett. and the "distinguished" Apostle 
Paul. Also, I have seen the falls of Niagara complimented as the 
"distinguished " cataract, while the Vice-President of the United 
States at a banquet spoke of Mr. Stevenson as " the distinguished 
gentleman who will in a few days succeed me." I think there 
must be a change, for the word has reached the climax of adula- 
tion in a description of that identical Mr. Stevenson, who appears 
in Monday's paper as a "distinguished communicant, " because 
he went to church on Sunday and patronised the sacrament. The 
courtly chronicler says: "While the pastor did not allude per- 
sonally to the distinguished communicant, there was something in 
his discourse that seemed to fit the honors he has achieved." Even 
the Lord's supper became "distinguished" by the presence of Mr. 
Stevenson. Above all that fawning praise, I hear the tones of 
Thomas Hood's democracy ringing like a chime of bells : 

" One place there is— beneath the burial sod, 
Where all mankind are equalised by death ; 
Another place there is — the fane of God, 
Where all are equal who draw living breath." 

A dispatch, dated Sydney, February 26, says : " King George 
Tubu, of the Tonga Islands, is dead." This is an important an- 
nouncement, for the death of that monarch presents a fine oppor- 
tunity for statesmanship. I know not where the Tonga Islands 
are, but I am quite sure they will make an excellent "coaling sta- 
tion" for our fleet in case of war, and that if we do not " seize " 
this opportunity to annex them, England will. As King George 
Tubu is dead, we can get the islands without having to pay him a 
pension of $20 000 a year. Besides, they will be some consolation 
for the loss of Hawaii, a bit of prey, which, having eagerly pursued 
for a few days, we are now as anxious to let alone as was the 
eager huntfer when he overtook the grizzly bear. Slowly, but 
majestically, the American conscience rose above the scheme of 
conquest and buried it. Extent of territory and material achieve- 
ment may make a nation big, but it requires moral heroism to 
make it great. 

* * 

The House of Representatives at Washington was very dis- 
orderly the other day, and so riotous were the proceedings that 
the Speaker "ordered out the mace," whatever that is, and re- 
buked the tumultuous members by saying : "Gentlemen, I hope 
you will remember that this is the House of Representatives and 
not a beargarden." This was rather severe upon the bear gar- 
den, and reminds me of old Squire Chandler, formerly Justice of 
the Peace at Marbletown. I always thought that he put on too 
much dignity and style in his contemptible little court-room, espe- 
cially as the District Court was very indulgent and permitted us 
to throw books and inkstands at one another, without inflicting 
any greater punishment on us than a reprimand. One day a couple 
of us were trying an exciting case before the old Squire, and just 
as the discussion had reached ninety degrees in the shade, when 
the inkstand-throwing had only just begun, he fined us ten dollars 
apiece, saying : "I'll teach you gentlemen that you are not in the 
District Court now." So Bruin, the Speaker of the bear garden, 
might very properly say, when his colony was extremely rude : 
" Gentlemen, remember you are not in Congress now." 

* * 

For a hundred years or so, the Christian churches of England 
and America have been sending regiments of missionaries across 
the sea to convert the Mohammedans of Asia. They have not 

been successful ; and now in a spirit of reciprocity the children of 
Islam reply to us and say, " Since you have not been able to con- 
vert us, we will try to convert you"; and their missionaries have 
already started from Bombay, some to England and others to 
America. The Mohammedan invasion has begun, and the stan- 
dard of the crescent is already unfurled in the city of New York, 
In six weeks we shall see it in Chicago. The propaganda is said 
to be under the direction of rich Mohammedans in India, and their 
pioneer missionary is Muhamed Alexander Russell Webb, an 
American, formerly Consul of the United States at the Philippine 
Islands, where he became a Mussulman. He is now founding a 
publishing house in the city of New York for the printing of Mo- 
hammedan tracts, and very soon he will have a mosque established 
there. Some of the New York and Chicago papers have given 
him a sneering welcome, and yet their sarcasm had a nervous flut- 
ter in it, as if they were a little bit afraid of him and would rather 
he had not come. Now, it accidentally happens that I know some- 
thing about Muhamed Alexander Russell Webb. An intimate 
friend of his is an intimate friend of mine, and for the past two 
years I have been permitted to read the letters and lectures of Mr. 
Webb. These prove him to be spiritually and intellectually a 
very able man ; and I can assure his Christian critics that if they 
meet him in a comparison of creeds they will find him able to jus- 
tify his own. I advise them to strike at the weak spot in his 
armor : the Mohammedan practice of polygamy. It may be true 
that this is more social than religious, but it is permitted by the 
Moslem church and therefore it attaches to the faith. Mr. Webb 
\vill find it a sttimbling-block in his way. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Oten Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


AN AMERICAN MORALIST. Prof. L. M Billia 3583 


KNOWLEDGE. Editor 3588 

CURRENT TOPICS : The Inauguration and the Prize- 
Fight. The Science of Municipal Corruption. Ameri- 
cans Nominated by Mistake. A Distinguished Commu- 
nicant. Shall We Annex the Tonga Islands ? Congress 
and the Bear Garden. Mohammedan Missionari'es in 
America. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3589 


The Open Court. 



No. 290. (Vol. VII.— II.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 16, 1893. 

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These are certainly critical and trying times for the 
political economists. The science of political economy 
is on trial, and the fate of its professors is being de- 
cided. Will the verdict mean life or death, — inde- 
pendent and fruitful existence, or complete disappear- 
ance from the leaves of the book of future intellectual 
activity? Will political economists find their occupa- 
tion gone, or will their occupation acquire new im- 
portance, value, and dignity? Before attempting to 
predict the future we must glance at the remarkable 
career of English political economy. 

Shortly after the publication of Ricardo's volume, 
De Quincey, certainly a keen and logical thinker, 
wrote: "Mr. Ricardo had deduced a priori from the 
understanding itself, laws which first gave a ray of 
light into the unwieldy mass of materials, and had con- 
structed what had been but a collection of tentative 
discussion into a science of regular proportions, now 
first standing on an eternal basis." To Colonel Tor- 
rens it seemed perfectly certain that "twenty years 
hence there will scarcely be a doubt respecting any 
of the fundamental principles" of Ricardian political 
economy. To understand and sympathise with this 
optimistic view we need but to bear in mind that sci- 
entific men believed it to be true that (as Cairnes ex- 
pressed the claim subsequently) "the economist, 
starting with a knowledge of ultimate causes," is "at 
the outset of his enterprise at the position which a 
physicist only attains after ages of laborious research. " 
Senior undoubtedly voiced the belief of most of his 
predecessors and contemporaries when he proclaimed 
political economy's independence of facts and enunci- 
ated the proposition that the whole science, glorified 
by Cobden as the highest study of the human mind, is 
firmly built on four practically self-evident postulates. 
In a word, it was then believed that there existed a 
science of wealth whose laws, universal as well as im- 
mutable, men had only to learn and obey, — a science 
in whose names various theoretical and practical pro- 
posals were dismissed with hasty and scornful con- 
tempt as Utopian and unscientific. Nothing that ema- 
nated from sources other than those recognised by the 

economists, especially if it in anywise diverged from 
some accepted economic principle, was considered 
worthy of serious attention. 

But does not all this appear like ancient history 
when we turn to survey the present condition of eco- 
nomic discussion? The word iA>£-;/ww/; is purposely 
employed in lieu of science, since it is generally agreed 
that there is really no such thing extant as a "science" 
of political economy. "Young men ask," said Bage- 
hot, in a lecture, "whether this [economic] science, 
as it claims to be, will harmonise with what we now 
know to be sciences, or bear to be tried, as we now try 
sciences ; and they are not sure of the answer. . . .We 
find the state of the science to be almost chaotic." 
Arnold Toynbee bluntly declared that Ricardian polit- 
ical economy " is at last rejected as an intellectual im- 
posture," and Jevons reluctantly admitted that "the 
public would be happier in their minds for a little time, 
if political economy could be shown up as an impos- 
ture." Professor Cairnes complained that only from 
six to ten students attended his lectures, while in all 
London no more than a hundred persons visited the 
public economic schools. Professor Marshall confesses 
that "economics is yet so much in its infancy that it 
has but little to teach." And even that "little" is so 
little respected by scientific men that in 1876 an active 
attempt was made by the representatives of the pre- 
liminary sciences in the British Association to excom- 
municate the economists and abolish the Economic 
Section as no better (to quote Mr. P. Geddes) than 
a disgrace to a scientific association ; and this humilia- 
tion was averted only by the economists choosing as 
champions such men as Dr. Ingram, who, though os- 
tensibly eager to save the reputation and independence 
of their group, actually, (to quote the same writer,) 
"unconditionally surrendered the citadel " and even 
"took up arms on the side of the invaders." 

The contrast between the past and the present of 
political economy, the disparity between the early 
promises and the actual achievements, will be con- 
ceded to be sufficiently striking to justif}' the inquiries 
that have been made into the causes of the radical 
change. But it cannot be said that successful ex- 
planations of the revolution have been furnished. 



Toynbee was certainly in error when he described it 
as entirely the result of the " chill breath of intellectual 
criticism," for we do not know of any such crushing 
criticism; and the latter-day economists of the "his- 
torical school" are no less mistaken when they attrib- 
ute it to the discovery of the importance of supple- 
menting and guiding deduction by induction, for this, 
as Marshall avers, was well known before. Marshall's 
own opinion is that the change is not chiefly attribut- 
able to any particular attacks on economic doctrine, 
but "is due to the discovery that man himself is in a 
great measure a creature of circumstances and changes 
with them." Ricardo and his followers, he thinks, 
"regarded man as, so to speak, a fi.xed quantity, and 
gave themselves little trouble to study his variations "; 
whereas "in different ways Goethe, Hegel, Comte, 
and other writers called attention to the development 
of the inner character and outward institutions of man, 
and worked their way towards the notion of tracing 
and comparing the modes of growth of the different 
sides of human nature." But the proper and satis- 
factorj' answer seems to be that many influences, di- 
rect as well as indirect, great as well as small, have 
contributed to the effect. It is conducive to clearness 
to recall in this connection the luminous observations 
of Lecky in reference to the process by which popular 
beliefs get driven out of circulation and are supplanted 
by new ones radically different. Any complete change 
in public opinion, according to his view, " may be the 
result of a controversy which has conclusively settled 
the question, establishing to the satisfaction of all par- 
ties a clear preponderance of argument or fact in favor 
of one opinion, and making that opinion a truism 
which is accepted by all enlightened men." But "it 
is possible also for it to be effected by what is called 
the spirit of the age. The general intellectual ten- 
dencies pervading the literature of a century pro- 
foundly modify the character of the public mind. 
They form a new tone and habit of thought. They 
create new attractions and new antipathies, and they 
eventually cause as absolute a rejection of certain old 
opinions as could be produced by the most cogent and 
definite arguments." In the case of political econ- 
omy, while it is doubtless true that both of Lecky's 
"classes of influences" were brought to bear, the 
spirit of the age is nevertheless to be held responsible 
as the chief factor. Special and definite parts of the 
body of old economic doctrine were destroj'ed by di- 
rect controversial attack. To the polemics of Cliffe 
Leslie, Toynbee, Thorold Rogers, Thornton, Ruskin, 
Carlj'le, and other writers we have to attribute the 
fact that the Ricardian theory of rent, the Malthusian 
population hypothesis, the wage-fund theory. Senior's 
"four unchallengeable postulates," and rent there- 
ward-of-abstinence theory, are now by common con- 

sent relegated to the region of "unsettled problems"; 
while the profound and general distrust of political 
economy as a whole we must acknowledge to be the 
work of the spirit of the age. The theological and 
philosophical doctrines which Smith and Malthus ex- 
plicitly adopted and laid at the foundation of their 
economic structure, and which Ricardo tacitly assumed, 
could not fail to be thrown overboard, as utterly un- 
founded, when the application of scientific methods to 
sociological problems began to yield conclusions re- 
specting social life and growth as irreconcilable with 
the physiocratic assumptions borrowed by Adam Smith, 
as is the theory of development with the notion of spe- 
cial creations. The economist's plea for /aiss^z faire 
necessarily came to be regarded as the result of an op- 
timism no less innocent than Dr. Pangloss's conviction 
that everything is for the best in this best of possible 
worlds; and with the destruction of this corner-stone 
was involved the total collapse of the old economic 
system. The laisscz faire doctrine, Cairnes felt, had 
brought disaster and disgrace to the science which 
came to be regarded as "a handsome apology " for 
the existing arrangements, and lie naturally favored 
the relinquishment of the pernicious and fatal doctrine. 

Bagehot, who had little faith in the socialistic 
schemes which elicited sympathetic consideration from 
Mill and Cairnes, sought to preserve at least the skel- 
eton of the old system by limiting and qualifying it in 
every direction. We were told, in the first place, that 
political economists are not speaking of real men, but 
of imaginary ones ; not of men as we see them, but of 
men as it is convenient to us to suppose they are." In 
the next place, the original claim to universality and 
immutability was withdrawn, and the modest state- 
ment made that English political economy "is the 
theory of commerce." Finally, Bagehot cautioned us 
against the suspicion that political economy aspires to 
regulate practical affairs and solve real problems aris- 
ing in the world of material interests. It only says 
these and these forces produce these and these re- 
sults, and there it stops. 

Such a method could not succeed, however. To 
say nothing of the obviously fatal objection that an 
abstract political economy which guides no one and 
aids no one in practical difficulties is worse than use- 
less, it is evident that such an interpretation could not 
check the advance of socialism, which professed to 
deal with things as they ought to be and to show a 
way out of the complications between capital and la- 
bor. In fact, the rise of socialism is coincident with 
the definitive rejection of laisscz faire as the corner- 
stone of political economy. Unwilling to expose them- 
selves to ridicule, the economists declined to defend 
free competition, which they knew the founders of the 
school rested on teleological assumptions, and enlisted 



in the army of their old-time antagonists, the social- 
ists. It is no secret that the strength which socialism 
has acquired lately, in and out of legislative councils, 
is mainly derived from the patent tendency of modern 
economists to assimilate and appropriate socialistic 
doctrines. The economists do indeed hope to preserve 
their independence; but the logic of events is against 
them. The real and consistent alternative is the com- 
munism of Mr. Bellamy, with equality of income and 
total suppression of individuality. Under Mr. Bel- 
lamy's system, exchange is superseded by common 
ownership of products, free contract by enforced soli- 
darity. The triumph of the principle, "To each ac- 
cording to his needs, from each according to his ca- 
pacities," implies the extinction of political economy. 
But are there not among the economists wiser and 
more perspicacious men who know how to avoid the 
errors of the old school without embracing the blun- 
ders of socialism ? Passing over the so-called empir- 
ical school of economists, which has done nothing of 
value, let us examine the proposals of the philosoph- 
ical economists, — of men like Cliffe Leslie and Dr. J. 
K. Ingram, who appear to suggest profitable measures 
for the elevation of economics. They argue that po- 
litical economy properly constitutes a branch of so- 
ciology ; that its discoveries and principles, when ar- 
rived at in accordance with scientific canons of research, 
should be viewed as provisional and preparatory to the 
development of truly universal sociological principles ; 
and that, since men's various interests are interrelated, 
political economy, which deals only with wealth, can- 
not pretend to be capable of furnishing instruction re- 
garding conduct in general, but merely of indicating 
more or less probable tendencies. Political economy, 
they hold, is not a separate science, but a branch of 
social science. The "jargon" of natural harmony, 
natural liberty, etc., they unhesitatingly reject, al- 
though they are not prepared to advocate increased 
interference of government in industrial relations. In 
fact, while they discard theoretical /ai'sscz /aire, they 
would have government practise laissez faire, because 
they realise with Bacon that luciferous research must 
come before fructiferous, and agree with Herbert Spen- 
cer that methods that answer are preceded by thoughts 
that are true. There being as yet an extreme want of 
true thought and scientific ideas upon sociological sub- 
jects, they deprecate haphazard legislation, and are 
content with the work of spreading clear conceptions 
and of urging upon all students the vast complexity of 
social problems. 

That this advice is sound and healthful as far as it 
goes, cannot be denied. The theoretical position is 
impregnable, and the practical suggestion both oppor- 
tune and sensible. But there are some considerations 
that Dr. Ingram overlooks. As Professor Marshall 

sa^'s : " It is vain to speak of the higher authority of 
a unified social science. No doubt if that existed, 
economics would gladly find shelter under its wing. 
But it does not exist. . . . There is no use in waiting 
idlv for it ; we must do what we can with our present 
resources." Were it possible to induce society and 
legislatures to respect and accept present conditions 
until the science of society should throw a flood of 
light upon all our difficulties and make wise action 
possible, then we should gratefully accept Dr. Ingram's 
advice and "learn to wait." But society will not and 
cannot wait. The masses clamor for state intervention 
and regulation, and well-meaning reformers are ready 
with all sorts of plans for eliminating social evil. Laws 
are manufactured by the legislative mills without num- 
ber, and their operation naturally produces important 
changes in social relations. To remind us of ignorance, 
is useful, but utterly inadequate. Moreover, it is far 
from being true that, as Professor Marshall avers, so- 
ciology "shows no signs of coming into existence," 
and that " the only resources we have for dealing with 
social problems as a whole lie in the judgment of com- 
mon sense." Nobody would claim that we have a com- 
plete and strict science of society ; but it is emphat- 
ically true that some truths have been established, 
some generalisations formed, that not only afford the 
illuminating principle essential to the proper interpre- 
tation and classifications of facts, but permit the direc- 
tion of practical affairs in approximately correct ways. 
In political economy, no less than in other branches of 
the sociological science, it is perfectly possible, not 
only to carry on theoretical investigations in a scien- 
tific manner, but to map out and guide more or less 
safely our practical course by the light (dim as it is 
compared with what we hope it may become) of those 
large truths and important generalisations which so- 
ciological authorities have placed at our disposal. 

First, there is the law of justice, or the principle 
of equal freedom, justly termed the first principle of 
human happiness, which Mr. Spencer, the greatest of 
our sociologists, has established and placed upon a 
strictly scientific basis. It having been demonstrated 
that the principle of equal- freedom has the highest 
warrant imaginable and an authority transcending 
every other, it becomes necessary to test existing eco- 
nomic arrangements and current notions, and pro- 
nounce upon them from the point of view of equal 
freedom. It will scarcely be contended that justice 
may be safely ignored or violated in the sphere of eco- 
nomic interests ; hence the need for defining the na- 
ture of just economic relations. It has also been estab- 
lished by :Mr. Spencer and other sociologists that the 
progress of society is from status to contract, from 
compulsory cooperation to voluntary cooperation, from 
a condition in which agreement results from authority 



to a condition in which authority results from agree- 
ment. It is further insisted that in the transition 
state it is absohitel}' impossible to decide upon the 
utilitarian merits of any measure or proposal save by 
constant and intelligent reference to the ideal formed 
of the future through the study of evolution and the 
factors and agencies which prevail in the present. Now 
what are the logical conclusions from these premises 
with regard to political economy, which, we have seen, 
is urged by the most competent thinkers to adopt the 
philosophical method and conduct its investigations 
in the light of modern sociological knowledge ? Polit- 
ical economy has to deal with the problem of national 
wealth and prosperity, — has to teach the true and 
proper principles of production and distribution. But 
facts need to be correctly understood ; they require 
classification and systematic grouping, — which cannot 
be accomplished except by the aid of a guiding prin- 
ciple, a theory. Modern economists complain of the 
lack of such a guiding principle. The physiocrats, 
and their English disciples, had the principle of "nat- 
ural liberty," the theory of laissez faire, which they 
borrowed from the theology and philosophy of their 
time. The fact that their principle was arbitrary and 
unscientific, their doctrine vague and nebulous, and 
that consequently their superstructure had to fall when 
the philosophy was supplanted by one more positive 
and true, — this fact does not at all militate against 
their wisdom in basing their economic beliefs on those 
principles. There is nothing surprising in the fact that 
their economic beliefs were as untenable as their the- 
ological, metaphysical, and philosophical notions. The 
economists of cur day, therefore, must go to our so- 
ciologists and philosophers for their criterion of eco- 
nomic right, for guiding principles. And what have 
the latter to impart ? This, briefly : that ideal eco- 
nomic relations are perfectly free relations, that the 
fundamental law of equal freedom negatives govern- 
ment meddling and regulation of production, exchange, 
and distribution, and that all economic teaching which 
contemplates less than justice is necessarily u//-eco- 
nomic as well as immoral, that is, conducive to social 
misery and distress. And this is tantamount to de- 
claring that once again /aissez faire must become the 
corner- stone of economics. Back to the old formula, 
whose meaning, however, is entirely new. Instead of 
the "natural state" of the physiocrats, there is the 
ideal state, which society is bound to reach if its nat- 
ural progress is not violently obstructed, and which 
evolution marks as the goal of our endeavor. The 
state of nature was a fiction, natural harmony an ar- 
bitrary assumption, but the ideal state is a strictly phil- 
osophical conception. We must, as Mr. Spencer says, 
keep an eye on the compass which tells us whereabout 
the ideal lies, so that the changes we may make may 

be towards it, and not away from it. Absolutism is 
needed in economics as well as in ethics, and the lesson 
to be impressed upon the minds of those who dtal 
with temporary needs is that in industrial relations, no 
less than in political and social relations, nothing can 
be right and advantageous that checks or retards the 
movement towards justice or equal freedom, and that 
nothing can be wrong that wisely promotes that move- 

Dr. Ingram, Professor Huxley, Thorold Rogers, in 
criticising the modern laissez faire-\s,is,, do not betray 
the faintest perception of the fact that Mr. Spencer's 
reasons for advocating non-interference are totally dif- 
ferent from those of the believers in a code of nature. 
To speak, as does Professor Huxley of "a new Rous- 
seauism, " (V /;-^/(7j- of this revival of laissez /aire doc- 
trines, is to be guilty of a grave oversight. Modern 
laissez faire-'ists have the support of science, not of 
metaphysical assumptions ; in adopting the formula of 
the metaphysical school, they only accept the conclu- 
sion, reserving the right to find the logic for it. Hence 
the arguments that put to flight the old believers in 
laissez faire leave the moderns unmoved. Unaccount- 
ably short-sighted is Dr. Ingram in thinking that Mr. 
Spencer is simply the (as yet) unconverted champion 
of an exploded doctrine, the last representative of an 
extinct school of theorists ; and that his pleas and pro- 
tests will be like a voice crying in the wilderness. The 
truth is that Mr. Spencer was the first thinker to pro- 
claim the necessity for a new departure in practical 
politics and legislation, to correspond with the new 
truths and generalisations of sociology. He was the 
first to hold up the new ideal and to indicate the way 
leading to its realisation. His comparative isolation 
(which led some English politician to insinuate that 
Mr. Spencer is against "all England ") is due to the 
fact of his being the founder of a philosophical school, 
the leader in a new movement, not to his being engaged 
in perverse and futile attempts to maintain a lost cause. 
It is safe to predict that Mr. Spencer will not go to 
sue for peace at the hands of Dr. Ingram and his friends, 
who doubt everything but doubt, and who have noth- 
ing definite and positive to offer ; but that they will at 
no remote day find themselves constrained to go to him. 

A reconstruction of economics is declared to be ur- 
gently needed by economists, and they are searching 
for philosophical foundations. Mr. Spencer's "Jus- 
tice " is respectfully recommended as supplying their 


The mischief which the term "absolute" has 
caused in almost all the antiquated philosophies is 
hardly imaginable. The absolute actually plays the 
part of a fetish among a certain class of sages who re- 



quest their readers and adherents to bow down into 
the dust and worship the absolute as soon as their 
thinking capacity, either from innate inability or from 
natural laziness, ceases to accomplish its purpose. 

The absolute is an idol which is still worshipped 
and which must be broken to make room for a purer, 
clearer, and truer conception of philosophy. 

We present the following definitions of the term ab- 
solute*: (i) That which is not related. (2) That 
which is not conditioned. (3) That which is entire, 
complete, or perfect. (4) That which is viewed with- 
out regard to its relations or conditions as a complete 

The term "absolute" is used in contradistinction 
to "relative." That which is not relative is absolute. 
The most important relations being those which con- 
dition the existence of a thing, the term came to be 
identical with the unconditioned or that which has the 
conditions of being in itself. This raised the dignity 
of the word above all its comrades and it became a 
substitute for God, for God alone can be described as 
"unconditioned." Those philosophers, accordingly, 
who have ceased to believe in God, but have not out- 
grown the paganism of antediluvian religions, find it 
very convenient to enthrone a divinity of their own 
make and to treat it with the same awe and reverence 
which marks the behavior of all fetish worshippers. 

Let us review the philosophical meanings of the 
term. Absolute is used in the sense of "that which 
is not related." Very well! Such a thing as "that 
which is not related " does not exist. The world is a 
system of relations and there is nothing that is or can 
be unrelated. Even the God of Genesis (i. e. accord- 
ing to the traditional notion) is not an absolute being. 
He stands in a definite relation to the world as its 
creator, ruler, and master. The God of the New Tes- 
tament being He in whom we live and move and have 
our being can still less be called absolute ; and the 
Universe as such, the All, the totality of being (whether 
we include God as a part of it or regard the Universe 
with materialists or atheists simply as a big lump of 
material atoms) is as little absolute as either a super- 
natural or an immanent God, for the All has certain 
relations to its parts. 

In one word, the absolute in the first sense is sim- 
ply a humbug. 

The " absolute " in the second sense, as that which 
is not conditioned, is, perhaps, admissible, although it 
would be an improper expression for that which ought 
to be called the unconditioned. For the "uncondi- 
tioned " or "that which has the conditions of its being 
in itself " is not a concrete thing, a special being, or a 
big person inside or outside of the world, but a certain 

* The word is derived from the Latin absohitum, meaning that which has 
been loosened from. 

feature existing in all the realities to be met with in 
experience. All things, all creatures, all concrete real- 
ities or beings, as such, are forms ; they originate by 
being shaped, they disappear by being dissolved, but 
there is a certain something in them which abides in 
all the changes, and this certain something is part and 
parcel of their existence. 

Here is not the place to discuss what this feature 
of an abiding something in all the various forms of 
being is. It is most certainly not only matter and 
energy as the materialists say, it is also the elementary 
something of that which in its highest evolution ap- 
pears as consciousness and mainly that peculiarity of 
the formal laws which establishes harmony and makes 
them so axiom-like self-evident (as they have been 
called) that through them the whole universe becomes 
transparent like glass to the eyes of the initiated. In all 
these abiding features of fleeting existences there abides 
an inalienable consistency of being with itself which 
gives to the world the character of Gcsctzmdssigkcit, so 
that uniformities prevail which can be formulated in 
so-called "natural laws," so that the totality of the 
world is not a chaos but a cosmos, a whole in which 
order prevails. 

Something " unconditioned " in this sense exists in 
the abiding features of the various existences. But it 
is obvious that this something that abides is not abso- 
lute ; it is not without relations to the other more or 
less fleeting forms of realities. Moreover, we cannot 
so much say that it is unconditioned as that it is con- 
ditioning the very existence of every thing that is. 

The absolute in the third sense is identical with the 
All, including everything and anything, past, present, 
and future, also all the chances of its possible forma- 
tions. The All alone is a perfect entirety, a complete 
whole in itself, which has no relations to things out- 
side, because there are none, the All including every- 

This conception of "absolute" is quite legitimate, 
but the expression "All" being free from the mystical 
tinge that still adheres to the term "absolute" is pre- 
ferable. We can only use the term absolute in this 
sense as an epitlicton ornans for the All in All, not as 
its name ; yet as an epitJu-ton ornans it has little sig- 

The "absolute" in the fourth sense expresses, not 
a quality of or in things, but a certain attitude of the 
thinking subject. In this sense, it has a loose and 
rather popular application. Thus we speak of the "ab- 
solute certainty" of mathematics, meaning thereby 
simply its universal reliability*; there may be special 
cases, but there are no exceptions to mathematical 

* Mathematical axioms possess absolute certainty in the sense mentioned 
above; they are reliable statements. But they are not absolute truths, i. e., 
truths which need not be proved. 



theorems. We speak of "absolute monarchy," looking 
at monarchy abstractly and meaning thereb}' that ac- 
cording to the law of the country the monarch is not 
bound to give account to any one for the acts of his 
rule or misrule. We speak of "absolute (i. e., the 
highest imaginable) perfection," of "absolute (i. e., 
perfect) beauty," "absolute (i. e., pure) alcohol," " ab- 
solute zero " of temperature, which is — 459.4". All 
these terms and many more similar phrases are sanc- 
tioned by usage, but nowhere is there any really abso- 
lute as a quality of things ; there is only a relative ab- 
soluteness, a lack of relations in some special direc- 
tions or a perfection or finish of some kind. 

Thus the usage of the term "absolute" in these 
and similar connections is not to be understood in any 
strict or philosophical sense of the word, but is a license 
quite allowable for special purposes. 

It would lead us too far here to refer to all the non- 
sense that has been written by those philosophers who 
seriously declare that " philosophy is ultimately, by its 
very nature, a search for the Absolute " (with a capi- 
tal A). 

No greater absurdity has been excogitated by a 
great man than the idea of things in themselves, which 
really means "things absolute." (See Tlie Monist, 
Vol. II, No. 2, "Are There Things in Themselves ? ") 
Hegel's system has been characterised as the philoso- 
phy of the absolute. He maintains, as Flemming sums 
it up, that "all existence is strictly a manifestation of 
the Absolute in the evolution of Being, according to 
dialectic." The truth is that all existence is existence, 
and the idea of absolute existence is nothing but a pale 
thought, an abstract symbol created by dialectic to rep- 
resent those qualities which all existences possess in 
common. To represent the absolute, this shadow of 
being, as real, and existence as a mere manifestation 
of it, is turning the universe topsyturvy. p. c. 


Truth is correct knowledge, i. e. , a statement of 
facts that is perfectly reliable. In other words : Truth 
is the agreement of a representation with the object 

No objection can be made to Thomas Aquinas 
when he defines truth as "adaquaiio intcUcctus et rei," 
which, in more modern form, means "conformity of 
thought to thing." Intellectus or thought is the men- 
tal symbol, the idea, the conception of something, and 
'■es is the reality represented in the mental symbol of 
an idea, it is the object thought of. 

Truth, accordingly, is the adequateness of a rela- 
tion, to-wit, of a mental relation. Without mind no 
truth. Truth does not dwell in non- mental facts. It 
is a misnomer to speak of objects or objective facts as 

being true. Facts are real, while the facts represented, 
i. e., statements of fact, if correct, are true. 

A single sense impression is a fact, but the percep- 
tion of a sense-impression as a certain object is either 
true or untrue. Facts are real, or, if they do not ex- 
ist, unreal; ideas are true or untrue. 

There is a great difference between truth and real- 
ity. The facts of reality are always single, concrete, 
and individual. Every fact is a liic and nunc. It is in 
a special place, and it is as it is, at a certain time. All 
facts are definite and of a particular kind. Yet truth, 
although representing facts, i. e., objects, or relations 
among objects, is never a concrete object, nor is it a hie 
or a nunc. It rises above facts, and views facts from a 
higher standpoint. 

The simplest truths are statements as to the real- 
ity of facts; they are declarations that a certain thing, 
or event, or relation, does or did or will, does not or 
did not or will not, obtain. Higher truths are the 
statements of natural laws, describing certain regulari- 
ties of facts in general formulas. Truth accompanies 
mind in its growth ; and the higher a mind rises, of 
the more consequence will be the truth or untruth of 
its ideas. 

The kinship of truth with mind endows truth with 
a generality that is lacking in the particularity of the 
single facts. 

We cannot speak of the truth of mere sensations. 
The sense-organs furnish us with facts ; they present 
certain data ; and if our sense-organs perform their 
work with sufficient regularity, they furnish under the 
same conditions the same sensations. Properly speak- 
ing, we cannot say that there is truth in these sensa- 
tions ; these sensations are as yet non mental realities. 
Yet when sensations are recognised as representing 
certain objects, i. e., when they become perceptions, 
they acquire the power of being either true or untrue. 
Perceptions are elementary judgments ; they are the 
first mental functions, and from them the mind rises 
into existence. Should it happen that a sensation is 
registered in a wrong place, it will be mistaken; it will 
cause errors. Thus truth originates together with 
mind. Truth and error are the privilege of mind. 

The development of mind means the development 
of truth. Sentient beings observe in a certain group 
of facts, in spite of all variety, some features of same- 
ness. Such features are noted by brutes, then named 
by man, and finally, in the scientific phase, they are 
expressed in exact formulas. These formulas are called 
natural laws. If a natural law describes all the cases 
precisely and exhaustively, we call it a truth. 

Truth in one sense is objective ; it represents ob- 
jects or their relations conceived in their objectivity, 
in their independence of the subject. This means that 
the representation of certain objective states will, un- 



der like conditions, agree with the experience of all 
subjects — i. e., of all feeling beings having the same 
channels of information. 

Truth in another sense is subjective. Truth exists 
in thinking subjects only. Truth affirms that certain 
subjective representations of the objective world can 
be relied upon, that they are deduced from facts and 
agree with facts. Based upon past experience, they 
can be used as guides for future experience. If there 
were no subjective beings, no feeling and comprehend- 
ing minds, there would be no truth. Facts in them- 
selves, whether they are or are not represented in the 
mind of a feeling and thinking subject, are real, yet 
representations alone, supposing they agree with facts, 
are true. 

We distinguish between true and real. We have 
further to distinguish between true and correct. Purely 
formal statements, such as 5 X 5 = 25, have no direct, 
but only indirect reference to objects. They are empty 
forms which have to be filled with contents from the 
realm of our experience. General usage agrees in de- 
noting such statements of purely formal construction, 
if made with strict consistency, according to the rules of 
our mental operations, not as "true," but as correct. 

The very name of truth has something holy about 
it, and rightly so ! For if the All-existence in which we 
live and move and have our being is God, truth, viz., 
the representation of this All-existence, is God's reve- 
lation. Christian mythology calls God our father, and 
the word of truth, or the Logos, his only begotten 
son. It is the mission of Christianitj' to found an 
empire of truth, the kingdom of heaven upon earth, 
and this empire of truth which is within us (i. e., in 
the souls of men) must be acquired by our own efforts, 
or as Christ says : The kingdom of heaven suffers vio- 
lence whenever men are eagerly searching for the 

Considering the relation between mind and truth, 
it is natural that mind vcarns for trutli. The yearn- 
ing for truth constitutes the deepest impulses of the 
mind. It cannot be otherwise, for truth is the Jtilfil- 
7ncnt of mind. Truth, however, is not only a correct 
representation of facts as they are now and here, but 
also as, according to conditions which constitute a 
given state of things, they must be here and every- 
where. Mind expands in the measure that it contains 
and reflects the eternity and universality of truth. 

The criterion of truth is the perfect agreement of 
all facts, of all interpretations and explanations of facts 
among themselves. If two facts (such as we conceive 
them) do not agree with each other, we must revise 
them ; and it may be stated, as a matter of experience, 

* We read in Matthew ii, 12 ; "And from the days of John the Baptist un- 
til now the kingdom of heaven suftereth violence, and the violent take it by 
force," which means that e&orts are made to realise it. 

that our mind will find no peace until a monistic con- 
ception is reached. A monistic conception is the per- 
fect agreement of all facts in a methodical system, so 
that the same law is recognised to prevail in all in- 
stances, and the most different events are conceived 
as acting under different conditions yet in accord with 
the same law. p. c. 


Picking up my morning paper of March 8th, I was greatly 
shocked and overcome to find that the returns for only one day 
showed bribery hard at work helping and hindering legislation in 
Indiana, Nebraska, and Kansas. Revelations of the same char- 
acter from other states are promised in the reports for to-morrow, 
and we mourn the decay of public morals ; but sad as the prospect 
is we are not altogether without hope. In an age of legislative 
corruption it is cheering to see the General Assembly of Illinois, 
superior to the venal temper of the time, wrapped in its Roman 
toga, going into quarantine against temptation as against cholera, 
and defying the tempter to bring on his gold, — and plenty of it. A 
few days ago a bill appeared in the Legislature granting another 
ten thousand dollars to the World's Fair, and by a queer coinci- 
dence every member received in a letter that morning a ticket or 
"pass" giving him the freedom of the Exposition until the 30th 
day of April 1893, a somewhat ironical privilege, considering that 
the Fair will not be opened until the first of May. The temptation 
was bravely spurned in a "ringing" preamble and resolution 
which, reciting the facts declared them to be "an attempt to im- 
properly influence the honorable members of this General .Assem- 
bly." This, while rather paradoxical was virtuously proud, but 
the next paragraph is more high-spirited still, and it condemns with 
senatorial dignity the cheapness of the "pass" offered in return 
for a grant of ten thousand dollars. Thus manfully rings the pre- 
amble, "Whereas, if any honorable gentleman were inclined to 
be thus influenced it is worthy of note that those passes all expire 
April 30th, the day previous to the opening of the Exposition." 
This appeal to civic honor, suggesting also the danger of low 
prices, was followed by a resolution declaring "that all members 
should virtuously and promptly return the passes to-day received." 
Since the celebrated attempt to bribe the Iowa Legislature with 
apples, the cheapest offer made for an " honorable member" is a 
pass to the World's Columbian Circus, good until the day before 
the opening of the show. It ought to be "virtuously " returned. 
Had the tickets been good until the close of the Exposition, they 
might, like the railroad passes and some others, have been "vir- 
tuously " retained. 

The attempt to make the Joliet Penitentiary sectarian is meet- 
ing with much indignant opposition, and the Governor of the State 
is called upon to interfere in behalf of all denominations. The 
complaint is that religion in the penitentiary is under the control 
of a trust composed exclusively of Lutherans and Roman Catho- 
lics ; that the convicts must get spiritual food from those denom- 
inations or go hungry altogether ; and that as the state at large 
must pay for the food the discrimination is unfair. A settlement 
of the trouble is not easy because we have no moral standard by 
which to measure a practice alien to the constitution of the state, 
the appointment of chaplains for public institutions. Where a 
state religion is unlawful a state chaplain ought to be unlawful 
too ; but if we must have the luxury of a chaplain for the peniten- 
tiary, or the legislature, or the insane asylum, the constitution 
being broken in his appointment, what matters it in which religious 
direction the lines of the fracture go ? What matters it whether 
the chaplain of the penitentiary be Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, 
or Jew, except as the convicts themselves may have an interest in 



the question ; and in that case, they ought to be allowed to decide 
what faith should or should not be preached in the penitentiary. 
It may be that the religious views of the convicts have been con- 
sulted in the selection of chaplains, and if so, that ought to be 
satisfactory all round. If the convicts are mostly Lutherans and 
Catholics, what right have the Methodists or the Baptists, or the 
Presbyterians to complain that a Catholic or a Lutheran is chap- 
lain ? If those complaining sects can prove that they are more 
largely represented in the penitentiary than the Catholics or the 
Lutherans, that is another matter. The church that contributes 
the largest number of convicts ought to have the chaplain. 


* * 

A storm of sleet and wind and snow blighted the coronation 
pageantry at Washington on the 4th of March, and threw a chill 
over the festival. This was ominous, and dismally pathetic of a 
political "cold wave," more bitter than wind or snow, a chilling 
frost blighting the promised harvest of a patriotic multitude, 
camped around the capitol and clamoring for the ofBces earned by 
political toil. I can hardly believe it, and yet the papers tell it, 
that Mr. Cleveland "has definitely decided and has authorised 
his cabinet to announce to applicants for appointments, that all 
officials now in office, against whom no charges are made, will be 
permitted to hold until their commissions expire." It is also esti- 
mated that the enthusiastic legions who cheered the President on 
his triumphal march have paid $2,500,000 to the hotel-keepers of 
Washington, and where is the compensation for this ruinous 
" drain of gold "? How are the cohorts to get their money back, 
unless they get the offices won by their valor in the late campaign? 
" Put not your trust in princes," is a Scripture warning, to which 
might well be added, " nor in presidents." They remember not 
their friends. The Democratic transparencies, banners, and badges 
flaunted in the late campaign are now mute symbols of a barren 
victory. The bugles that inspired the hosts are silent, and the re- 
turning braves chant mournfully the " Hymn to Ingratitude," from 
Shakespeare : 

" Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky. 
That dost not bite so nigh 
As benefits forgot. 

Though thou the waters warp. 
Thy sting is not so sharp 

As friend remembered not." 

* * 

That is the dirge of the disappointed, and I am not surprised 
to read in the dispatches from Washington, dated March 8th, that 
"if they had suspected such a situation last summer they would 
not have attended the Chicago convention in such numbers and 
whooped it up so violently in the campaign." Certainly not ; and 
the pathetic story reminds me of something equally sad that oc- 
curred in my own experience. In the summer of 1861, the regi- 
ment in which I served was on the march in Missouri, and one 
evening we went into bivouac in the woods near a little town 
called Shelbyville, where we were tantalised and exasperated by a 
building that bore on its arrogant front the opulent word "bank." 
About midnight a party of the soldiers stole quietly out of camp, 
entered the bank, loaded the safe on to a wagon, and carried it 
into the woods, where they might open it without making too much 
noise. They worked all night at the safe without success, but 
about daylight, by the aid of axes and gunpowder, they broke it 
open, and all the reward they got for their honest toil was a few 
papers "of no use to anybody but the owner." The outrage being 
discovered, our Colonel ordered an investigation, but the maraud- 
ers were not found, and after breakfast we resumed our journey. 
We had hardly gone ten miles before I noticed three or four of my 
men dozing on the march, and at last, one of them towards the 
front of the column, addressing a sleepy comrade a few files back 
of him, said : " Tom ! What good is a bank that has no money in 

it ?" With similar disgust the Democratic soldiers who "whooped 
it up so violently in the late campaign," are now saying to one 
another: "Tom! What good is a victory that has no offices in it ? " 
And the pathos in the question moves the very stones to "rise and 

* * 

For the past two or three weeks my conscience has been dis- 
turbed because of a charge brought against me by a respectable 
body of citizens called "The Tailors' National Exchange." This 
confederation, at a session held in Milwaukee last month, " pre- 
sented a report," in which it was charged that 100,000 American 
tourists go abroad every year, each bringing back on an average 
two suits of clothes, "thus entailing a loss upon American tailors 
of between $3,000,000 and S5,ooo,ooo." As every guilty man, 
whenever a crime is mentioned, thinks himself accused, so the 
statistics given by those tailors read like a special indictment 
against me. I feel as the smitten David felt when accused in a 
parable by the prophet, because a few years ago I actually was an 
"American tourist." I wandered away to Europe, and I wickedly 
did bring back with me two suits of clothes that I bought in Lon- 
don. Avarice tempted me, for I got the two suits for the precise 
amount of money that I should have been compelled to pay for 
one suit in my own country. There is a moral puzzle in the case, 
and the ethical problem arising from the facts is this ; in buying 
two suits for the price of one, did I cheat the tailors ; or do they 
cheat me when they compel me to pay two prices for one suit ? I 
think the answer will be against them, because they demand and 
receive the assistance of a law, that enables them to do so. The 
only remedy for the tailors is the passage of another law prevent- 
ing Americans from going abroad at all. This is easy and simple, 
like the plan of the Nebraska statesman who has introduced a bill 
into the legislature of that state, forbidding the use of gas for 
illuminating purposes, because, as he logically says, when gas is 
abolished fools will not be able to blow it out, and thus endanger 
their lives. If Americans are not allowed to go to Europe, of 
course they will not buy any clothes there ; they will be eSectually 
restrained from " thus entailing a loss upon American tailors." 

M. M. Trumbull. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


tor Yarros 3591 

THE ABSOLUTE. Editor 3594 

TRUTH. Editor 3596 

CURRENT TOPICS : Legislative Integrity. A Sectarian 
Penitentiary. The Ingratitude of Presidents. A Vic- 
tory Without Spoils. Buying Clothes Abroad. Gen. 
M. M. Trumbull 3597 


The Open Court. 



No, 291. (Vol. VII.— 12. 

CHICAGO, MARCH 23, 189^ 

j Two Dollars per Year. 
1 Single Copies. 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 


(Translated from the German by Mrs. Emily S. Boyer.) 

I STILL well remember how I felt when for the first 
time I was present at an exhibition of the magic art. 
Soon after the opening of the doors I took my place 
and waited with beating heart a full hour for the mo- 
ment when the curtain should rise upon that world of 
wonder. And when at last the witches' revelry began, 
as eggs changed into dollars, dollars transformed them- 
selves into pocket-handkerchiefs, bird cages vanished 
in mid air, and empty chests dispensed an incompre- 
hensible wealth of treasures, — then I seemed to be 
living in a land of dreams, far, far away from earth. 

Nowadays, if one wishes to study the methods of 
the juggler, it may be done very easily. A number of 
dealers in magical apparatus will sell to you what you 
most desire : wooden pins, cups, rings, balls, false 
cards, double dollars, etc., and accompany each article 
with " Instructions." Books without number, from 
the thin sheets distributed at fairs, to elegant illus- 
trated volumes, promise to initiate you into the secrets 
of the black art. But all of these books "* and instruc- 
tions tell only /// ivhat a trick co?isists, not haw it is done, 
without ever mentioning that just the most interesting 
part of the art of the adept has been kept a secret, or 
at least revealed at a particularly high price. Appa- 
ratus and instructions do not reveal the kernel of 
" modern magic. " When you know how it happens 
that a dollar disappears, you still know nothing ; you 
may nevertheless be deceived by this trick a hundred 
times : and if you try the same thing exactly according 
to directions, with that alone you will not obtain the 
least result. 

That which makes prestidigitation an art of decep- 
tion, is not its technical appliances, but its psycho- 
logical kernel. The working out in the realm of the 
senses of certain capacities of the soul is something 
incomparably more difficult than any finger-skill or 
machinery. To prove this fact and analyse it theoret- 
ically, forms the theme of the following lines. First, 

* As a noted example may be mentioned Hoffmann's Modern Ma^'c, (Lon- 
don, 18S5) a book from whicti I have borrowed many important statements. 

however, I will make the reader acquainted with the 
company into whose deeds and doings I propose to 
introduce him. 

The history of jugglery forms a significant chapter 
in the long history of human illusion. From the rise 
of the Egyptian priesthood down to the beginning of 
the Middle Ages extends the first epoch, in which the 
arbitrary accomplishment of apparently impossible re- 
sults was accompanied with pretensions to superhuman 
skill ; stragglers with such a purposely deceptive aim 
have maintained themselves up to the present time, as 
spiritualistic mediums. To a second epoch belong the 
conjurors of the Middle Ages and later times ; these 
confess that their tricks are performed by natural 
methods. Finally, the third era dates from the open- 
ing of our own century : then for the first time, jugglers 
appeared on the stage, they were taken into society 
and acquired a certain culture, they omitted from their 
programme all conjurors' methods and worked with 
cards, gold-pieces, pocket-handkerchiefs, and the like. 
Naturally the conjurors did not on this account disap- 
pear from the scene, but they withdrew into the villages, 
and had no association with their better established pro- 
fessional comrades ; just as it is with us at present. 
Only occasionally did one of these nomads advertise 
himself. Thus the Signer Castelli, who in the second 
decade of this century passed through Europe with a 
travelling troupe, excited attention everywhere by the 
statement that he would devour a living man. The solu- 
tion of the puzzle was that the brute would actually 
begin to bite his victim in the arm, whereupon the 
latter took his leave in the speediest manner imagin- 
able, and thus the execution of the experiment was 
rendered impossible. 

The better class of performers, mostly French and 
Italian, called themselves //^jj'/V/cv/.f or cscamotcurs ; the 
XG.Txn prestidigitateur originated with Jules de Rovere. 
Rovere belonged to the leaders of that old school in 
which also Olivier, Prejeau, Brazy, Comus, Chalons, 
Adrien pere, Courtois, and Comte attained great prom- 
inence — not to speak of Lichtenberg's famous Pinetti. 
The most distinguished of these was indisputably 



Comte. French from head to toe, he accomplished ex- 
traordinary things in tasteful form and a delightful man- 
ner. One of his delusions, performed for a small group 
of spectators, bore the stamp of a deception carried 
out with the finest humor. He declares in a joking 
manner that he will transform all the ladies present. 
Naturally, therefore, surprise and merriment among 
the gentlemen. Comte quiets them with the assertion 
that he will arrange everything to their satisfaction, 
then grasps in the air with his empty hands and brings 
out of space a handful of beautiful roses. He goes on, 
"J'avats promis d' escamoter et de inctamorphoser toutcs 
ces dames; pouvais-je choisir une forme plus gracieuse et 
plus aimable? En vous metamoiphosant toutes en roses, 
n'est-ce pas, mesdames, offrir la copie au modele? u'est-ce 
pas aussi vous escamoter pour vous reiidre a vous mcmes? 
dites-moi, messieurs, n'ai-je pas reussi?" Now he be- 
gins the distribution: "Mademoiselle, void une rose que 
vous avals fait rougir de Jalousie." Before another 
dainty maiden the flower changes into the ace of 
hearts, and the gallant magician fittingly adds : "Vou- 
lez vous, madame, mcttre la main sur voire cccur . . . 
Vous n'avez qu'un cietir, n'est-il pas vrai ? . . . Je vous 
demande pardon de cctte question indiscrete, mais elle 
etait necessaire, car bien que vous u'avez qu'un cceur, 
vous pourriez Ics posscder tons." 

Such word-plays are told by the hundreds of 
Comte. To be sure, in our day when we have neither 
salon noT conversazione, the old-fashioned manners with 
their delicate perfume are very seldom interesting, 
and we even look in astonishment upon the juggler 
who expresses himself in too clever forms of speech. 
Besides, the joke readily turns the attention from the 
object itself, the trick, and moreover, sets the audience 
into a commotion which is often little to be desired. 

The names Philippe and Torrini mark a consider- 
able advance in the development of our art. Torrini 
especially, possessed such an extraordinary knack in 
the manipulation of cards, and such an incredible 
boldness in execution, that the public irresistibly 
yielded to him its unqualified admiration. His piquet 
trick was simply unparalleled. In other matters too 
he displayed remarkable daring. Being an Italian 
nobleman whom adverse circumstances had thrust into 
the calling of prestidigitation, at one time while he 
was in Rome, he was invited to give a performance be- 
fore the Pope. By chance on the preceding day he saw 
at a watch-maker's a costly watch of which the owner 
assured him that it was the only counterpart of the 
famous watch of Cardinal X . . . ., and had just arrived 
from Paris the day before. Torrini bought the time- 
piece for the respectable sum of twelve hundred francs 
after he had bound the watch-maker to secrecy and 
had assured himself that the Cardinal would be present 
at his performance. At the close of his entertainment 

he now ventured the following stroke. He asked for 
some very expensive object and if possible for one 
whose like did not exist in the world. The result of this 
request was that the Cardinal, at the command of the 
Pope, though with evident reluctance, handed over his 
watch to the artist. Then Torrini took a mortar and 
pestle, and to the horror of the spectators, shattered 
the valuable treasure into a thousand fragments. The 
Cardinal averred in a trembling voice that there could 
be no question of a mistake here, as he recognised the 
remnants, piece for piece ; in reality, however, it was 
the recently purchased counterpart that had been de- 
stroyed. The performer took advantage of this mo- 
ment of excitement, to slip the genuine watch, unob- 
served, into the pocket of the Pope, and as soon as 
quiet was restored he challenged the audience to desig- 
nate to him some person who by no possibility could 
be a confederate of his. As he desired, all pointed to 
Pius VII. "Very well," he continued, as he made a 
few mysterious motions, "I now will that the watch 
be restored, and be found in the pocket of His Holi- 
ness." The Pope, with every appearance of entire dis- 
belief, reached into his pocket and, red with embar- 
rassment, drew out the watch and handed it to the 
Cardinal as quickly as if he feared he might burn his 
fingers on the uncanny object. It is easy to imagine 
what an excitement this bold stroke created in Rome. 
Torrini never had occasion to regret his expensive but 
original advertisement. 

In the matter of advertising, however, no one was 
more ingenious than the great prestidigitateur, An- 
derson, "the celebrated Anderson, the great wizard 
of the North." Once, in the forties, he sent to all 
London butter-dealers wooden molds, on which were 
carved his name, "titles," and the hour of his enter- 
tainment, with the request that the recipients should 
have these stamps printed for a certain period on the 
butter they sold. In consideration of the fact that 
eventually every one finds it necessary to eat butter, 
the idea certainly deserves imitation. Another time 
he offered a silver vase as a prize for the best joke 
which should be made during the intermission. Any 
one had a right to relate a joke, and the public must 
make the decision by the strength of the applause. 
But that was not enough : Anderson had all these more 
or less worthy witticisms stenographically recorded, 
and sold them in shilling pamphlets. "The great wiz- 
ard" knew quite well how willing most people are to 
see themselves in print. Of the approximate extent of 
his income from this source, we may form some opinion 
when we learn that each pamphlet contained over a 
thousand jokes. * 

Whether Philadelphia, Dobler, and Bosco were 

♦ Compare Confitiences ilt- Kohcrt-Ilouiiin. I'lir v/V d'artrste. Theatre et 
prestidigitation. 2d ed.. Paris, 1861, Vol. II, p. 144. 



really so superior as one would suppose from their 
reputation remains a question. Of Bosco we know 
almost certainly to the contrary. He spared no means 
to accomplish his purpose, and in his brutality went so 
far that it was often necessary to kill doves, not ap- 
parently, but really, on the open stage. He used 
every opportunity to display his craft; in the stage- 
coach, at the table d'hote, in the caf6 and salon, in 
short, everywhere he performed his little feats. Last, 
but not least, his odd but euphonious name helped to 
make him quickly popular. To the same circum- 
stances, a decade later, Bellachini owed his fame. 

But all we have named, and a countless host of un- 
named, were overtopped, head and shoulders, by Rob- 

Robert-Houdin has related the events of his life in 
a book, which, by reason of its fascinating, varied 
contents, and its unpretentiousness of style, forms very 
agreeable reading. He has, with wonderful frankness, 
exposed the secrets of the order whose chief master 
he was, and exhaustively described all his mechan- 
ical, technical, and, especially, his electro-technical 
devices. While most jugglers are jugglers and noth- 
ing else, Robert-Houdin must be described as a man 
of polite education, a graceful writer, and a technical 
genius. Even when a child, he worked upon the in- 
struments in the workshop of his father, a watch- 
maker. This early love of everything mechanical grew 
into a passion of strength, such as book lovers feel 
for manuscripts, collectors for coins, and players for 
cards. The boy investigated everything that was com- 
plex and was always attempting to repair or con- 
struct something. He also had some wholly original 
ideas. At boarding-school he devised the following 
means to awaken at the proper time. He bound a 
cord to the great toe of his right foot, carried it through 
his half-open window out to the garden gate, and fast- 
ened it there, so that at the opening of the gate it 
would be violently pulled. Thus, in the morning, 
when the old servant opened the resisting gate, our 
little Robert found it necessary to jump quickly out of 
bed, and was thus in every case effectually awakened. 
From such primitive devices to his famous "enchanted 
villa" was indeed a great distance, but the former were 
related to the latter just as any promising beginning 
to a happy ending. The country seat of the retired 
magician attracted universal attention in its time; 
there were electric wires from cellar to garret, myste- 
rious automatons haunted every nook and corner, 
descending floors and secret panels connected the 
rooms, bells, traps, and self-acting revolvers kept 
thieves at a distance — in a word, it was a truly "en- 
chanted house." 

It is easy to suppose that such a mind should feel 
itself irresistibly drawn to the allurements of the black 

art. A mountebank, a fair-ground performer of Ger- 
man descent, gave the ten-year-old boy his first notion 
of jugglery, and a book later informed him concerning 
some of the more important tricks. How he afterwards 
continued to instruct himself, and, finally, to the dis- 
may of his family, entered on the career of cscamoteiir, 
we read in detail in his biography. Enough, that one 
day, on the Paris bulletin-boards, the following hand- 
bill glittered : 





The automatons, however, played a very subordi- 
nate part. Robert thought very rightly that people did 
not come to the magician to see apparatus perform ; 
true prestidigitation should not be the work of in- 
strument-makers, but of the performer himself. For 
the same reason he introduced a very important re- 
form. He abandoned the long, draped table formerly 
in use and substituted small, bare side-tables. Like- 
wise he threw into the lumber-room the eccentric cos- 
tumes of other escamoteurs and appeared in a simple 
frock-coat — a Talma of his art. He also gave another 
form to the honiment, or harangue, which accompanied 
the tricks, always seeking so to compose it as to give 
each feat the sem,blance of truth. Above all, Robert- 
Houdin laid the greatest stress upon carrying the de- 
ception to its greatest completeness. Here is an illus- 
tration : The artist devised the trick of suspending 
a person from a pole, apparently without support, 
(though in reality he was fastened by a corset-like 
halter, ) at a time when all the world was talking about 
ether. The ether, accordingly, he introduced into his 
performance by holding to the person's nose a flask of 
this substance and apparently narcotising him. The 
flask was really empty, but behind the stage at the 
same moment a few drops of ether were spilled, so 
that a strong odor penetrated the room and consider- 
ably heightened the illusion. The whole arrangement 
of his performances abounded in such delicate touches. 

During the intermission Robert distributed an ele- 
gantly designed miniature newspaper, whose contents 
changed from evening to evening. The title read : 
Cagliostro. Passc-temps de re7itre-acte {ne jamais lire 
passe-t-en). Ce journal, paraissant le soir, ne peui etre 
III qjie par des gens eclaires . . . le redact eur previent qu'il 
tf est pas timbre {le journal)" ... In one of the num- 
bers, under the head of " Faits divers," occurred the 



following dainty bon mot : "Z^ Minis/re de P Intcrieur 
ne recevra pas demaiii, mats le Ministre dcs Finances re- 
cevra tons les jours . . . et Jours suivanfs." The whole 
was enclosed in a ribbon band with the following ex- 
planation : "A M. et AInie. *^*, demcurant ici. Voire 
abonncment, fim'ssant ce soir, le gerant du journal vous 
prie de If renoi/veler detnain, si vous ne voulez pas le voir 
expire r {r abonncment). 

But the history of his triumphs would fill a volume. 
Before emperers and kings, before the workmen at 
Manchester, before African savages, this wonderful 
man performed his feats of magic, always with brilliant 
success. Nor did success forsake him at Berlin. He 
performed at KroU's from the last of October, 1853, to 
the middle of January, 1854, certainly an extraordinary 
number of entertainments for the conditions of that 
time. As proof of the attractive power of this magician 
par excellence, two journalistic testimonies are given 
herewith. An anonymous writer in the Spenerschen 
Zeitung says, concerning the first " soiree fantastique" 
of Mr. Robert-Houdin, prestidigitateur of the Palais 
Royal of Paris : " Mr. Houdin is king of escamoteurs, 
emperor of jugglers, the chief of magicians. Had 
Horace known Mr. Houdin he would surely have given 
up his stupid nil admirari creed. Although the gold 
disappears in his hands more quickly than in many a 
state's treasury, still one maybe at rest, for after a few 
moments it comes to light in the pockets of its former 
possessors, without having suffered diminution. We 
should never have believed it, had we not seen it. The 
public will do well to inform themselves personally, 
else they will think we are relating Munchausen stories 
and fables ; but all this actually took place in the 
j'ear 1853 at Berlin, and at KroU's, whereof each and 
every one may learn for himself for ten silver gro- 
schen. " 

The dreaded Rellstab published a hymn in the 
"Voss," a few portions of which may be of interest. 
"Now at last I may again converse! now at last I 
am permitted to make my appearance in public places, 
since I have now seen him, the man of public admira- 
tion, the cornerstone of the day's interest, the magnetic 
pole of the air-currents, the — no more ! Of whom can 
I speak but of the great magician Robert Houdin,* 
who not only charms, but enchants, even the reporters 
and critics, formerly as impossible as the quadrature 
of a circle." Rellstab then describes a few of the 
artist's tricks, as follows: "He wraps up a lovely 
turtle-dove in a sheet of silken paper ; we see it strug- 
gling there, he breathes upon it, and — a breath of air 
is all there is within the silken paper ! Gone is our 
little dove through space. 'Oh, we have often seen 
the like before.' I believe you; but how? You never 

* The real name of the artist was Robert; the family name of his wife, 
Houdin, he first added in the forties by legal permission. 

saw it like this before. ... I will relate to you a 
fable that is a true history. The magician graciously 
requested a handkerchief and ring from a beautiful 
hand, wrapped the ring in the handkerchief, and tied 
it carefully into a little package. An egg, a lemon, and 
an orange were placed before us, and the choice given 
in which of the three the handkerchief and ring should 
be found. The Right cried, ' In the orange '; the Left, 
' In the egg'; the Centre, ' In the lemon.' Oh, why is 
not Mr. Houdin made a minister ? How he could unify 
the most divergent parties ! He would have settled 
(even if he had not answered) the Oriental question 
at a cup of after-dinner coffee ! 'Nothing is easier,' he 
replied, 'than the harmonising of these three wishes. 
I shall put the egg in the lemon, and the lemon in the 
orange, so shall all three be in one, and the handker- 
chief in all three.' And the thing was actually and truly 

Since Robert-Houdin the art of sleight-of-hand has 
had no new reformer. It travels still, for the most 
part, in the same paths as forty years ago, and seeks to 
gain a new impetus by a pretended usage of spiritual- 
ism and mind-reading. There are no longer magicians 
who command the entire field with equal skill. The 
two best living representatives, M. Hermann of Ber- 
lin, now of New York, and Cazeneuve of Marseilles, 
are very good only in certain fields. The former excels 
in hand tricks with cards and dollars, and the latter in 
card tricks. And of the thousand others it may be 
said that they perform well, but not that they perform 
excellently. The black art is going to ruin, like many 
another art and isolated craft. It waits anxiously for 
its Messiah. 

Beyond mere technical knowledge, which any one 
with proper patience may acquire, what is there then 
needful in order that a person may become a good 
sleight-of-hand artist ? 

[to be continued.] 


Experience is the effect of events upon sentient 
beings. The condition of experience is memory. Grant 
that in a world of changes sentient beings are pos- 
sessed of memory and the result will be exactly what 
is commonly understood by "experience." 

That experience is the sole source of human knowl- 
edge has been doubted by three classes of men only : 
(i) by mystics, (2) by believers in supernaturalism, 
and (3) by Kant and strict Kantians. 

Mystics believe that there exists some kind of in- 
spiration which bestows knowledge at a glance and in 
full completeness as it can otherwise be acquired only 
imperfectly and piecemeal by many years of experience. 
This extraordinary source of knowledge is called "in- 
tuition," because mystics describe their ecstacies as 




visions. We state simply a tautology when we say that 
knowledge derived in a mystical way by intuition is 
"visionary" in the literal sense of the word ; but the 
intuitionalist's "visionary" is now so discredited that 
the very word has become a synonym for the fantastic, 
the unreal, the fabulous, the chimerical, the impos- 

Believers in supernaturalism declare that some 
truths were not acquired in the natural way but by the 
special intercession of an extramundane God. They 
regard "revelation" as a better and more reliable 
source of knowledge than experience. 

Two kinds of truth can be distinguished which, ac- 
cording to the statement of supernaturalists, were ac- 
quired by special revelation : first, such moral truths 
as love of enemies and self-sacrifice for ideals higher 
than self, and secondly, mysterious statements con- 
cerning extramundane affairs. The former have been 
proved to be of natural growth ; for they have been de- 
veloped without any supernatural intercession among 
people who are denoted by Israelitic, Christian, and 
Mohammedan supernaturalists as gentiles, pagans, and 
giaours respectively. 

The maturest and most careful investigations of 
ethical science show that all vices lead to destruc- 
tion, so that the noblest and most elevated virtues are 
exactly that which, according to natural laws, possesses 
the power of preservation. Moral truths, accordingly, 
are not unattainable, and if it were true that Jews, 
Christians, and Moslems did not and could not nat- 
urally develop their moral ideas, which in a less com- 
plete form were naturally developed among other na- 
tions, this would prove only the mental or moral in- 
feriority of their races. 

The second class of supernatural truths, i. e. , mys- 
tical statements concerning extramundane affairs, are 
partly vague and partly absurd, so that they can neither 
be explained nor understood : they have simply to be 
believed: And this is the opinion of the supernatural- 
ists themselves. St. Augustine says : Credo quia ab- 
surd urn. 

Kant is neither a mystic nor a supernaturalist ; yet 
he objects to the proposition that experience is the sole 
source of knowledge, and Kant's objection is charac- 
teristic of his entire philosophy — indeed, it forms its 
starting point. 

Let us briefly review the antecedents of Kant's 

Locke followed but the old tradition of philosoph- 
ical thought as handed down from Aristotle, as insisted 
upon by Bacon, as held by Spinoza, that experience is 
the sole source of knowledge. "Our observation," 
Locke said, "employed either about external sensible 
objects, or about the internal operations of our mind, 
perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that which 

supplies our understanding with a/l the materials of 
thinking." (Italics are ours.) "Essay on Human 
Understanding," II, ch. i. 

Locke discards the theory of innate ideas proposed 
by Descartes and compares the mind to a tabula rasa, 
a white sheet of paper, and all ideas are written upon 
it through sense-experience. His theory is contained 
in the sentence : Nihil est in intellectu quod non antea 
fuerit in sensu. 

The weakness of Locke's system is apparent. If 
sense-impressions are comparable to the writing on a 
sheet of paper, whence is the mind that receives these 
sense-impressions. It may be granted that nothing is 
in the intellect but that which has been before in the 
senses. This explains how the intellect can acquire 
knowledge by impressions, but it does not explain the 
intellect itself. Leibnitz accordingly extended the 
sentence in this form : Nihil est in intellectu quod non 
antea fuerit in sensu, nisi intellectus ipse. (Nothing 
is in the intellect which was not before in the senses — 
except the intellect itself.) 

This weakness in Locke's system became apparent 
in his followers, especially in Hume. Hume granted 
that all ideas might be resolved into impressions ex- 
cept one, viz., that of necessary connection. We meet 
with "constant conjunctions" in experience, but not 
with necessity, and thus the basis of all science, the 
law of cause and effect, remains a mere assumption. 
This consideration made of Hume a sceptic. 

Kant was aroused from his dogmatic slumber, as 
he states himself, by Hume's scepticism. But Kant 
saw what Hume had overlooked : that there are many 
more conjunctions to which we attribute necessity ; 
foremost among which are mathematical theorems, the 
certainty of which was never doubted even by Hume. 

Mathematical truths are not products of sense-im- 
pressions. Mathematical reasoning is purely formal. 
The sense-element is carefully eliminated from them. , 
And yet we have ideas of purely formal reasoning, 
and these ideas are not only perfectly clear, but have 
also been regarded since times immemorial as the 
model of all reliability. We do not hesitate to attribute 
to them universality and necessity. 

Thus Kant concludes that there is another source 
of knowledge, which cannot be resolved into and 
which does not rise out of the experience of sense-im- 
pressions. This other source is the pure understand- 
ing or pure reason.* Kant's "Critique of Pure Rea- 
son" was the result of this suggestion received from 

We have now to call attention to the ambiguity in 
which the term "experience" is used. Locke's usage 
of the word reflection is not clear. He might have 

* Kant fails to make a clear distinction between reason and understand- 



accepted our definition of experience, viz. : as the ef- 
fect of events upon sentient beings ; but the school 
to which he belonged regarded the sensational element 
of impressions, caused by these events, as sufficient to 
explain the rise of ideas. Hence the name Sensation- 
alism. Hume and Kant followed Locke and the so- 
called school of sensationalism in the usage of the term 
"experience." Kant defines experience or empirical 
cognition as "a cognition which determines an object 
by means of perception," meaning thereby the sensory 
element of sensations, contrasting it to the formal cog- 
nition of mathematics, arithmetic, logic, and other 
sciences of pure reason. 

Kant unfortunately introduced two terms which 
have proved very inadequate to express his views. He 
called cognition by sensuous impressions a posteriori, 
and cognition by pure reason a priori. 

The term a priori gave much offence and produced 
a great confusion, for Kant's philosophy was consid- 
ered by many of his adherents and adversaries as a 
revival of the old and antiquated "innate ideas" of 
Descartes. That this is not so is evident from the first 
sentence of Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason." Kant 
agrees with Locke that all knowledge "begins with 
experience"; he only denies that all knowledge "rises 
from experience." 

If by experience is to be understood the sense-ele- 
ment of experience only, it is quite natural that purely 
formal knowledge cannot be resolved into, or explained 
as arising from, experience. Experience, however, as 
we use the term, is not restricted to the sense-element 
alone, but comprises the whole effect of events upon 
sentient beings. The sense-impressions of experience 
possess certain shapes; they stand in relations among 
themselves ; they are not merely sensory, but contain 
also a formal element. And this formal element of ex- 
perience is not less, but rather more important than 
the sense-element. 

At a certain stage of the evolution of mind, a sen- 
tient being learns to think in such abstracts of purely 
formal ideas as numbers. Numbers are abstracts of 
pure form. They are derived from experience, i. e. 
not from the sensory features of experience, not from 
experience as Kant uses the term, but from the formal 
element of experience. By counting, we construct a 
system of numbers which soon becomes a most essen- 
tial part of the mind as a schedule of reference. 

When stating that my table has four legs, I do not 
derive the idea "four" by a direct abstraction from 
the entire sense-impression called table, but by refer- 
ring to that system of numbers which exists in the mind 
as a part of the mind ; which existed a priori to the 
present experience, i. e. long before I saw this table. 

The same is true of other pure forms. As numbers 
have naturally risen by creating an abstract sphere, so 

all the other formal sciences are domains of wholesale 
abstraction. Mathematics starts with purely formal 
space-relations and constructs of them systems which 
in the same way as numbers serve as models and ref- 
erences. Logic starts with purely formal thought- 
relations and constructs such frameworks of thought 
as the categories, which serve as mental shelves or 
pigeon holes for an orderly and systematic arrange- 
ment of ideas. 

According to Kant, sense-experience by itself is 
blind, and formal cognition by itself is empty ; and in- 
deed perfect knowledge would not be possible if ex- 
perience consisted either of its sense-elements alone 
or of the formal alone. A perfect knowledge of real- 
ities becomes possible only by a cooperation of both. 
The formal and the sensory are the web and woof of 

Kant saw that the formal and the material (viz., the 
sense-element of experience) are inseparable in the 
subjective realm of thought, but he did not see that 
they are also inseparable in the objective realm of real 
existence. He regarded the formal element of real 
things as added to the material by the mind, as if 
formless things could exist. No wonder that things 
became unknowable to Kant. 

Kant is a very great philosopher ; he is a giant 
among thinkers. Nevertheless, it is true that his great 
fame was not so much due to his greatness, but to his 
mistakes. He proposed a problem to mankind which 
has kept philosophical minds busy ever since. His 
ability consisted in seeing the problem, not in solving 
it. His own solution, or rather lack of solution, (for 
he never inquired into the origin of what he termed 
the a priori'), cast a glamor of mysticism over his phi- 
losophy which had not been intended by him but 
proved a source of great fascination to all those minds 
who take delight in the chiaroscuro of a systematic or 
apparently systematic ignorance. And this class of 
thinkers — the philosophasters of mankind — are still in 
the majority. Their applause, like that of the galleries 
in the theatre, counts most. 

After this exposition of the objections made to the 
doctrine that experience is the sole source of human 
knowledge, we need hardly add that modern science 
and philosophy are to be based upon experience. 

No other source has as yet been proved reliable. 
That which Kant calls the a priori is a systematic 
construction of the formal elements of experience. 
The visionary knowledge of intuition has been entirely 
abandoned, and the theory of a supernatural revela- 
tion is an erroneous interpretation of the religious ex- 
periences of past ages. God reveals himself to man- 
kind in exactly these data of experience ; and religion 
will not be free from pagan elements until this truth 
is recognised. p. c. 




Will my genial friend Robin Goodfellow of the A^ewcast/c 
ChionicU allow me to say a few words to him in a private and con- 
fidential way ? In the Weekly Chronicle of March 4th he complains 
that a bill was presented in the House of Representatives last 
February, dividing the Dominion of Canada into states, "with 
suitable and exact boundaries, and with Representatives in Con- 
gress," and many other things, all in anticipation of the admission 
of said province of Canada into the American Union. Adopting 
our own idiom, he inquires if this is not a little "too previous"; 
and he thinks that before proceeding to apportion Canada, the 
House of Representatives ought to have required at least "some 
evidence that there is a disposition on the part of the people of 
Canada to join their fate with that of the United States " Here 
the House of Representatives is made responsible for the eccen- 
tricity of a single member, and this I rise to complain of as unfair. 
"I wonder," says Robin, "what our American cousins would say 
if a member of the House of Commons were to introduce a bill 
providing for the government of Maine, Massachusetts, and other 
parts of New England, when the inhabitants of these sections 
shall express a desire to become part of the Dominion." Well, we 
should advise him to wrap himself up in his ears, and rest. We 
should give sympathy, instead of censure, to the House of Com- 
mons, and we should wonder how such an inverted statesman ever 
got out of the lunatic asylum and into Parliament. Will our Eng- 
lish cousins charitably look upon our feeble-minded statesmen in 
the same way ? 

In a Chicago paper of this morning I find an editorial article, 
entitled " Clearing Up a Muddle," and the clearing up is done by 
stirring up the sediment from the bottom and making the muddle 
a little thicker than it was. A correspondent in Indiana asked the 
paper if it was true that the fifty cents merely admitted the visitor 
to the grounds of the World's Fair, and if it was true that an ad- 
ditional fee was to be charged for admission to each building. In 
answer, the editor with some irritation says : "It would be idle to 
search for the origin of this grotesque rumor. Of course, it has 
no foundation. All the exhibition buildings and all the exhibits 
under the control of the World's Fair directors are to be seen for 
the one fee of fifty cents." He then proceeds to lay a very broad 
and firm foundation for the rumor, in this way : " The Irish, Ger- 
man, Turkish, and Moorish villages, etc., being concessions to in- 
dividuals and corporations, paid for by private capital, and man- 
aged by their owners, are no parts of the World's Fair proper, and 
these of course take fees from persons who visit them." This ex- 
planation may be sufficient, but it says enough to justify the 
"rumor" that came to the man in Indiana. It shows that there 
are to be several exhibitions on the grounds, some of them under 
the control of the Directors, and others not. Besides, there may 
be more exceptions in the "etc." than in the main statement. It 
reminds me of the showman who came to Marbletown with a pan- 
orama, which he advertised as the " transit of Venius, showing that 
beautiful planet revolving round the sun in the company of Mer- 
cury, Mars, etc." It will be noticed that all the other heavenly 
bodies were in the " etc." 

* * 

One evening a famous temperance lecturer was arrested for 
being drunk and disorderly. Reproached next morning for the 
variance between his professions and his practice, he excused him- 
self by saying that although he was religiously opposed to the use 
of intoxicating liquors, he was not bigoted on that subject. This 
fable will apply to the Republican convention which met in Chi- 
cago yesterday and nominated a candidate for the office of mayor. 
The Democrats nominated their candidate several days ago, and 
ever since they did so, they have been subjected to a great deal of 
patriotic censure, which, by the way, appears to be deserved 

Their candidate has been assailed as the patron and protector of 
the law-breaking element, the centre of a corrupt "ring," the 
genius of the "gang," who, if elected, is to make the city hall a 
sanctuary for the criminal classes. The Republicans havmg played 
that inspiring tune for about three weeks with fifty variations, 
found out all of a sudden that the " law-breaking element " was 
very large in Chicago, and that it would be just as well to con- 
ciliate it for election purposes. So, in order to show that while 
denouncing law breaking in the abstract they are not bigoted, they 
adopted the following resolution ; 

" That while all ordinances should be enforced, with the view to the sup- 
pression of vice, the executive department should construe the laws in the 
spirit of tolerance, with due regard to the cosmopolitan character of the popu- 
lation of Chicago, so that the customs and habits of the various peoples be 
not interfered with, nor their personal liberty and individual rights impaired." 

Surely nothing can be more liberal than that ; and if the ' ' va- 
rious peoples" who occupy Chicago think there is not enough 
"tolerance" in it, let them offer such amendments as they desire, 
and the platform will be made more elastic still. The mayor and 
the police will respect " the customs and habits of the various peo- 
ples," when they happen to run against the statutes of the city. 
In that case, the laws and ordinances will be "interfered with," 
but not the customs and the habits. If any man in the city has an 
unlawful habit it is to be charged up to his nationality, and the 
frailty itself placed under the protection of a plenary indulgence, 
granted by the mayor. The resolution is a promise that if the 
candidate shall be elected, he will "construe the laws in a spirit 
of tolerance," the meaning of which is that they will not be im- 
partially enforced, and some of them not enforced at all. 

* * 

Reading a newspaper a few days ago, I found therein a very 
attractive advertisement to the effect that any person able to prove 
that Simpson's extract of cocoa is injurious to health, would receive 
ten packages of the extract free. This temptation reminded me 
that in my legal practice I had known men to commit suicide for 
the benefit of their wives and children, the purpose being to cheat 
the life-insurance companies. This excellent and pious plan usually 
failed, and all that the bereaved families got out of it was a law- 
suit, the companies refusing to pay, for the reason that suicide 
broke the policy. A cheap and easy way to "shuffle off this mor- 
tal coil, " without arousing the suspicion of the insurance compa- 
nies, is to prove the deleterious nature of that extract, get ten 
packages of it gratis, and use a portion of it every morning as a 
slow poison, under the pretence that it is a breakfast beverage. 
Ten packages would probably be enough to finish anybody, leav- 
ing a clear gain to the family of the insurance money, less funeral 
expenses ; and even these may be saved by careful economy, for I 
find in the Chicago papers the following liberal offer : " Funeral 
expenses of all persons using Chippewa Spring water exclusively 
will be paid gratuitously by the Chippewa Spring Water Company, 
21 Quincy street." Considering how very expensive it is to die 
since the passage of the McKinley bill, this generous proposal is 
worthy the attention of all economical householders I have or- 
dered a barrel of "Chippewa " for my own use. 

* * * 

A very aristocratic dinner was given on the i6th of March by 
the very aristocratic Hamilton Club of Brooklyn, to Mr. Tracy of 
New York, who filled the office of Secretary of the Navy in the 
late administration, and who has just retired from that important 
place. "By a happy coincidence," as the paper joyfully said, 
"the new Secretary of the Navy, Hilary A. Herbert, was enabled 
to be present," paying a compliment gracefully non-partisan, and 
in harmony with the spirit of the banquet. Of course, there was 
a liberal exchange of civilities, in the line of mutual admiration 
between the two Secretaries, but that sort of thing, unless it is 
"too much done," smooths the rtugh edges of social intercourse. 



and adds to the charm of life. Wealth, luxury, rank, elegance, 
and eloquence graced the banquet, and every guest was in the full 
dress uniform of gentility, yet the speeches forced once more into 
prominence the humiliating question: "Is the United States a 
gentleman ? " Shall we never learn, while respecting ourselves, to 
respect the feelings of others ? Where is that gentle courtesy and 
sign of high breeding \Vhich often flashes from the instinct of a 
common laborer, and which many men of rank and money seem 
utterly unable to show ? Can we never meet around the banquet 
board without boasting, like prize-fighters in their drink, that we 
are able to whip somebody or anybody ? It was entirely proper 
for Mr. Tracy to boast that he had built a navy, but the compari- 
sons he made might have come out of the "forecastle," they 
showed such lack of magnanimity and good taste. Selecting Ger- 
many for objective illustration, and caring nothing for the feelings 
of the Germans at the table, Mr. Tracy said : 

" I am aware that this is the first public announcement of our superiority 
to Germany, but the statement is made not unadvisedly, but after careful com- 
parison of the two navies, ship by ship. From such comparison it appears 
that with the ships which constitute the fighting force of the two governments 
the United States can throw in any one direction at a single discharge 31.000 
pounds of metal against 25^000 pounds by Germany. In speed and etficiency 
our cruisers far surpass those of the German navy." 

Then follows some hundred ton bombast to the effect that 
" ship by ship there is nothing in the world superior to the ships 
of recent American design and construction." "I know this is 
good poetry," said an author to an editor, "for I wrote it myself." 
" I know," says Mr. Tracy, "that there is ' nothing in the world' 
superior to our ships, for I built them." The explanation of all 
this glorification of ourselves comes from that " Rule Britannia " 
spirit of defiance, which we have inherited from England, and 
which we have expanded to the continental size of the American 
republic. But there is a proper place for it. Without offending 
anybody a party of Englishmen roystering at a tavern may pro- 
claim in song, for the patriotic encouragement of one another, 
that their nation " rules the waves"; but we may be sure of this, 
that Sir Joseph Porter, K. C. B., when he was at the head of the 
Queen's navee. or afterwards, would never at a banquet, in a speech 
made for publication, direct the attention of the nations to the 
naval weakness of a friendly power. M. M. TRtJMBULL. 



To the Editor of TJie Open Court : 

I must protest against the article of Dr. Oswald, defending 
the burning and torture of the negro criminal at Paris. Texas. I 
do not believe that this crime against Texas was due to any polit- 
ical interest, but was simply due to a false standard of ethics, 
which is common in the less civilised parts of the South and the 
Far West. If the law is not able to take care of such people, as 
the negro who was burned, then the country is uncivilised. But 
I suppose that the law is perfectly able to do right for the people 
in that part of Texas. I believe that such acts are due in this, as 
in most other such cases, to a desire to gratify a disposition to 
sanguinary cruelty, which exists in some people of the baser sort 
Such people take pleasure in committing a murder, if they think 
they can do so without punishment. This is the real motive be- 
hind lynchings. The crime, or supposed crime, of the prisoner is 
the excuse, but it is evident that a desire to do justice is not the 
principal motive in such acts. Governor Hogg did well to de- 
nounce the crime of Paris, and the prosecuting attorney would 
have the support of the civilised people of the United States in 
seeing that its perpetrators are punished. As to the town, the 
sooner its name is changed the better, if it is to remain on the 
map. Yours very truly, 

E. D. Cope. 


German, gymnastics, singing, sewing, drawing, and modelling 
in clay have been branded as " fads." the latter being honored by 
the special name of mud-pie making. 

It is most ridiculous to regard the training of the voice and 
hand, the drill of the body as a useless specialty that can be dis- 
pensed with. Still more ridiculous is the statement that the city 
of Chicago has no means to pay for these disciplines. If we have 
no means for these important branches of education, let us rather 
abolish our whole public school system, for in that case our public 
schools will soon be degraded into pauper schools. 

Chicago is over a third German, perhaps more, and it is highly 
advisable that the children of German parents should receive some 
good instruction in the language of their parents. This is neces- 
sary lest parents and children be estranged, which would destroy 
in their homes the wholesome moral influence of the former upon 
the latter ; and it will be beneficial, for the German spirit will in 
this way be preserved, and many good qualities of the German 
nationality will thus be introduced into American life. 

The teaching of German should, as a matter of course, be 
conducted with discretion. German should not be obligatory to 
such an extent as to force it upon those to whom it would be a 
burden, although there are instances among children of Anglo- 
American and Irish descent who gladly avail themselves of the 
opportunity to learn German. Nor should German be taught with 
a view of supplanting the English, .\spirations of this kind will 
not have and do not find any sympathy in leading German circles. 
There is no danger that the German language will crowd out or 
suppress the English. 

The mere idea of regarding such important branches of edu- 
cation as fads is folly. How much wiser it would be to reduce or 
drop the monotonous spelling lessons. Spelling might easily be 
taught in a more ingenious and more systematic way than is done 
at present. Spelling, as taught at present, is not a fad, but a nui- 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price. 75 cents each. 



soiR 3599 

EXPERIENCE. Editor 3602 

CURRENT TOPICS : Prematurely Annexing Canada. Side 

Shows at the Fair Tolerant Construction of the Laws. 

Saving Funeral Expenses. National Boasting. Gen. 

M, M. Trumbull 3605 


The Lynching at Paris. Texas. E. D. Cope 3606 

NOTES 3606 


The Open Court. 


No. 292. (Vol. VII.— 13.) 

CHICAGO, MARCH 30, 1893. 

1 Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



There are vampires in these days. We know that 
European peasants still claim to have seen them. And 
so, there should be no doubt whatever that there are 
such monsters. Else, why are Hungarians, Poles, 
Wallachians, and other Slavonic peoples so afraid of 
the blood-sucking and blood-thirsty dead ? For, as 
every peasant in Transylvania knows, wicked men 
come back after death as vampires. According to Dr. 
Friedrich Krauss, the belief in vampires is universal 
among the Kroats and Slavonians.* 

Now, what do you think the village people do in 
order to keep vampires away ? Why, as soon as the 
suspected person is dead, they burn the straw upon 
which the body lay. Then, they lock up all the cats 
and dogs, for, if these animals stepped over the corpse, 
the person would come back as a vampire (Bukodlak) 
and would suck the blood of the village folk. There 
is no doubt about it.f 

Another simple but barbarous plan is to drive a 
white-thorn stake through the dead body. That will 
render the vampire harmless {mai/it man den Vainpyr 
unschadlich~). To this day the peasants in Bukowina 
drive an ash stake through the breast of the corpses 
of suicides and vampires. J This brutal treatment of 
suicides was once common in England and Scotland. 
The Wallachians drive a long nail through the skull, 
and lay the thorny stem of a wild rosebush on the 
corpse. S In very bad or obstinate cases, the Rouma- 
nian peasant cuts off the head and puts it back into 
the coffin with the mouth filled with garlic. Sometimes 
they take out the heart, burn it, and strew the ashes 
over the grave. || 

All these and many other precautions are still taken 
by village folk in Europe to keep vampires away. 
And yet, no vampire has ever been caught in the act. 
No specimens are to be found in the Museum of Nat- 

* Die Vereinigien Konigreiche Kroatien und Slavonien, Vienna, 
p. 122. 

t Do., p. 119. 

X Ant Ur-Quell. i8gi, p. 12. 

%Yx^z&T \\i Conteinparary Review. August. 1885. 

1] Emily De Gerard in Nineteenth Century, September. 1885. 

ural History. There are, of course, some people who 
will doubt their existence. 

Not so, however, with the Roumanian peasant. He 
believes in the vampire, ox Nosferaiii, "as firmly as 
he does in heaven or hell." What do you think of 
that? The Roumanians have two kinds of vampires 
— living and dead. You will be interested in knowing 
what a "living vampire" is. Well, the living vam- 
pire is the illegitimate offspring of two illegitimate 
persons. But, as the writer on " Transylvanian Su- 
perstitions" in \)[\e. Ninetcentlt Ccnturv remarks, "even 
a flawless pedigree will not ensure any one against the 
intrusion of a vampire into his family vault, since every 
person killed by a Nosferatu becomes likewise a vam- 
pire after death, and will continue to suck the blood 
of other innocent people." As to precautions taken 
for the purpose of exorcising or laying the vampire, we 
are told that " there are few Roumanian villages where 
such has not taken place within the memor}' of the in- 

The question is often asked, What is a vampire ? 
I am sure I don't know. An old eighteenth century 
authority, Horst, says that it is a "dead bod}' which 
continues to live in the grave, which it leaves, how- 
ever, by night for the purpose of sucking the blood of 
the living, whereby it is nourished and preserved in 
good condition, instead of becoming decomposed like 
other dead bodies." 

What does a vampire look like? Does it take the 
form of a ghost or spirit, or does it assume the same 
appearance as a person in the material state ? Yes 
and no. It comes at night by your bedside as a horrid 
Shape. It has a human figure and face : its eyes are 
glassy ; its mouth is bloody ; its flesh is livid. 

Early in the eighteenth century (from 1727 to 1735) 
a sort of vampire fever or epidemic broke out in the 
Southeast of Europe, especially among the people of 
Hungary and Servia. These dreadful beings called 
vampires sucked the blood of the whole village ; they 
not only nourished themselves, but they infected others, 
and so propagated vampirism. It was a terrible thing, 
for no one knew how or when he might be bitten by 
the awful monster. The probable state of mind and 



situation has been described by a modern writer in the 
following manner : 

" You are lying in your bed at night, when you see, by the 
faint light, a Shape entering at the door and gliding toward you 
with a long sigh. The thing moves along the air as if by the mere 
act of volition. You lie still — like one under the influence of a 
nightmare — and the thing floats slowly over you. Presently you 
fall into a dead sleep or swoon, returning, up to the last moment 
of consciousness, the fixed and glassy stare of the phantom. When 
you awake in the morning you think it is all a dream, until you 
perceive a small, blue, deadly-looking spot on your chest near the 
heart ; and the truth flashes on you. You say nothing to your 
friends ; but you know you are a doomed man — and you know 
rightly. Every night comes the terrible Shape to your bedside, 
and sucks your life-blood in your sleep. 

" Day after day you grow paler and more languid ; your face 
becomes livid, your eyes leaden, your cheeks hollow. Your friends 
advise you to seek medical aid, to take a change of air, but you 
are aware that it is all in vain. You therefore keep your fearful 
secret to yourself and pine, and droop, and languish, till you die. 
When you are dead, (if you will be so kind as to suppose yourself 
in that predicament,) the most horrible part of the business com- 
mences. You are then yourself forced to become a Vampire and 
to create fresh victims, who, as they die, add to the phantom 

Such was the terrible hallucination that seized peo- 
ple in the last century. The result was a genuine 
panic. Every one became badly scared, nervous, and 
afraid of being made a vampire against his will. 
Hundreds of people died under the belief that they 
had been bitten by these blood-sucking monsters. The 
emperor issued military commissions, and the graves 
of the alleged vampires were opened in the presence 
of medical men. Some of the bodies were found well 
preserved, with life-like complexions, and with fresh 
skin and nails growing. 

There is little doubt (in my mind) that many per- 
sons were actually buried alive. The prominent fact, 
testified to by medical and military men, is that the 
bodies often presented a most natural and life-like ap- 
pearance. The only explanation is that such persons 
were buried alive. Dr. Mayo quotes from an old Ger- 
man writer the following gruesome account of a vam- 
pire execution : "When they opened his grave, after 
he had been long buried, his face was found with a 
color, and his features made natural sorts of move- 
ments, as if the dead man smiled. He even opened 
his mouth as if he would inhale the fresh air. They 
held the crucifix before him, and called in a loud voice : 
' See, this is Jesus Christ who redeemed your soul 
from hell and died for you.' After the sound had acted 
on his organs of hearing, and he had connected some 
ideas with it, tears began to flow from the dead man's 
eyes. Finally, when, after a short prayer for his poor 
soul, they proceeded to hack off his head, the corpse 
uttered a screech and turned and rolled as if it had 
been alive — and the grave was full of blood." Of 

course, the wretched man was alive, just as surely as 
he was murdered. 

The authority for the eighteenth century history of 
vampires is a work by M. Calmet, the celebrated author 
of the "History of the Bible." He has given an ac- 
count of the epidemic in his "Dissertations on the 
Ghosts and Vampires of Hungary." The subject was 
treated by Voltaire in his "Philosophical Dictionary" 
in his usual bantering, semi-sneering style. He traces 
the idea of vampires back to the ?itodern Greeks, who 
believed in dreadful beings called "Brucolacs. " The 
connection is indisputable. The Slavonic vampire is 
the Greek vampire with some changes. "The ideas 
about vampires," says Mr. Ralston, "are identical 
among the Greeks and Slavonians, the name for a 
vampire being one of the very few words of Slavonic 
origin in Modern Greek." 

Now, when a superstition is widely spread in 
Europe, as the belief in vampires certainly was in the 
eighteenth century, we naturally expect to find traces 
of it in ancient times and among uncivilised peoples. 
That is just what we do find in the classical authors 
and in the accounts of travellers. Indeed, we might 
show that the vampire superstition originated in cer- 
tain ancient beliefs and observances touching the dead 
— seen in the various precautions taken to guard 
against the return of the ghosts of people, good and 

There are vampires in these days. But they are 
very different beings from those that worried the 
Greeks and scared the people of the last century. 



The artist in magic must be able to point to a very 
intricate table of ancestry. He must have descended 
on his mother's side in a direct line from the Witch of 
Endor, on his father's side from the magician Merlin; 
he must have had Zornebogk and Sykorax for his god- 
parents, and Faust's witch for his nurse. In other 
words, the juggler must be born to his profession. 

JVon ciiivis liomiinon contingit adire Corinthum. 

The modern magician must have an abundant 
measure of the same qualities as the physician. He 
must inspire confidence. The spectator must implicitly 
believe him when he says he holds an orange in his 
left hand, although the latter may have already grad- 
ually wandered over to the right hand. This ability 
to captivate the sympathies of the public from the first 
moment, so that those present, without exception, 
willingly follow the intention of the artist, is not a 
thing to be learned, and yet in just such a disposition 
of the audience consists the greatest help of the per- 



For the means bj' which he performs his wonders 
is not great speed of action. Strictl3' speaking, the 
word " prestidigitation " is not well chosen. It is true 
that the skilful actor awakens in the uninitiated the 
belief that all is taking place so quickly and adroitly 
that one cannot possibly see it, yet in reality he makes 
the necessary movements with the greatest composure 
and deliberation. Success lies in the ars artem cclandi, 
the art of so influencing the observer that one can do 
everything before his nose without his noticing it. 
Also in this second important requirement of an adept, 
talent is necessary. I have seen many an amateur, 
who would have accomplished very neat results had 
he not been possessed of the deceitful delusion that he 
must make a show of his dexterity. The charm of 
this art consists not in the fact that the spectator is 
astonished at the wonderful swiftness employed, but 
rather in the fact that he accepts the explanations as 
conclusive, and goes home with the feeling of having 
spent an hour in a real wonder-world. Esthetically, 
the latter effect ranks incomparably higher than the 
former and lifts prestidigitation above the sphere of 
juggler}'. This is the reason why men from the best 
circles of society take up sleight-of-hand performances 
without compunction, while the same ones would never 
think of performing equilibristic feats. 

There is also another reason why haste and con- 
fusion should be avoided. The public needs time to 
see and understand the import of the movements, and 
if, for instance, the second phase of a transformation 
is given before the first has been sufficiently displayed, 
if, in changing an orange into an apple, no one has 
noticed that the original object was an orange, natu- 
rally the 'whole trick is a failure. Therefore, the skilful 
player needs extraordinary composure, and this, like- 
wise, is not the gift of every one. Further, besides a 
confidence-inspiring presence and impressive calmness, 
he must possess the ability to create about him a mys- 
terious atmosphere, in which the spectator, on the one 
hand, will regard anything, even the incredible, as 
possible, and, on the other hand, will regard all things, 
even the simple, as wonderful. In this direction lies 
the psychological significance of many little devices, 
which the expert is wont to use. Instead of providing 
the needed dollar, hecharmsit from the nose of a strange 
man. He does not put his gloves into his pocket like or- 
dinary men, but rolls them out of sight in his hands, and 
so forth, until finally the observer no longer sees how he 
can escape from such a labyrinth of witchcraft and 
falls into a humor which materially promotes the task 
of the performer. 

Still the chief secret of all prestidigitation consists 
in leading the thoughts of the audience in such paths 
that the development of the trick appears for the mo- 
ment as the natural result of the artfully presented 

causes. The audience must say to itself : " This card 
has been transformed by a simple brcatli" ; thus com- 
pleting the line of thought which has been suggested 
by the performer by every possible means. But now 
reason comes in and exclaims : " It is impossible that 
the ace of hearts should be transformed into the knave 
of spades by a breath," and from this illogical concur- 
rence of two self-contradictory ideas rises the agree- 
able consciousness of illusion. 

As the subjective condition of the above-mentioned 
psychological foundation of all magic arts, must be 
mentioned faith in one's self. The actor, from the mo- 
ment he takes the cards in his hand, must be imbued 
with the conviction that he can now actually command 
them at his pleasure ; every sentence must come from 
his lips as a real magic formula, and his own false as- 
sertions must appear to him almost as true. Conviction 
is only produced by conviction. Much depends, fur- 
ther, upon the skilful grouping of tricks, by which 
means a comparatively simple artifice fulfils a con- 
venient office as a pedagogical preparation for a greater 
wonder, and mental associations are formed which are 
extremely favorable to the outcome of the experiment. 
Most important, however, remains the art of execution 
as regards speech and gesture. On this point no gen- 
eral rules can be laid down ; perhaps an illustration 
may serve to make clear the meaning. 

The well known disappearance of a dollar presents 
itself as an example. The directions run as follows : 
Hold the dollar between the thumb and middle finger of 
the left hand, then seize it apparently with the right 
hand, close the right hand and show the latter to the 
audience contrary to their expectations, as empty. The 
whole trick consists in the fact that at the moment 
when the right hand grasps at the dollar, the latter is 
let go by the fingers that hold it, and slips down into 
the left palm and remains hidden there. And now see 
how this very simple trick is performed by a first-class 
artist like Hermann. Hermann first takes the dollar 
and throws it several times upon the wooden surface of 
the table, in order, as he says, to show that he is deal- 
ing with a real, hard dollar. In reality, however, he 
thereby awakens in every one the unconscious notion 
that a thing that makes so much noise cannot possibly 
disappear noiselessly, which considerably heightens the 
effect of the trick, and, besides, the clear resounding 
tone deafens and confuses the spectators to such a de- 
gree that they follow the rest of the performance in a 
half-hypnotic condition. Then Hermann takes the 
dollar in his left hand, looks with a searching glance 
at the right as if it were to become the principal actor, 
and grasps at the coin. This grasp has in it some- 
thing so convincing that one could swear that the right 
hand has seized the dollar and holds it fast ; even the 
position of the fingers is appropriately adapted to the 



supposed fact. The moment the grasp is made, the 
right hand passes to one side, and the accompaniment 
of the entire body, the bending of the head sHghtly 
forward, the glance of the eye, compel the spectators to 
follow this hand. In the meantime the left hand turns 
towards the body and points with the two first fingers 
at the right hand while the other two fingers tightly 
hold the dollar so as to be concealed from above by 
the thumb. When by such suggestions, and especially 
by the remarks of the voluble performer, the entire 
attention of the audience has been concentrated on 
the right hand, and each one makes up his mind to 
watch exactly how the dollar is going to disappear, 
Hermann makes slight convulsive movements with his 
fingers, thus constantly drawing them further away 
from the thumb, and says, appearing himself to be most 
intensel}' interested in this remarkable phenomenon ; 
" Now see, ladies and gentlemen, how the dollar grows 
smaller, smaller, and ever smaller, and now look you, it 
has entirely disappeared !" Then he opens his fingers 
widely, his figure, which before seemed absorbed in the 
consideration of the magic hand, straightens itself, 
and his glittering eyes seem to say, " It was certainly a 
very strange affair about that dollar." 

But how, the reader will ask, can one train himself 
to become such a master in magic ? First of all, of 
course, it is necessary to practice, and practice, and 
always practice. One advances from the simpler to 
the more difficult steps, by always practicing the trick 
first in its constituent parts, then as a whole. Beyond 
this, however, no instructions would be becoming to 
me as an amateur ; even this small part of the infor- 
mation obtainable from teachers and books, contains 
only a few important psychological elements. As soon 
as the technical side of a trick has been faultlessly 
mastered, the learner must turn his attention to the 
dramatic side, which, in the matter of execution, is of 
the greatest importance. In order to obtain in each 
process the greatest possible appearance of natural- 
ness, it is recommended always to work before a mir- 
ror. In this practice the student must actually do what 
he later pretends to do in the performances, viz., he 
must closely watch the positions and movements of 
his hands, and copy them with painful exactness, to 
remove all distinctions between the reality and the illu- 
sion. Above all things, he must accustom himself to 
follow with his eyes the hand that seems to contain the 
object, as this is the surest means of directing the eyes 
and attention of the audience in the same direction. 

It has already been said that the most important 
senses for the practice of our art are touch and sight. 
Their methodic education remains the chief task of 
the would-be prestidigitateur. It is recommendable, 
therefore, to pass some time in a jugglers' training 
school, to acquire the power of accommodating one's 

muscles. In the investigation of the so-called muscular 
sense I have personally had frequent dealings with 
jugglers, and I must admit that the delicate sensitive- 
ness of these people for the slightest variations of equi- 
librium, and the adaptability of their movements bor- 
ders upon the incredible. As an illustration a Japanese, 
in my presence, kept four balls of different weights 
in the air, while at the same time he read aloud from 
an English book ; he was able, therefore, accurately 
to measure the lines of throw and guide the movements 
of the hands to correspond with them, although eyes 
and attention were busy in another direction. The 
French prestidigitateur Cazeneuve possesses a similarly 
astonishing sensibility of the sense of touch. Cazeneuve 
can pick up at one grasp from any pack of cards, any 
number of cards desired. If one wishes six cards his 
hand reaches down and picks up exactly six ; if one 
wishes twenty, the same performance ; if one calls for 
thirteen, thirty, twenty-four, the same result follows, 
with few exceptions. What a marvellous sensitiveness 
to the slight variations of thickness is necessary to do 
this, one can best understand by trying it for himself. 
On the education of the sense of sight some excel- 
lent hints are given by Robert- Houdin. Robert had 
always admired the power of the pianist to comprehend 
a large number of black characters at a single glance, 
and to translate them first into ideas, and then into 
movements. He saw that this appreciative perception 
was capable of a peculiar development as soon as it 
should be applied to intelligence and memory. He 
therefore began a series of experiments, to the explana- 
tion of which I must devote a few words. It is well 
known that the ordinary man can assign at a glance 
the sum of a small number of objects, the limit of which 
is about five. He can tell without hesitation whether 
two or three or four or five pieces of money are lying to- 
gether. But as soon as the number is increased a short 
deliberation is necessary and only exceptionally gifted 
individuals are able to guess correctly a larger number 
at sight. Robert now undertook, in company with his 
young son Emil, to cultivate their originally mediocre 
gift of perception so as to be able to recognise the num- 
ber of domino blocks thrown out at random. After 
weeks of effort the maximum limit was extended to 
twelve. Then Robert changed the experiment em- 
ploying different objects instead of similar ones. For 
this purpose he daily traversed the streets with his son. 
As soon as they came to a show-window filled with all 
kinds of wares, they cast a comprehensive glance into 
it, stepped a few paces away and noted the objects 
which they had seen in that short time. At first they 
could get sight of at most only four or five, but after 
a few months they raised the number to thirty, the boy 
indeed often seeing as many as forty. With the aid 
of this abnormally developed gift of perception Robert- 


361 1 

Houdin accomplished some of his most brilliant tricks, 
to which belonged the experiment of second sight. 
We can now also readily explain his so-called "clair- 
voyance" which excited the attention of the whole 
world in the fourth and fifth decades. The father gath- 
ered upon a platter a number of objects, we may sup- 
pose twenty, and turned for a half minute so that the 
boy could see them.* Then the boy could readily tell 
the number of objects and perhaps describe them. 
Whatever he lacked was imparted to him by an inge- 
nious signal-code. This code was specially emplo5'ed 
when the objects were wrapped up. In that case Ro- 
bert engaged the giver in a short conversation, and 
employed the time thus gained to bore a small opening 
into the covering with the carefully pointed nail of his 
right thumb, thus detecting with the eagle eye of a for- 
mer mechanic, its contents. It is astonishing to learn 
what miraculous feats were performed in this manner. 

Our author also tells us that these studies were 
helpful to him in another direction, viz., they acquired 
for him the ability to follow, to a certain extent, two 
lines of thought at the same time : to think, not only 
of what he was doing, but also of what he was saying, 
— two very different things in the case of a sleight-of- 
hand artist. In fact, it is a principal task of the per- 
former to operate with his hands entirely independ- 
ently of the activity of the rest of his body, and to ex- 
ecute the necessary tricks without the slightest refer- 
ence to those portions of the body not needed. The 
fingers must form a mechanism acting with absolute 
independence. Only when this is the case can the per- 
former observe with sufficient care the countenances 
of the audience, and guard against the dangers threat- 
ening on every hand. Thus armed, he is practically 
unassailable. The skilled artist never on any account 
fails in a trick. 

The ease of execution is perhaps the only thing 
that depends upon the public. The uneducated per- 
son is far more difficult to deceive than the culti- 
vated ; for the former sees at every turn an avowed 
mistrust of his intelligence, an attempt to dupe him, 
against which he contends with all his strength, while 
the latter surrenders himself without resistance to the 
illusion, for he has come for the sole purpose of be- 
ing deceived. One can hardly believe what artless- 
ness is occasionally displayed by the most cultured 
people. I have heard a professor, in the well-known 
ring game, declare that he had tested all of the eight 
rings, when in reality he had received only two in his 
hand ; and I myself have often ventured to count a 
number of cards in the reverse order from that agreed 
upon, without any one making objection. The ex- 

* The eyes of the boy were indeed blinded. Still there always remained 
a little slit below for peeping through as long as wadding or sticking-plaster 
were not used ; and that of course was not done in public performances. 

planation of this lies in two primary functions of our 
psychic organism — association and imitation. The 
following chapter will discuss their relations to the art 
of illusion. 



Association (from the Latin a J, "to," and sociiis, 
"an ally") originally denotes the act of becoming, or 
the state of being, a confederate, and is generall)' used 
in the sense of a connection of persons, things, or 

The association of ideas plays an important part 
in psychology. Ideas which are somehow related pos- 
sess the quality of involuntarily calling one another 
into consciousness. Our mind is full of associations, 
and our brain is filled with commissural fibres which 
may fairly be regarded as the paths of association. 

Psychologists have taken much pains to formulate 
the laws of association, and have come to the conclu- 
sion that there are different kinds of associations, 
among which have to be mentioned those by contigu- 
ity, similarity, and contrast. 

If two impressions have been made simultaneously, 
the one will recall the other. This is called the asso- 
ciation of contiguity, and this contiguity may be one 
of time or one of space : it may be simultaneity or a 
coincidence of events in one and the same place, or 

Further, suppose a child has seen an elephant for 
the first time in a menagerie, and now sees another in 
a Barnum street-parade, he will think of the first ele- 
phant and also of the surroundings in which he saw 
him. The present image of the street-parade elephant 
is said to be associated with and awakens the memory- 
image of the menagerie elephant (this is called asso- 
ciation by similarity}, and at the same time calls to 
mind the contiguous impressions with which it is in- 
cidentally connected. (This latter being association 
by contiguity.) 

Now imagine a philosopher, who has devoted his 
life to a study of the schoolmen and their quarrels. 
As soon as he hears the word " nominalist," he thinks 
of their opponents, the "realists." These names are 
closely connected in his brain, and this connection is 
called association by "contrast." 

The explanation of these facts appears simple 
enough. Two impressions are made at the same time, 
and it is natural that their traces should be as closely 
connected as were their original ideas. Moreover, 
that ideas will revive those memory-images to which 
they bear a strong resemblance is easily explained by 
the theory that every nervous shock must naturally 
travel on the path of least resistance. 

The fact that ideas are actually associated among 



each other, together with the obvious simplicity with 
which this fact can be explained, induced a great num- 
ber of psychologists to believe that the theory of asso- 
ciation affords a ke}' to all the problems of the soul. The 
psychology of association is represented by Hobbes, 
Hume, Hartley, the two Mills, Herbert Spencer, Hoff- 
ding, and others, and it may be said to be in full bloom 

The association of ideas is a very important factor 
in soul- life, but it does not explain those problems 
which have caused the greatest difficulties to our phi- 
losophers. The association of ideas does not explain 
the origin of concepts, of generalisations, of abstracts ; 
it does not explain the origin of reason ; it does not 
explain the origin of the idea of necessary connection 
which we attribute to certain relations. 

The association philosophy is an error, because it 
applies one special thing (the association of ideas) to 
the whole realm of psychical life, and thus makes of it 
a fundamental principle in philosophy. The associa- 
tion philosopher resolves all the more complex psychi- 
cal facts into associations of single sense-impressions ; 
he regards the idea of causation as a mere association 
of a frequently repeated sequence ; thus making reason 
a mere incidental and purely subjective habit of asso- 
ciation, and depriving it of stringent authority, objec- 
tivity, and necessity. 

Let us first consider the psychological mistakes of 
the association philosophy. Generic images do not 
originate by association, but by fusion. Many images 
are superimposed like composite photographs and 
form a composite image, in which all the common fea- 
tures are strongly marked, while the incongruent fea- 
tures appear blurred. The association of ideas is quite 
another and, indeed, a very different process from the 
blending of images. The former preserves the single 
pictures distinct, the latter welds all particular im- 
pressions into a higher and more general unity. 

He who fails to distinguish these two processes, 
association and fusion, and tries to conceive of a gen- 
eric image as the product of association, will be per- 
plexed in many ways, and indeed, almost all the at- 
tempts that have been made to explain association by 
similarity from that by contiguity, or v/'ic versa, bear 
evidence of the sad confusion that prevails among the 
association philosophers. Some of them despair of re- 
ducing the various associations to unity, and either 
ask us to look upon it as an evidence of dualism or 
declare that the mystery is too deep for our compre- 

The process of causation has, in the conception of 
the association philosophy, ceased to be a necessary 
event and has become a mere sequence, which is at 
best an invariable sequence. Thus the bond of union 
that holds the world together as one inseparable 

whole is lost, and all events become isolated particu- 
lars, single happenings without any intrinsic and neces- 
sary interconnection. The universe, which to us is a 
systematic and consistent cosmos, is, from the stand- 
point of the association philosophy, comparable to a 
bag of innumerable peas ; many events happen to fol- 
low the one upon the other, but there is no true neces- 
sity, no real causation, no intrinsic order or harmony. 

The association philosophy stands upon the prin- 
ciple that all knowledge is derived from experience. 
So far, good ! But the association philosophers, having 
inherited all the errors of sensationalism, take the idea 
"experience " in the limited sense of the word. They 
see isolated phenomena only and are not aware of the 
bond of union which permeates the whole realm of 
existence, giving rise to the uniformities which science 
formulates into natural laws. The possibility of formu- 
lating a law of nature appears, from their standpoint, 
as an insoluble mystery. 

The association philosophy fails to satisfy the de- 
mands that must be made of a philosophy. It leaves 
the most important problems unexplained, and in ad- 
dition, involves us on the ground of its assumption 
and hypotheses into such intricacies that we are ulti- 
mately landed either in scepticism, or agnosticism, or 
mysticism ; and something must be wrong in a system 
of explanations, a philosophy, or a science, which 
comes to the conclusion that we cannot explain things, 
that they are unknowable or utterly mysterious. 

The association philosophy forms a contrast to 
Kant's apriorism. The philosophy which we propose 
avoids the fallacies of Kantian apriorism on the one 
hand and of the association philosophy on the other 
hand. Our view does not end in agnosticism or mys- 
ticism, but affords a satisfactory explanation of why we 
attribute to the formal sciences necessity and univer- 
sality. It explains how mind originates, how general 
ideas are formed, how knowledge (and not only mere 
opinion) is possible, and teaches us the usage of the 
proper methods of scientific inquiry. p. c. 


The religious discord at the penitentiary still continues, and 
the convicts are in spiritual revolt against the chaplain. Last Sun- 
day more than one-third of the prisoners refused to go to chapel, 
for the reason that the pastor had inflicted upon them unnecessary 
mental torture, and the way he did it was by preaching at them 
three sermons, one after the other, on the Prodigal Son. The 
prisoners complain of this as a violation of the constitution, which 
declares that ' ' cruel or unusual punishments shall not be inflicted "; 
and they assert that preaching three sermons at them from the 
parable of the Prodigal is an act of unconstitutional severity. To 
convicts the story is uncomfortably personal, and pulpit courtesy 
requires that it be not mentioned in good penitentiary society. 
Although few of them have any future, every convict has a past, 
and every one of thera remembers a father who would gladly wel- 
come hira home and celebrate repentance with a feast. To a man 



whose life has been unlucky and whose character has been warped 
by accidents that look like evil spirits, the fable of the Prodigal 
Son contains a personal reproach, harder to bear when it comes 
from the pulpit than from anywhere else, because the preacher 
always leaves out of it the lesson of human mercy and forgiveness. 
He offers divine reconciliation and a spiritual fatted calf, but of 
human charity, nothing. Wearing on his very soul, as on his 
clothes, the stripes of human vengeance, the outcast felon feels 
that the parable is a mockery of his despair. It may do very well 
for the mahogany pews, where it applies to nobody in particular, 
but for the penitentiary it is too personal altogether. In refusing 
to be lectured and tantalised three consecutive Sundays as a con- 
gregation of prodigal sons for whom the "welfare of society " re- 
quires that no fatted calf shall ever be provided in this world, the 
convicts displayed a praiseworthy moral spirit that entitles them 
to sympathy. When the sanguinary Draconian code prevailed in 
England, a judge having sentenced a man to be hanged for "coun- 
terfeiting the coins," imposed upon him also this pious benedic- 
tion, "and may you find in the next world that mercy which a due 
regard fbr a sound currency forbids you to expect in this." 

* * 

I think it was William Shakespeare who said that we might 
find "sermons in stones"; to which I desire to offer the following 
amendment, "and in stone buildings, too, "such, for instance, as 
the massive and magnificent Auditorium in Chicago. No doubt, 
we might find a geological sermon in every stone of that imposing 
edifice, but I refer now to sociological sermons, two of which have 
come to me from that building within ten days. Last Monday 
week, the Apollo Club gave at the Auditorium its first rendition of 
the splendid oratorio " Elijah," but it was given on "Wage-work- 
ers' night," one of the nights when "wage-workers" are admitted 
to the Auditorium concerts at prices within their means. The very 
next night, at the same place, the Apollos gave the same perform- 
ance, without the variation of a note, and this was the opportunity 
of Snobdom to divide the people into high-caste and low-caste 
clans. The second performance was given on "Subscribers' 
night," when the fashionable people patronise the music, and this 
was a chance for the press to wriggle at the feet of the " higher 
classes"; a chance ingeniously improved by abolishing the "wage- 
workers" altogether from the face of the earth, or ignoring their 
existence, which, in spirit, amounts to the same thing. So on 
Wednesday morning some of the papers calmly annihilated the first 
concert and the wage-workers, too, by reporting that "last night 
the Apollo Club gave itsy?'j/ performance of " Elijah " at the Audi- 
torium." They knew it was the jvtijwi/ performance, but "Wage- 
workers' night," being base and plebeian, it was stricken out of our 
genteel chronology, as if it had never been. 

Fortunately for us, an antidote to class-proscription lies in the 
levelling power of the ballot, as will appear in the second sermon 
that I spoke of, and of which the following clipping is the text and 
argument. An exciting campaign being just now "booming" be- 
tween rival candidates for the office of mayor, the " business prin- 
ciples " candidate, a very rich and conspicuous member of the 
higher classes, held at that same Auditorium last night a mighty 
meeting, which is thus dramatically described by the press in a 
comical jargon of humility and pride, of puffery and patronage : 

"The character of the audience was impressive in itself. It was an in- 
spiring reflex of true democracy. The richly carved and curtained boxes have 
been occupied often by men and women whose homes are palaces. Such men 
and women were in these boxes last night, too, but they sat side by side with 
those whose ,lives are a constant struggle and who are strangers to the trap- 
pings of wealth. There were no reserved seats, and from box and sweeping 
gallery the millionaire and mechanic joined in the cry for the vindication of 
Chicago and the saving of the honor of its name." 

Only a week ago the presence of the ' ' mechanic " at the Audi- 
torium was not allowed mention in the papers, but suddenly, when 

his vote is needed, he is not only welcomed there, but his presence 
is gratefully acknowledged as an act of magnanimity and condescen- 
sion, The "richly carved and curtained boxes" are hardly good 
enough for him, and even his wife, "strange to the trappings of 
wealth," sits among women whose "homes are palaces." The 
ballot-box may be an imitation of Pandora's, and evil spirits may 
have come out of it, but there is hope at the bottom of it after all. 
It levels up the lowly, and it -levels down the proud ; and liberty 
is never safe except where there are plenty of elections. A vote 
is not only the symbol, but also the expression of equality ; and it 
is the substance, too. 


Besides the good-natured caricatures in books that give so 
much amusement are those living caricatures of manners who walk 
about and do such entertaining and fantastic things. Take, for 
example, that reverend gentleman who is always ready to " ask the 
divine blessing" on any coming incident or accident, from an 
earthquake or a battle, down to a democratic ticket or dinner or a 
play. Last Saturday there was cast at a foundry in Chicago a sil- 
ver statue of Miss Ada Rehan, an actress famous for her stately 
form and rounded symmetry. The image is eight feet high, and 
the silver it contains if minted into coins would make one hundred 
thousand dollars. It will form a part of the exhibit contributed by 
the State of Montana to the World's Fair, and it will symbolise 
with dazzling splendor the mineral riches of that state. A sword 
in the right hand and a pair of scales in the left make Miss Rehan 
classic, and she becomes idealised as "Justice." The old pocket- 
handkerchief by which Justice is usually blindfolded is omitted in 
this case, probably because the lady did not care to hide her beauty 
for the sake of mere mythological truth. However that may be, 
the statue was cast last Saturday, and when the precious metal 
was at the boiling point, and everything was ready to pour it into 
the mold, the ubiquitous reverend gentleman appeared on the 
scene to "ask the divine blessing," but whether on the actress, or 
the statue, or the State of Montana, or on the pagan goddess we 
shall never know, for just as he had given thanks for ' ' the treasure 
placed in the bowels of the earth," and the metal was just done to 
a turn, the ' ' diminutive Frenchman " — I quote from the newspaper 
account — the diminutive Frenchman who ' ' had charge of the cast, " 
fearing that the ' ' divine blessing " might impair the work by allow- 
ing the silver to cool even for an instant "cut the prayer short." 
pulled the lever, and turned the hot silver into the mold. Yester- 
day twenty-three young gentlemen graduated at the college of den- 
tistry, and sure enough, right at the beginning of the ceremonies 
appeared that very same reverend gentleman to "ask the divine 
bleesing " on the forceps and the nippers and the other implements 
of torture used in the tooth-pulling trade, 

* * 

On the 8th of last November sentence of reversal was passed 
by the American people against some laws and policies which had 
been enacted by the Republican party then in power, and the 
Democratic party was put in control of the Presidency and both 
houses of Congress to carry the sentence into effect as soon as pos- 
sible. The heavy burden laid by those laws and policies upon the 
toilers and the poor, and upon all industry and business had been 
for five months the campaign fuel of the Democratic party, firing 
the popular heart and dissolving the Republican administration in 
the "boiling indignation " of a tax-ridden people. The key-note 
pitched by the Chicago platform resounded like a "bugle blast" 
across the continent, and the battle song of "reform" blazed on 
the banners of the marching clubs. As soon as the election was 
over we discovered that all the patriotic tumult was theatrical 
bugle and blaze, mere "sound and fury signifying nothing." Some 
harmless innocents with consistent minds thought that as the lead- 
ers of the Democratic party were suffering so much mental and 
spiritual distress because of the people's woes, Congress would be 



convened in special session immediately after the 4th of March to 
"undo the heavy burdens and let the oppressed go free"; and 
even down to yesterday there were people actually at large who 
believed that an extra session would be called. They do not think 
so now, for this morning's news from Washington settles the ques- 
tion thus: "Mr. Holman of Indiana, who called at the While 
House to-day, is authority for the statement that there will not be 
an extra session of Congress unless some condition not now exist- 
ing arises." So the promise of reform vanishes from this practical 
solid earth into the ideal sky. Only politicians who have held 
office, as I have, know how its honors and rewards help a man to 
look with resignation and even with complacency upon the hard- 
ships of the people. 

Within twenty days of the election, when the democratic pa- 
pers, flushed with victory, were exulting in the prospect of an extra 
session of Congress, I had the presumption to announce in Tlu- 
Open Court that there would not be an extra session, unless to 
avert national insolvency, and I gave as my authority the very 
genius of regal power testifying on every page of history that 
rulers never convoke parliaments to help the people, but always to 
relieve the government. It matters not by what official name the 
chief magistrate is known. President, Emperor, or King, he is al- 
ways jealous of the legislature. The luxury of dominion, the ambi- 
tion to excel in kingcraft, and the freedom from parliamentary con- 
trol tempt him to be absolute as long as he can, and the temptation 
is not easy to be resisted There is nothing abnormal or criminal 
in this ; it is elemental in our natures, consistent with human pride, 
and it was always so. Nearly three hundred years ago Ben Jonson, 
in one of his plays, moralised thus; "In sovereignty it is a most 
happy thing not to be compelled ; but so it is the most miserable thing 
not to be counselled. " That proposition is philosophically true, and 
as applicable to presidential sovereignty as to any other. During the 
first nine months of his reign the President feels that " it is a most 
happy thing not to be compelled " by Congress ; and he is not 
likely to be miserable for want of counsel, for his cabinet advisers 
will give him plenty of that, and of the most flattering and agree- 
able kind. The pronunciamento is that "there will be no extra 
session of Congress, unless some condition not now existing arises " ; 
and as the present condition is the very same condition that pre- 
vailed last year, what was all the election turmoil for ? We have 
now the same conditions that the winning party so pathetically 
deplored last year, and which their victory was to cure. Reform 
is always in order ; and evil cannot cease too soon. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



Waft me on thy wings, O wind. 
Where the white clouds lie 

Sleeping, or, with quiet grace. 
Wandering o'er the sky ! 

Sing celestial lullabies. 
To my soul oppressed, — 

Ah ! as freely as the clouds 
Let me roam or rest ! 



To the Editor of The Open Court: 

Your article in The Open Court, No. 290, entitled "The Ab- 
solute," commands my assent, except in three things — Truth, 
Time, and Space. These, to my mind, are infinite, eternal, inde- 
pendent, unrelated, unconditioned, absolute entities. They are not 
attributes, but absolutes. 

Truth is what is, as it is ; and if there were nothing, the truth 
would be that there was nothing, as it now is that there is a crea- 

Time is a moving now, and eternity is the now continued for- 
ever. If there were nothing, the eternal now would exist the same 
as it does in the creation. 

Space is what cannot be excluded ; and whether there be 
nothing, or a creation, space will still be there. 

In short, whether there be a creation or not, or a Creator or 
not, truth, time, and space were, are, and must be. 

For my own part, in my own mind, I cannot disconceive these 
concepts as verities — self-existent, uncreated, unrelated, uncondi- 
tioned, infinite, eternal entities, which cannot be annihilated nor 
changed ; and without which nothing could be. There could not 
be a creation without truth being there ; nor without time being 
there ; nor without space being there — for these are forever every- 
where, in infinity and eternity ; and they are indispensably essen- 
tial to the existence of the minutest molecule. With due respect, 
I am. Yours truly, 

Horace P. Biddle. 

[Time is eternal, Space is infinite. Truth is irrefragable. If 
we understand "absolute" to mean the eternal, the infinite, and 
that which cannot be twisted or altered, which is rigidly deter- 
minable and irrefragable, time, space, and truth are to be called 
absolute. It is true that their existence is " indispensably essen- 
tial to the existence of the minutest molecule "; but are they for 
that reason "self-existent, unrelated, or unconditioned "? Time is 
the measure of motion, Space is the possibility of motion. What 
sense would there be in the ideas time and space if there were no 
motions? Try to think of absolute time or absolute space. Suppose 
there were no object in the world and not even points in motion. 
The truth is that we cannot think time and space without motion. 
The same holds good of truth. Truth is the correct representa- 
tion of facts. The idea of truth would have no application if 
nothing e.xisted. Yet this lack of absoluteness does not make time 
less eternal, nor space less infinite, nor truth less holy. p. c] 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


VAMPIRE LORE. L. J. Vance 3607 


Max Dessoir 3608 


CURRENT TOPICS : Human Vengeance and Divine For- 
giveness. High Castes and Low Castes. The Level- 
ling Power of the Ballot. The Divine Blessing. The 
Broken Hope of an Extra Session. Presidential Sov- 
ereignty. Gen. M, M. Trumbull 3612 


Longing for Freedom. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea) . 3614 

The Absolute. Horace P. Biddle 3614 

The Open Court. 



No. 293, (Vol. VII.— 14.) 

CHICAGO, APRIL 6, 1893. 

I Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Not the least among the dreams of a lost paradise 
is that which pictures the intercourse which must have 
existed between man and woman before the "lattice 
of conventional affectations " had woven its dark net- 
work about them. 

It must be one of the direct evidences of the fall 
that men and women have lost somewhere that sweet 
innocence, simplicity, and naturalness of relationship 
which must originally have belonged to them as hu- 
man souls sent out by a beneficent Being, with mutual 
ability to aid, enlighten, and uplift each other in that 
sphere of existence to which they were appointed. Un- 
questionably the existing state of things came in with a 
curse somehow ; but whether it was a curse inflicted 
by heaven or devised by man, in his attempt to improve 
upon heaven's plan, is a matter not so clearly apparent. 
And, at any rate, as man has it so largely in his power 
to avert the curse, it is fair to hold him mainly respons- 

It is one of the difficult things in connection with 
the ancient story to understand how Adam and Eve 
fell so suddenly into that state of blushing self-con- 
sciousness and embarrassment which made them run 
and hide themselves in the garden. But if a whole 
line of ancestors, for centuries back, had been instilling 
into each preceding Adam and Eve ideas of self-con- 
cealment, artificiality, pride or coquetry of sex, and 
self-conceit, it would not seem so strange that they 
wanted that fig-leaf panoply to fling over themselves. 
When Christian fathers could pronounce woman in 
her relations to man "a natural temptation," "a do- 
mestic peril," " a deadly fascination," and " a painted 
ill," it is not strange that their unchristian followers 
lost somewhat their conception of any primeval sweet- 
ness or innocency of intercourse between man and 
woman, and entrenched themselves in the dark idea 
that somehow they were born to be a snare to each 

How many Christian centuries will have to roll 
around before the enlightened mortal will be able to 
disabuse himself of this impression it is impossible for 
the uninspired mind to determine, but the significant 

thing in the whole matter is that the mills of the 
gods have at last begun to work upon it. In all that 
social upheaval which the periodical agitation of the 
marriage question recently produced in England and 
other countries, one truth seems flashing like a golden 
grain through the upturned soil and rubbish, and that 
is, the need of a better understanding of one another 
on the part of men and women, and, by consequence 
a better, happier intercourse. Speaking for France, 
touching the question of marriage, M. Naquet declares: 
"One fact stands out beyond dispute — that our ab- 
surd and wicked custom of isolating young women from 
young men, so that bride and groom come to the mar- 
riage altar all but strangers to one another, is the most 
frightful cause of mischief and unhappiness in after 
married life." Speaking for all nations, touching ques- 
tions wider even than those of marriage, Mona Caird 
asserts: "We shall never have a world really worth 
living in until men and women can show interest in 
one another without being driven either to marry or to 
forego altogether the pleasure and profit of frequent 
meeting," — and it would almost seem that whatever 
heresies or extravagances this brilliant writer may have 
been guilty of elsewhere ought to be forgiven her for 
the frank enunciation of this vital truth. It is a hu- 
miliating fact that no sooner do two persons of oppo- 
site sex begin to "show interest" in each other, and 
find mutual profit and delight in each other's societ}', 
than a thousand flying shafts of criticism and innuendo 
proceed to darken the air about them, poison the pure 
springs of intellectual joy and fellowship and compel 
them to abandon all the inspiring influences of their 
intercourse, or submit it to what Carl3de would call 
"the terrible test of wedlock." Nor does it much 
matter how high or honorable the position and char- 
acter of the friends in the case may be, so long as they 
are unmarried and dare to seek each other's society, 
the social world will be in threatening ebulition over 
them. And now, what occasions such a state of things 
among beings that were supposed to be made but 
" little lower than the angels ? " Simply the sad fact 
that an unnatural form of society and education has 
come to regard boys and girls, men and women, as 
little more than surcharged batteries of love and matri- 



mony, that are sure to flash sparks in some direction, 
right or wrong, if brought into an}' possible connec- 
tion with each other. What makes the Httle twelve- 
year-old in short dresses and pinafores blush and look 
conscious when Tom offers to open the gate for her or 
help her over the brook? Don't say "it's nature." It 
is not nature. It's the French governess or the silly 
schoolmate, who tells her that she's "Tom's girl," or 
even the anxious mamma, who warns her that she is 
"too big to play with the boys now." Let nature 
alone for guarding a girl's play with a boy, and she can 
brighten his campus, or share his work-desk forever, 
if need be, without a passing danger to any of the fine 
trusts committed to her or him. Left to herself she 
would never force or violate the fixed and orderly 
voices of her soul, and if, perchance, some special Tom 
should waken a new consciousness in her heart, she'd 
know how to guard that too, be sure, and all the better 
because she had not been led to look for or imagine it 
in every boy who glanced at her. The education, in- 
deed, which leaves her thoughts entirely free from any 
concern about a boy, as a being to be either sought or 
shunned, is the one that saves her and the unperverted 
mind that enables her to receive all the unfolding les- 
sons of life as mighty truths or gracious laws in the 
eternal scheme of being, is one that can bring all 
needed knowledge into safe and orderly relation to 

It is the half-truth, hissed into her ear by some coarse 
schoolmate, or mistaken guardian, perhaps, that poi- 
sons the spring and turns all the fair currents of her life 
awry. Nature itself is ever finer than any outside 
touch that can be put upon it. But, strange to say, 
good and wise men have so long ignored this simple 
fact and taken the opposite condition for granted, that 
they have largely induced the thing they deprecated. 
They have founded their schools and creeds upon the 
extraordinary principle that God has actually created 
a race of beings so bad that the two grand divisions of 
it must, to a large extent, be segregated from each 
other, warned against each other, steeped early in a 
thousand petty suspicions of evil, treachery, danger, 
and disaster attending the intercourse with each other, 
till, to reward their pains, men and women have widely 
achieved the thing expected of them, so that now all 
parties are more or less afraid of each other. The 
consciousness of sex hangs like a nightmare over all 
their approaches to one another. The suspicion of 
coquetry or courtship, or the fear of such suspicion, 
undermines every interchange of kindness or sympa- 
thy and a radical want of confidence in each other's 
motives, sincerity, and trustworthiness kills all power 
of mutual helpfulness and keeps the whole body of 
society in a continual ferment. And yet, years ago 
the historian Lloyd told mankind that the civilising. 

stimulating, and sustaining influence which comes 
from friendly and sympathetic intercourse between 
the sexes is one of the fundamental needs of human- 
ity. Many a man, he declares, can scarcely do his 
best work or fulfil his mission in the world without it. 
Many a woman is unconscious of half her powers till 
the keen attrition of some masculine mind reveals 
them to her. Now they are blest, of course, who find 
this stimulus and companionship in married life, but 
just why they are "doomed who don't," or forced to 
forego all such uplifting influences in their earthly 
pilgrimage, is not so easy to determine. 

The grand touchstone which the present genera- 
tion is to apply to the whole matter is the system of co- 
education. "I was afraid of it at first," said a genial 
professor in a large Western college, "because I 
thought the boys and girls would be everlastingly fall- 
ing in love with each other, but I find that it is not so. 
Coming together in that way, they rather seemed to 
spur each other on along the line of ambitious study 
and achievement, than turn aside for any by-play of a 
sentimental nature. The attachments that are formed 
among them seem to be of a different character, and I 
am told that where those attachments do eventually 
lead on to marriage, such unions are nearly always 
happy ones" Could any neater testimony than that 
be given to the fallacy of the old ideas, or to the hope 
and promise contained in the new ones? Could any 
better prophecy be uttered concerning the glory to be 
expected when, in the outside schools of life and hu- 
manity, men and women may meet unrestrainedly on 
the basis of mutual effort, helpfulness, and improve- 
ment. The pity of it is, that any of us were born too 
soon for it, and the hope is that some of us who are 
not too far under the wheels of the social Juggernauts 
of the past may be able to do something to help it 



For the mechanics of consciousness, the laws which 
control the mental reproduction of ideas form the most 
important basis. It is the universally accepted doc- 
trine of modern psychology that if an image B has 
been presented to consciousness simultaneously with, 
or immediately following, another image A, at the 
second appearance of A there exists a tendency of B's 
also presenting itself in consciousness. We are accus- 
tomed to say that the image B is associated with the 
image A. Thus the sight of a knife-handle at once 
calls up the idea of the blade always seen with it, and 
the sight of lightning awakens unconsciously the ex- 
pectation of a thunder-clap. 

The simplest form of deception consists in the non- 



fulfilment, due to unusual external conditions, of cer- 
tain well-grounded expectations. When with my 
crossed fingers f perceive two round objects, only the 
real sight of the object will convince me that it is one. 
The old experience that a double sensation means a 
double object produces in this case an illusion. It fre- 
quently happens on rising in the morning that one 
lifts the water pitcher with a suddenness that it almost 
flies to the ceiling. The simple explanation of this is 
that the waiting-maid has forgotten on the evening 
previous to fill the vessel with water. The weight of 
the vessel filled with water and the exertion needed to 
raise it are firmly associated. In short, a great many 
unintentional deceptions arise from this general law of 
mind, in accordance with which we apply usual and 
well-known rules to unusual and exceptional facts.* 

The reader has doubtless witnessed the startling 
trick, in which several borrowed rings are pounded to 
pieces, put into a pistol, fired out, and afterwards de- 
livered intact from a small box concealed in three 
others. Without concerning ourselves about the ex- 
planation of the first part of this trick, let us briefly 
examine the last. The performer places upon the ta- 
ble a large box, which is unlocked. A smaller box is 
found within it, which is taken out, unlocked in the 
same manner, and its contents, a third, smaller box, 
revealed. After the artist has thus demonstrated that 
the second has come out of the first, and the third out 
of the second, he can very easily take from a shelf be- 
neath the table, the last and smallest casket, which 
contains the rings, and push it forward as if it came 
out of the next largest box. The observer is so con- 
vinced, by the first two real steps, of the truth of the 
last also, that it never occurs to him to doubt that 
number four has been produced from number three. 
The foundation of the deception plainly consists in an 
ingenious use of the ordinary law of association. The 
producing of a box, and the producing of this particu- 
lar box from another box, are two images between 
which the wisdom of the sly performer has established 
an intimate connection. The spectators were induced 
to draw the logical conclusion from the two premises, 
even in the third case, where the premises were not 
the same as before. 

We obtain from this a new principle of legerde- 
main. Namely, first actually do what the spectator is 
afterwards to believe that you have done. This rule 
is often followed in practice. The artist first really 
throws a few dollars into the hat, before he prevents 
the others, through enpalmage, from following their 
predecessors. He really lays one card upon the sec- 
ond pack before he lets the others slip into his sleeve. 
An equally classic illustration is that of the disappear- 

* Compare Jastrow, The Psychology 0/ Deception, Popular Science Monthly, 
Vol. XXXIV. No. 2, New York, 18SS. 

ance of an orange in the air. The performer seats 
himself at the end of a table, throws an orange half a 
yard into the air, catches it on its return with one 
hand, and lets this hantl sink a little below the top of 
the table; then, continuing the movement, he throws 
the orange again into the air with a stronger sweep, 
this time about a yard and a half high ; and, finally, 
catching it again, he lets his hand sink with it beneath 
the table, and, leaving the orange in his lap, makes 
without losing a second's time, a third tremendous 
sweep, as if intending to hurl the orange to the ceiling. 
Nine-tenths of the audience then .f(V the orange rise 
and disappear in the air. In this simple and instructive 
experiment all concealment, like that employed in the 
disappearance of the dollar, and all apparatus like that 
employed in the performance with the boxes, are want- 
ing. All turns here on the subjective conditions of 
deception and not on external aids. 

Psychological artifices explain many minor sleight- 
of-hand devices. Suppose that a silver dollar placed 
in the right hand has, in appearance, passed over to 
the left. If the performer should immediately open 
the left hand and show that it did not contain the 
dollar, the spectator would at once reach the true con- 
clusion, namely, that the dollar had never been put 
into the left hand. If, however, the artist waits a mo- 
ment or two before opening the hand, till the audience 
has become accustomed to the thought that the coin 
is in it, and before doing so gently strokes it a few 
times with the right, one not only attributes to the 
right hand a proper and subordinate employment, but 
the public is led to believe that its mysterious move- 
ments are in some way connected with the disap- 
pearance of the dollar. One must make this expe- 
rience oneself to know how such small matters can 
mislead the judgment of clear and capable observers. 
The spectator knows very well, in the abstract, that 
the rubbing of the hand is not an adequate cause for 
the disappearance of the dollar, yet, since the disap- 
pearance is a matter of fact, the mind unconsciously 
accepts the explanation which is indirectly offered to 
it. Quite similar is that meaningless operation per- 
formed in card-tricks, where the cards are ruffled, or 
allowed to slip with a clattering noise through the mid- 
dle fingers and thumb of one hand. Suppose one has 
unobservedly given a certain card the position in the 
pack necessary for the trick. If now, before he shows 
that the trick is successful, he ostentatiously ruffles 
the cards, most of the spectators will believe that the 
transposition is then effected, and will in this way 
probably understand less of the true nature of the 
trick than they otherwise would. 

This last artifice also belongs in a category which 
may be fittingly designated as diversion of iJie attention. 
The artist, by awakening an interest in some unim- 



portant detail, fastens the attention upon a false point, 
or, negatively expressed, diverts it from the main ob- 
ject ; and as we all know, the senses of an inattentive 
person are somewhat obtuse. The pick-pocket has 
enough psychological insight to choose as his field of 
operation the theatre or exhibitions, because he is sure 
that in such places people give little thought to watches 
and purses. Just so the prestidigitateur carefully 
avoids pointing out too clearly the nature of the trick 
he is to perform, so that the observer does not know 
on what the attention is to be fixed. 

The French magician Decremps has given a rule 
of this kind. If we count "One ! two ! three I " before 
the disappearance of an object, then the actual disap- 
pearance must take place before and not just at the 
"three"; for while the attention of the audience is 
fixed upon "three" anything taking place at "one" 
or "two" entirely escapes it. I myself, in my unpre- 
tentious exhibitions before friends, have often worked 
by this rule, and have been astonished again and again 
that men of science could be so blind to what takes 
place directly before their eyes. How much less, then, 
will the thought of the unpractised take the true course. 
They will not believe that tricks are accomplished by 
such simple means and with such audacity ; they seek 
rather some intricate hypothesis, or refer everything 
to some favorite explanation, such as the disappear- 
ance of objects into the coat-sleeve, which, by the way, 
is very seldom practised. But, whatever they do, it 
is always possible to divert their attention for a mo- 
ment, when the trick may be executed unnoticed. 

One particularly effectual method of diversion is 
founded on the human impulse to imitate. We have 
an inclination to imitate all actions which we see, either 
entirely or partially. If we see some one yawn, we 
yawn with him ; if we hear him laugh, the corners of 
our own mouth twitch ; if we notice that he turns sud- 
denly around, we feel the same desire ; if he looks up, 
we also glance upwards. 

The sleight-of-hand performer uses this inclination 
in many cases. He always looks in the direction in 
which he desires to direct the attention of the audience, 
and goes through the actions he wishes them to make. 
If he lifts his eyes thoughtfully to the ceiling, all the 
faces of the beholders are upturned with an audible 
jerk, and it is inexpressibly comical to note how the 
fingers then quietly change cards or perform other 
manipulations unnoticed below. If the trick is to be 
performed with the left hand, the artist turns with a 
quick movement toward some person at his right, cor- 
rectly supposing that the spectators will perform the 
same movement, and will not notice what the left hand 
does. In a large number of tricks the point is to bring 
on top of the pack by an upward toss a card which 
had been hidden in the middle. It would be quite 

wrong to perform the trick immediately on receiving 
the cards, for even the quickest and most adroit move- 
ment would be noticed by the public. The prestidigi- 
tateur holds the pack quietly, and after a pause asks 
of the one who fixed the position of the card, "You 
are quite sure, then, that you will recognise your card 
again ? " As soon as he begins to speak a natural im- 
pulse fixes all eyes on his face, and allows him to ac- 
complish the trick with the utmost unconcern. It is 
the inevitable result of every quick, short utterance, 
and is due to the above-mentioned law of imitation, that 
the eyes of the audience are turned for a brief moment 
at least from the hands to the lips. 

Aside from these main points there are a great 
number of lesser artifices, which performers employ, 
but which cannot be described in detail here. We 
shall give but one or two examples. 

The performer allows a person to draw out a card 
from a pack, look at it, and put it in again in any place. 
He then lifts the pack, shows the lowermost card, 
and asks whether that is the one chosen. When told 
no, he draws it out and places it face downwards on 
the table. Then he raises the pack again, shows the 
lowermost card, asks whether it is the right one, and 
places this on the table by the first one. The same act 
is repeated a third time. Then the player requests 
the person to choose any one of the three cards on the 
table. The person takes one up, and finds to his as- 
tonishment that the card is the one he has chosen. 

The esoteric history of this trick is as follows. The 
performer does not suffer the card to be placed in the 
pack at random, but only at the point where he has 
placed the little finger of his left hand. Then he pauses 
and asks what was the color of the card drawn, partly 
to suggest some theory of solution and to thus draw 
the attention to a false point, and partly to obtain time 
for a peculiar displacement by which the card chosen 
is thrown to a position next that lowest in the pack. 
He now shotvs the lowest card, but draws out, not this 
one, but the one lying next to it, that is, the card 
originally shown, and laj's it on the table. The other 
two cards taken at random he places respectively on 
the right and left of this. Now ten chances to one, 
the person drawing will select the middle card, and to 
insure the still greater possibility of this, the artist, in 
the movement that invites the person to choose, allows 
his hand to rest directly in front of the desired card. If 
this is drawn, the trick is a success, if not, then the 
card chosen is cast aside and the person asked to draw 
again. This excites no suspicion because the person 
drawing does not know at what point the trick is to be 

I have chosen this illustration because it could be 
described in few words. A veritable jewel of psycho- 
logical finesse is the "transformation of cards in the 



hand"; but a description of it would require several 
pages. In fact, a limit is soon set to written exposi- 
tions of these subjects, by the infinite number and va- 
riation of the artifices employed. Personal experience 
alone can render us familiar with the changing applica- 
tions of these two fundamental laws. 



Idolatry, or the worship of images, is attributing 
divine honors to the symbols that represent God or 
which are thought to represent God. 

The most primitive kind of idolatry is fetishism, as 
practiced among savages ; the most modern kind sub- 
stitutes ideas in the place of stone or wood figures. 
These modern ideas, however, are sometimes incom- 
parabl}' more disjointed than the carved idols of the 
African savage ; where the latter are ill shaped and 
ugly, the former are ill-conceived and erroneous. Both 
are alike products of poorest workmanship ; both are 
treated with a ridiculous awe ; both are made the re- 
cipients of divine honors which are paid with the more 
scrupulous attention, to the fetish-images the more 
rotten and hideous they are, to the fetish- ideas the 
more errors they contain. 

We look upon the bigoted dogmatist who places 
his particular man-shaped creed above God's universal 
revelation in nature, as a man deeply entangled in 
paganism. Christianity has become a fetish to him ; 
he finds it easier to worship Christ than to follow him 
and he must be regarded as much an idolater as many 
pagans before him. 

The dogmatist's idolatr}' is mainly due to indolence, 
and finds its explanation in the conservatism and 
the r/'s inertia of tradition. The dogmatist's fault is 
lack of courage. He does not feel independent enough 
to advance on the road of progress. He adopts the 
letter of Christianity and forgets its spirit. He is of 
interest to the student as a living fossil, representing 
a certain historical stage in the religious evolution of 
mankind. He is a religious Dodo — a survival destined 
to speedy extinction on the approach of civilisation. 

The case is somewhat different with other idea wor- 
shippers, whose idolatry, however, is no less excusable, 
except it be on the ground of weakmindedness. There 
are men sufficiently bold to break the spell of traditional 
authority ; they call themselves csprits forts or free- 
thinkers, but relapse after all into the most abject idol- 
atry. They make themselves images woven of the del- 
icate threads of thought. Such idea-worshippers are 
idolaters not from lack of courage but from lack of un- 
derstanding. They are not afraid to break with tradi- 
tional beliefs. Their deficiency is that they lack insight. 

Because it is absurd to worship any clear and sound 
ideas that serve real practical purposes, idea-wor- 

shippers employ such thoughts onl}' as are unfit to be 
used otherwise. The most absurd and self contradic- 
tor}' ideas, such as the absolute, the unknowable, the 
infinite, etc., are the fittest objects of idolatry. Ideas 
which people do not understand make their heads 
swim. So Ihey sink down upon their knees, and being 
in this position, they have simply to follow the old in- 
herited habit of worshipping. 

Idolatry begins where rational thought ends. Thus 
as soon as a man is hopelessly entangled in a problem 
which he is too weak-minded to solve, he declares, 
" This is a holy ground, take off your shoes and wor- 
ship that which you cannot understand." 

It is the peculiarity of idolaters to worship that which 
they do not understand liccause they do not under- 
stand it. 

The worship in spirit and in truth, of which Christ 
spoke, is the doing of the will of God, i. e., obedience 
to the moral law of nature. However, the worship that 
consists in genuflection and "Lord, Lord" saying, is 
pure adoration ; a worship of self-humiliation, of fawn- 
ing and cringing debases us and shows how human 
the God is whom we revere. 

The religion of adoration is idolatry ; it is an in- 
ferior kind of religion which substitutes prayers for 
actions and recommends flattery as the means of gain- 
ing the favor of God. But the will of God cannot be 
changed by adulation. 

The will of God is written in the unalterable laws 
of nature, especially in the moral laws through which 
alone human society can exist. These laws contain 
blessings and curses ; and God's will is that we our- 
selves shall work out the blessings of his laws. To 
pray that God should not do his will, that he should 
alter the laws of the universe, make exceptions in our 
favor, or that he should accomplish what it is our duty 
to accomplish is to reverse the prayer of Christ, which 
teaches us to say, " Thy will be done." 

To look upon prayer in any other light than as a 
self-discipline, is to share the superstition of the medi- 
cine-man who still believes in the spells by which he 
thinks he is able to change the course o£ nature ; 
and the worship of adoration is as idolatrous, as the 
belief that God is a big human being who is pleased 
to witness our abject and self-humiliating adulation is 
pagan. Adoration can be tolerated only as an educa- 
tional method of attuning by a kind of dramatic sym- 
bolism the souls of the immature to the harmony of 
the moral world-order. It is a substitute only for those 
who do not as yet understand the worth of the moral 
laws of life which can be revealed in their full glory 
and sanctity only in the religion of science. 

* * 

A comparison between the old dogmatism, the idol- 
atry of traditional symbols, and modern agnosticism, 



the idolatry of the Unknowable (both being idolatries 
of a different kind) shows the great superiority of the 
former. The God of the dogmatist is anthropomorphic; 
but after all, this image of God contains some excellent 
features of true divinity. The decalogue is rational and 
practical in the best sense of the words. There is no 
nonsense about it, no confusion of thought, no absurd- 
ity — if but the allegorical nature of religious symbols 
is kept in mind. The God who is regarded as the 
authorit)' of the moral law is not worshipped because 
he is unknowable, but because his commandments, 
which are obviously knowable, are true, because those 
who neglect his commandments will bring down upon 
themselves and others the curses of the moral laws of 
nature, while those who obey them will change the 
curses into blessings. There is substance in the old 
religions. But there is no substance in agnosticism. 

We grant that the dogmatist's conception who takes 
the allegorical part of the parables in the literal sense 
and often regards it as their most important truth, is 
a miserable superstition and real paganism. But the 
worship of actually erroneous ideas is worse still. The 
idea-fetishes are too shadowy, too vague, too misty to 
receive any other attention than the critic's, under 
whose analysis they will have to give up the ghost. 

Briefly : the idolatry of the dogmatists is an ana- 
chronism, the idolatry of the idea-worshipper is a de- 
generation, and you, my dear reader, if you find it 
necessary to avoid the Scylla of the former, do not fall 
into the Charybdis of the latter. p. c. 


One of the most useful missionaries ever sent across the sea 
to offer heathens the bread of life is Col. C. J. Murphy, more 
familiarly known as " Corn Bread " Murphy, a gentleman who 
has devoted himself to the beneficent work of persuading the peo- 
ple of Europe to eat corn bread. In corn bread there is a great 
deal of saving grace, and Colonel Murphy's mission deserves reli- 
gious consecration. The prejudice that prevails in Europe against 
corn bread is greatly to be deplored, and if Colonel Murphy can 
do anything to remove that prejudice he will be entitled to high 
rank among the benefactors of his race. It is a melancholy thought 
that millions of people in Europe endure much needless hunger 
because they know not the food value of Indian corn, and I cheer- 
fully second the wish expressed in the Chicago Herald ai this morn- 
ing, that the new Secretary of Agriculture " may give cordial and 
effective support to C. J. Murphy in his efforts to make the people 
of Europe appreciate the value of Indian corn as human food." I 
heard a gentleman once remark when boasting of his large crop of 
potatoes that they made a very good substitute for food ; and this 
has been the weak tribute we have given to Indian corn ; we have 
treated it as a substitute, instead of doing it full justice as one of 
the most wholesome, nutritious, and palatable of all the foods 
made from grain. It is all in the cooking ; and if Colonel Murphy 
will impress that religious and moral sentiment upon the people of 
Europe, and show them how to make and how to bake corn bread 
his missionary labors may be crowned with success, otherwise not. 
And will he kindly hurry home as soon as his work over there is 
done, and preach the gospel of corn bread to the American people. 

for they need it nearly as much as the English, the Irish, the Ger- 
mans, or the Swedes. 

* * 

In a time of public anxiety and fervent political passion, when 
the safety of a great city like Chicago depends upon the election 
of our own favorite candidate for mayor, and when the success of 
the rival ticket must inevitably bring the city to ignominious ruin, 
how pleasant it is to turn fiom the coarse personalities of the 
stump orators and the press to the elegant parables and figures of 
speech by which the clergy in the pulpit advocate the election of 
one candidate while ironically sprinkling a few drops of perfumed 
vitriol on the other ! By acts of inference and allusion, the preach- 
ers, without resorting to the clumsy rudeness of referring to either 
man by name, gracefully personify one candidate as a model states- 
man, and the other as an awful warning. The identification is 
made, not by names, but by qualities, and the qualities are those 
ascribed or imputed to the candidates by the newspapers for cam- 
paign purposes. Those qualities may be false, as they very often 
are, but for purposes of identification they are as effectual as if 
true. Some very neat election work was done last Sunday in the 
pulpit by the various ministers of the gospel, but it was done in a 
refined way, without any naming of names, and " without dragging 
the pulpit into the mire of politics." For instance, the pastor of 
a church to which one of the candidates belongs, after advising 
the congregation to vote for municipal reform, announced that on 
the evening of election day there would be a festival in the church 
parlors, when he hoped he should be able to proclaim that " mo- 
rality, decency, and purity were triumphant over political trickery, 
vice, and immorality." What necessity for names when such a 
gentle hint will do ? Every man in the congregation saw that their 
brother member stood for purity, while his opponent represented 
political trickery and vice. 

1. * 

The election sermon preached at Grace Methodist Church last 
Sunday was the most ingenious of all. It was an excellent example 
of the way to reach a direct object by an oblique march, a skil- 
ful bit of work whereby in the form of imaginary persons the 
two candidates were made as visible to the mind as if they were 
living men with names. " We should have men for mayor," said 
the preacher, "who have known what it is to be poor. They 
should also know what it is to be rich." By a rare coincidence, 
one of the candidates is a very rich man, who once was poor, so 
the inference fitted him well, while judged by the same remarkable 
test his opponent was disqualified altogether, because, though rich, 
he never was poor. Also, the preacher wanted a candidate who 
had a wife and family, " Let us have a man for mayor," he said, 
' ' with family relations, a man who has a family " ; and by another 
coincidence this was the happy situation of the rich candidate who 
once was poor. This qualification does not appear very strong in 
itself, but it was made so by a contrast in reserve ; the opposing 
candidate was wicked enough to be a widower. This is rather a 
misfortune than a fault, but it will serve as an accusation at elec- 
tion time. As Mr. Tony Weller warned Sam to beware of widows, 
so this insinuating divine warned his congregation to beware of 
widowers, and he said, "Let us not have a bachelor or a much 
married widower for mayor" ; and for a third coincidence it hap- 
pens that one of the candidates is a "much married widower," 
having been unlucky enough to lose two wives, an offense ob- 
viously more heinous than it he had lost but one. Lest the iden- 
tification of the wicked candidate might not yet be sufficiently 
complete the preacher said, "We ought not to have a candidate 
for mayor who spells God with a small ' g ' and himself with a big 
' I '." Then everybody knew who the bad candidate was. 

Once upon a time in a bar-room dispute at Leggett's on the 
Boone, a fussy little fellow was flourishing a contemptible pocket- 



pistol which it would hurt any man's dignity to be shot with in 
those days. Annoyed by the performance, the Hercules of the 
settlement, at whom the weapon was principally aimed, gave the 
little man this caution, "See here. Shorty, it ever you shoot me 
with that pistol, and I find it out, I'll break you right in two." A 
similar performance was enacted in the United States Senate a 
week ago when Senator Hoar of Massachusetts presented at Sena- 
tor Roach of North Dakota a little pocket-pistol in the shape of a 
resolution calling for an investigation of some venerable charges 
of embezzlement and financial irregularity which have been made 
against that honorable Senator. Mr. Roach was writing at his 
desk in the Senate, when his attention was diverted for a moment 
by hearing the resolution read. The account goes on to say that, 
" As the reading proceeded Mr. Roach felt in his vest pocket and 
took out a plug of tobacco from which he cut off a piece and non- 
chalantly put it in his mouth." Mr. Hoar's pistol was not big 
enough to draw from Mr. Roach any tribute higher than a fresh 
ration of tobacco, and a grim smile at the impending fun ; for, say 
the dispatches, " Senator Roach will not only present an answer 
to the charges, but will make things very unpleasant for several of 
his senatorial accusers by bringing up events in their past private 
life." The "financial irregularities" of which Mr. Roach is ac- 
cused were committed fourteen years ago, and they ought to be 
within the moral Statute of Limitations, as they are within the 
legal statute. He atoned for them as well as he could by devoting 
himself to a career of usefulness that won the respect of his fellow- 
men, and they appointed him to represent them in the United 
States Senate. The fairest measure of any man is the new life he 
lives now, and not the old one forsaken long ago. The right to 
reform and the duty to reform go together, and that right is inter- 
fered with when the buried sins of a man are dug up and flung 
across his pathway by severely righteous resurrection men. As 
the "financial irregularities" complained of had no relation what- 
ever to Mr. Roach's election, they are outside the jurisdiction of 
the Senate. 

I have often wondered why sensible men like us look and 
listen with such radiant pleasure when we have the good luck to get a 
ticket for the theatre, and see a comic opera acted on the stage. 
The nonsense is altogether beneath our dignity, and yet we enjoy 
it as we did when we were boys. I used to think that our pleasure 
lay in the exaggerated burlesque, wherein we saw human actions 
twisted out of reality into distortion so grotesque that we must 
either laugh or die ; but I think otherwise now. I think we laugh 
because we see our nature set to music acting in a clown's disguise 
the living manners of the time. Sometimes, more truly than the 
lawful drama does our comic opera "hold the mirror up to na- 
ture"; and therein, with its music and its pictures, lies its charm. 
Here, for instance, is an actual bit of life that needs only a little 
music and a stage dressing to make it comic opera equal to the 
" Mikado." I borrow it from the newspapers : 

" Secretary Gresham received a communication from Portugal the other 
day announcing the arrival of Minister 'Gil' Pierce at his new station at Lisbon. 
The notice of arrival was accompanied by Mr. Pierce's resignation. The 
Minister left New York on February 4th and made short stops at Gibraltar, Ge- 
noa, Naples, Rome. Florence. .Milan, and Monte Carlo. He is now ready to 
start back, taking in other points of interest along the return trip." 

In order that no flavor of that fine comedy be lost, we must 
look at all the details of the play. It seems that "Gil," having 
deserved well of his country by valiant service for the Republican 
party in the late campaign. President Harrison sent him as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Kingdom of 
Portugal, a ponderous dignity that sounds very much like a title 
borrowed from the " Mikado"; and when it appears that he sent 
him there "for his health," the resemblance is more striking still. 

Of course, it was understood that "Gil" would have nothing to 
do at Portugal, because before he could get there, the new admin- 
istration would be in power, demanding his resignation ; but as 
every minister to a foreign country receives as soon as he is ap- 
pointed several thousand dollars for an "outfit," Mr. Pierce found 
the appointment very desirable "for his health," which was fur- 
ther improved by salary administered in large doses at the same 
time. Some persons perceive the humor in all this as they see it 
in the comic opera, while others do not, and the Washington cor- 
respondent moralises on it thus: " By some, Mr. Pierce's action 
is regarded as quite a joke, while others say that his course is due 
to a desire to recuperate his health. There are a few, however, 
who feel that such jokes and health-trips at the expense of the 
government are not particularly funny." I cannot agree to that ; 
these health-trips may not be honest, they may not be dignified, 
they may in fact be rather contemptible, but the man who can see 
no fun in them is a dull man. 

Some humorous banter has been exchanged of late between 
the railroads and the World's Fair, each intimating that the other 
was in business not for pleasure, but for perquisites, and for the 
philanthropic object of coining the great educational enterprise 
into money, by charging visitors "all that the traffic will bear. " 
It was said on behalf of the World's Fair that the railroad prices 
would be so avaricious that the victims would be left without 
money enough to buy a bag of pop-corn at the Exposition ; and 
the retort of the railroads was that after the visitors got into the 
World's Fair it would cost them so much to get out again that 
they would not be able to pay their passage home. It is gratifying 
to see that the railroads have raised a flag of truce and promise to 
sell round-trip excursion tickets at the rate of a cent a mile. 
" This cheap fare," says the Western Traffic Association, " is in- 
tended to benefit the workingmen and their families." Whether 
that is the intention or not, the policy is a liberal one, and sound 
for business reasons. It ought to benefit not only the workingmen 
but the railroads, too. It forces to the front this question. Will 
the managers of the World's Fair meet the railroads half way, and 
issue admission tickets at low rates for one day in the week " to 
benefit the workingmen and their families"? In considering this 
question, it ought to be borne in mind that the stockholders have 
put their own money into the enterprise, and any honorable meth- 
ods they may adopt to save themselves from loss ought to be ap- 
proved. The most of them have " families, " just like the work- 
ingmen ; and it is very easy for us, who have nothing invested and 
nothing to lose, to tell the directors how to manage the Exposition 
in a sentimental way, but would there be any loss that would not 
be compensated by the gain ? The ' ' shilling " days at the London 
Exposition were profitable days, and on that subject I quote some 
comments which I find in the Illustrated London News for August 
30, 1851. After noticing the success of the "shilling" days, it 
says : 

".4 propps of that same shilling. Would not the present be a very excel- 
lent opportunity to open the Exhibition at a low fee ? Say, two days per week 
at sixpence. There are thousands in this great metropolis who have never 
seen this great display of industry and skill, to whom the sight would be a 
great treat, and more than that, may be of great value, too." 

It then directs attention to the fact that the cost of admission 
to the workingman includes not only the price of a ticket, but the 
loss of a day's wages. It may prove to be economically true that 
a "half-price" day can be established without causing any loss to 
the stockholders, while conferring great benefit upon the working- 
men, and adding immensely to the popularity of the Fair. 

M. M. Trumbull. 





To the Editor of The Open Court : 

In your article having reference to "Knowledge," in the last 
issue of The Open Court, I find the following : 

"Facts are pictured in sensations, and these pictures repre- 
sent the facts." 

Do I understand you to mean that facts produce sensations 
and that sensation in turn enables a sentient being to take cog- 
nizance of facts ? 

Is not knowledge, however limited or extended, of natural 
phenomena (I know of no other kind) based upon mental percepts 
which result from the brain's activities ? 

The purpose of my inquiries is to obtain a clearer comprehen- 
sion of your most interesting definition of knowledge. 

Bear with me a little further: Is the soul, which you fre- 
quently refer to, the sum-total of the brainal activities of the indi- 
vidual ? Very truly yours, 


[We trust that we have not been misunderstood, and add as 
an additional explanation the following remarks : 

We assume that reality possesses as an intrinsic quality the 
faculty of becoming sentient, and under special conditions it actu- 
ally develops sentiency. The surrounding facts produce impacts 
of various kinds upon a sentient being, and these impacts are felt. 
Impacts of the same kind produce and revive the same feelings 
and come to indicate the presence of the same causes. They be- 
come representative of things, events, or relations among things 
or events. 

The functions of sentient substance are differentiated in the 
nervous system, which develops under the constant influence of 
the surrounding world. The reaction of sentiency upon ether- 
waves develops the eye, upon air-waves the ear, upon touch and 
temperature the skin and Vater's corpuscles. 

Thus the various nerves develop, which by constant prac- 
tice and heredity are so differentiated in their action, that they 
soon become unfit to react in any other way. Any irritation of the 
optic nerve will produce light ; any irritation of the acoustic nerve 
will produce sounds. In this sense we can say that the various 
sensations are the product of their special nerves, but the special 
nerves are the product of their function ; they are the accumu- 
lated result of the reaction of sentiency upon special kinds of 

Similarly, in a natural way, the higher mental faculties are 
developed, and having developed, they are essential factors of 
knowledge. A rational insight into some principle, or a compre- 
hension of natural laws, is not possible without research. Ra- 
tional insight is impossible to brutes. Thus the degree of knowl- 
edge a creature is capable of depends upon the degree of the ra- 
tional faculty already acquired. Facts are pictured in the reason- 
endowed intellect of man with greater clearness than in the brains 
of brutes. A mirror is indispensable for things to be mirrored, 
and the quality of the picture depends not only upon the appear- 
ance of things, but also upon the mirror. When we intend to 
press the importance of the latter, we say that the picture is a 
product of the mirror. 

Every act of cognition is conditioned by the stock of knowledge 
on hand and also the degree of intelligence acquired. 

The soul, I should say, is not only "the sum-total of the 
brain's activities"; it is more. It consists of all of the various 
forms of meaning-endowed feelings that take place while the brain 
is in action. To speak of the soul as "a sum" of activities is in 
so far misleading as the soul is an organic whole ; it is a more or 

less systematically arranged society of ideas, of impulses and 
ideals. Indeed, the arrangement is of great importance, being an 
essential condition for the formation of the unity, that by a co- 
alescence of many and often of heterogeneous elements is brought 
about. Every soul possesses an idiosyncracy of its own, and this 
idiosyncracy characterises more than anything else the individual- 
ity of a soul. p. c] 

The Hon. J. B. Stallo (the late United States Minister to Italy, 
now residing at Florence) whose name shines brightly in the po- 
litical history of our country, and is equally well known to serious 
students of philosophy as the author of "Concepts of Modern 
Physics," one of the keenest investigations we have into the funda- 
mental terms of the natural sciences, has published in German, at 
E. Steiger's, New York, a collection of his lectures, essays, and let- 
ters. The volume is dedicated to his friend, Ex-Governor Koerner, 
as a worthy representative of German education, German honesty, 
and German character in the new world. The contents of the book 
form the topics, which, since 1855, were prompted by the succes- 
sive issues of the history of our country. Some of the lectures are 
beautiful records of memorable events of the past ; others, for in- 
stance on " The School Question," "Tariff Reform," and "Woman 
Emancipation," are as timely to-day as they ever were. They con- 
tain good lessons for the present generation. The philosophical 
essays on " Materialism " and " Natural Science and Its Founda- 
tions" are remarkably well written, easily read even by the un- 
trained, and also deserving the philosopher's special attention. 
The book will be welcome to the author's numerous friends. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Pudlisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



Safford 3615 


Max Dessoir 3616 

IDOLATRY. Editor 3619 

CURRENT TOPICS ; "Corn-Bread " Murphy. Pulpit Elec- 
tioneering. The Oblique March to a Direct Point. The 
Right to Reform. Office as a Therapeutic Agent. Ex- 
cursion Rates, and Cheap Admission. Gen. M. M. 
Trumbull 3620 


Is Knowledge a Product of Cerebral Activities ? E. S. 
MosER. [With Editorial Remarks.] 3622 

NOTES 3622 

The Open Court. 


No. 294. (Vol. VII.— 15 

CHICAGO, APRIL 13, 1893. 

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President Cleveland having very wisely with- 
drawn from the Senate the Hawaiian treaty concluded 
by President Harrison in hot haste within the closing 
hours of his administration, an opportunity is pre- 
sented of considering the treaty in all its bearings and 
aside from partisan politics. Thus far its advocates 
have almost monopolised the public ear. It is, how- 
ever, not my purpose to go into an examination of the 
treaty, and I wish to confine myself to one point, which 
some of its supporters have raised by contending that 
the annexation of the Hawaiian Island group would 
be in accordance with what they call the principles of 
the Monroe Doctrine. Those principles, they urge, 
have been, at a quite early period of our national life, 
promulgated by our glorious forefathers and have 
"been canonised in the hearts of the American peo- 
ple." Indeed, Mr. Harrison himself, in his message 
to the Senate accompanying the treaty, seems to jus- 
tify it, if not directly, yet implicitly on that Doctrine. 

Perhaps it may not be quite uninteresting at this 
time to take a somewhat closer look at the origin and 
inwardness of this Doctrine, and see whether or not 
it had or ever could have had any practical application 
in the politics of our countr}'. The history of it is as 
follows : 

Soon after the overthrow of the empire of the first 
Napoleon, the rulers of Russia, Austria, France, and 
Prussia formed an alliance for mutual protection, not 
against aggression from foreign powers, but against 
revolutionary movements within their own states. At 
a congress held by the allied powers at Troppau ( 1 820) 
it was agreed that the main purpose of the alliance 
should be to maintain the principle of the legitimacy 
of the existing dynasties; and that if this principle 
were threatened in any country in Europe, the allied 
powers should preserve it by actual and armed inter- 
ference. Popular risings having taken place in Pied- 
mont and Naples, they were put down by the armed 
forces of Austria, in pursuance of measures taken at 
the Congress of Laibach (1821), and the revolution in 
Spain against Ferdinand VII. was suppressed by 

French armies, in consequence of resolutions taken at 
the Congress of Verona (1822). 

At the first two congresses the English govern- 
ment, then represented by Castlereagh, had, although 
not strictly one of the allied powers, participated in 
and sanctioned the proceedings. But, at the point of 
starting for Verona, Castlereagh committed suicide, 
and George Canning, became Secretary of State. 

It was soon felt by the allied powers that under the 
new administraticn they could not further rely on Eng- 
land concerning intervention in the sense given to it 
at the Congresses of Laibach and Verona, and they 
very soon opened their batteries on the Canning Min- 
istry. They charged it with having supported the re- 
volted colonies of Spain by allowing Englishmen to 
enter their armies, by furnishing them arms and war- 
like stores, and encouraging trade and commerce of 
English subjects with the rebels. While Canning 
stoutly asserted that strict neutrality had been main- 
tained by the English Government, he as stoutly con- 
tended that English subjects had a right to trade with 
the colonies in revolt, at their own risk, the more so 
as they were practically governments de facto, that had 
not only been recognised as belligerents, but as inde- 
pendent states by the North American Republic. Very 
angry debates took place in Parliament. The Tories 
generally were on the side of the allied powers, and 
the Radicals thought that Canning had not gone far 
enough in favor of the South American Republic. 
While Canning had really at first shown some hesita- 
tion as far as the question of intervention in Europe 
was concerned, he utterly opposed such intervention 
in regard to the American continent. In one of his 
masterly speeches, early in i S24, he informed the House 
that Spain had proposed repeatedly to hold a congress 
to deliberate on the South American question with a 
view of assisting Spain in reconquering her transat- 
lantic territories, but that he had most positively de- 
clared that he would have nothing to do with such a 
congress. This explains a passage in the "Memoirs" 
of Prince Metternich (see "Memoirs de Metternich," 
Vol. VI, p. 97), in which he says, that in 1824 a note 
was addressed to the allied powers by the Spanish 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, proposing a conference to 



be held at Paris, to take into consideration the regu- 
lation of Spanish- American affairs and to which Eng- 
land should be invited ; that France, Austria, Russia, 
and Prussia adhered to the plan, but that the invita- 
tion was met by Canning with an "almost brutal" re- 

As early as in the summer of 1S23 Mr. Canning 
mentioned his suspicions as to an intervention on the 
part of the allied powers regarding the Spanish-Ameri- 
can colonies to Mr. Rush, the American minister in 
London, and expressed his great desire to have the 
United States join with him in endeavoring to thwart 
the object of the allied powers. Speaking of a cabinet 
meeting held in September, 1823, Mr. J. Q. Adams, 
then Secretary of State to Mr. Monroe, says : 

" The subject for consideration was the confidential proposal 
o£ Canning, Secretary of State, to R. Rush, and the correspon- 
dence between them, relating to the project of the holy alliance 
upon South America. The object of Canning appears to have 
been to obtain some public pledge from the United States osten- 
sibly against the forcible interference of the holy alliance be- 
twetn Spain and South America, Ind really or specially against the 
acijuisition by the L 'niled States of any part of the Spanish posses- 

Mr. Adams thought lightly of the matter,! but Mr. 
Monroe and other members of the cabinet, particularly 
Mr. Calhoun, were, as Mr. Adams says, "ver}' much 
in fear that the holy alliance would restore all South 
America to Spain." Upon long and careful considera 
tion it was finally agreed to express some disapproba- 
tion of the scheme in the message ; and the passage 
relating to this subject, and also another, relating to 
the claim of Russia to part of the northern Pacific 
Coast, was much debated, and also submitted as finally 
adopted by the cabinet to Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Madi 

The annual message of 1823, contained the fol- 
lowing sentences in regard to the first point : 

" We owe it to candor and to the amicable relations existing 
between the United States and the allied powers to declare, that 
we should consider any attempt on their part to e.xtend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace 
and safety. With the existing colonies of any European power we 
hare not interfered^ and shall 7iot interfere ; but with the governments 
which have declared their independence and uiaintained it, and whose 
independence toe have, on great consideration and principles, acknowl- 
edged, -we could not view an interposition for oppressing them, or 
controlling in any other manner their destiny bv any European power ^ 
in any other light than as a manifestation of an unfrie/nlly disposi- 
tion towards the United States." 

In another part, with reference to the Russian 
claim of occupation, and also, perhaps, as Mr. Adams 
suggests, with reference to a supposed cession by 
Spain of part of its colonies, in case of success, to 

* {Memoirs of Jcltn Q. Adams, by Charles F. Adams, Vol. VI, p. 177.) For 
Mr. Rush's dispatches of August 23, 1H25, see The Court 0/ London, jSig- 
1S2S, by R. Rush, republished by his son, London, 1873. 

+ See his diary of September, October, November, 1S23, passim. 

Other European powers, which might colonise some of 
the sparsely settled Spanish possessions, the following 
expression occurs : 

"The American continents should no longer be subjects for 
any new European colonial settlement." 

In these passages is found what has since been 
called the "Monroe Doctrine." 

Considering the great power then exercised over 
the whole of Europe by the allied monarchs and the 
submission everywhere yielded to them, even in many 
instances by England herself, this declaration on the 
part of the United States, then comparatively a weak 
power physically, by Mr. Monroe, was a bold patriotic 
manifestation, and the spirit which dictated it will 
ever be highly appreciated, as it was at the time, even 
in Europe, by all the liberal classes. It strengthened 
England in her opposition to European intervention, 
and hastened her recognition of the independence of 
the Spanish-American colonies. 

The meaning of this declaration was very plain. 
Some of the colonies founded by Spain on this conti- 
nent, had declared themselves independent and had 
thus far successfully maintained that independence. 
The United States having recognised their independ- 
ence, there was reason to believe that the allied powers 
contemplated interference between those independent 
governments and Spain, according to the system of 
intervention which they had proclaimed in Europe, 
and just carried out with so much success. Against 
this intervention the government of the United States 
might feel bound also to intervene. Nothing was said 
about the United States abandoning the neutrality 
which it had hitherto observed between Spain and her 
rebellious colonies. If Spain would reconquer them, 
she might try, but the United States would not permit 
that to be done with the assistance of the allied powers, 
who were bent, not only on sustaining and propagating 
absolute monarchial government in Europe, but also 
on introducing that form of government into the new 
world by their system of intervention. 

This was the view Mr. Jefferson took in his reply 
to Mr. Monroe, when the message had been submitted 
to him. He expressed himself as follows : 

" I could honestly, therefore, join in the declaration proposed 
that we aim not at the acijitisition of any of those Spanish-.lmerican 
possessions; that we will not stand in the way of any amicable ar- 
rangement between them and the mother country ; that we will 
oppose with all our means the forcible interposition of any other 
po-toer, as auxiliary, stipendiary, or under any other form or pre- 
text, and most especially their transfer to any other power by con- 
quest, cession, or acquisition in any other way." 

To leave no doubt on the true construction of the 
Monroe declaration, and to do away with false impres- 
sions which had even then begun to prevail with some, 
the House of Representatives in 1825 passed the fol- 
lowing resolution : 



"That the United States ought not to become a party with 
the Spanish American republics, or either of them, to any joint 
declaration for the purpose of preventing interference by any of the 
European powers with their independence or form of government, 
or to any compact for the purpose of preventing colonisation upon 
the continents of America ; but that the people of the United States 
should be left free to act in any crisis in such a manner as their 
feelings of friendship toward those republics, and as their own 
honor and policy may, at the time, dictate " 

In other words, the United States should not be 
fettered by any doctrine or programme, but left free 
to act as the occasion might require. Mr. Calhoun, 
one of the advisers of Mr. Monroe, and who took most 
interest in the declaration,* speaking of the Monroe 
Doctrine, in the debate in the Senate on the question 
of the acquisition of Yucatan, asserted most emphatic- 
ally that : 

" The United States was under no pledge to intervene against 
intervention but was to act in eich case as policy and justice re- 
quired." (See note 36 to p. 97, Wheaton's " International Law," by 

A resolution introduced bj' Mr. Clay, January, 1824, 
in the House of Representatives, "deprecating Euro- 
pean combinations to resubjugate the independent 
American states of Spanish origin," and thus giving 
support and emphasis to the declaration in the mes- 
sage of December, 1823, seems never to have been 
acted upon, and was not referred to any committee. 
Mr. Benton in his "Abridgment of the Debates of 
Congress, 1789-1856," Vol. VII, p. 470, accompanies 
the paragraph of Mr. Monroe's message given above, 
with an extensive note in which he says : 

" This paragraph contains the doctrine so much quoted then 
and since as the ' ' Monroe Doctrine " ; and the extent and nature 
of whicli have been so greatly misunderstood. It has been gen 
erally regarded as promising a sort of political protection or guar- 
dianship of the two Americas — the United States to stand guard 
over the new world and repulse all intrusive colonists from its 
shore. Nothing could be more erroneous, or more at war \vith our 
established principles of non-interference with other nations. The 
declaration itself did not import any such high mission and re- 
sponsible attitude for the United States ; it went no further than 
to declare that any European interference to control the destinies 
of the new American states, would be construed as the manifesta- 
tion of an unfriendly spirit toward the United States. This was 
very far from being a pledge to take up arms in the defense of the 
invaded American states ; and the person of all others, after Mr. 
Monroe himself, and hardly less authoritative on this point — Mr. 
Adams, h's successor in the presidency — has given the exact and 
whole extent of what was intended by the declaration " 

Mr. Benton concludes this note as follows : 

" The occasion for the Monroe Doctrine was this : Four of the 
powers which overthrew the great emperor, Napoleon I — Russia, 
Austria, Prussia, and France — having constituied themselves a 
holy alliance for the maintenance of the order of things which they 
had established in Europe, took it under advisement to extend iheir 
care to the young American republics of Spanish origin, and to 
convert them into monarchies, to be governed by sovereigns of 

' See Adams's Met 

rs af/if DiLiry of Septeinber-Deceniber, 1823, />assiin. 

European stock, such as the holy alliance should put upon them. 
It was against the extension of this European system to the two 
Americas that Mr. Monroe protested, and being joined in that pro- 
test by England, the project of the allies was given up." 

Since that time there never was any real occasion to 
press the Monroe Doctrine into service. It went into 
the domain of past history. The only time, perhaps, 
when apparently there was a similar concatenation of 
circumstances to those of 1823, was when an au.xiliary 
army of French and Belgians invaded Mexico, to assist 
Maximilian of Austria, in securing to himself the im- 
perial throne offered to him by a powerful faction of 
the Mexican people. But even then, Mr. Seward re- 
pudiated the "Monroe Doctrine" as not applicable to 
the circumstances. 

In a dispatch to Mr. Motle}', the American Minister 
at Vienna (Oct. g, 1863), who had expressed great 
alarm at the expedition of Maximilian, and sought in- 
structions as to asking the emperor of Austria for ex- 
planations, and had also referred Mr. Seward to the 
Monroe Doctrine, Mr. Seward instructed the Minister 
not to interfere, using these remarkable words : 

" France has invaded Mexico, and war exists between the two 
countries. The United States hold in regard to those two states 
and their conflict, the same principles as they hold in relation to 
all other nations and their mutual wars. They have neither a 
right nor any disposition to interfere by force in the internal af- 
fairs of Mexico, whether 10 establish or maintain a republican or 
even a domestic government there, or to overthrow an imperial or 
foreign one, if Mexico shall choose to establish or accept it." 

Mr. Seward communicated this dispatch to Mr. 
Motley, to the Ministers of the United States at Paris, 
at Madrid, and at Brussels, undoubtedly for the pur- 
pose of advising those foreign governments about his 
views. When he saw his road clear, after the Union 
was saved, he, quite independently of the Monroe 
doctrine, caused the French to withdraw from Mexico 
in a very short time. 

In a popular and much wider but indefinable sense, 
the Monroe Doctrine means what Mr. Benton said was 
a misconstruction of it, that is, a sort of political pro- 
tection or guardianship of the two Americas, to be ex- 
ercised by the United States. 

The true American doctrine is the one which the 
German politicians call the "freehand policy." Ap- 
plied to the Hawaiian question it means, that if the 
true interests of the United States require their an- 
nexation without the shedding of blood or waste of 
treasure, let them be annexed. All Polynesia is not 
worth even a small war, this source of corruption and 
"relic or barbarism." To base the acquisition on a 
pretended national pledge would in this instance be the 
more ridiculous, as even the most extravagant con- 
struction of the Doctrine never went beyond the boun- 
daries of tliis continent, to which President Monroe in 
his message had confined himself. 





The principles discussed in the preceding section 
embrace all the rules which the pupil usually learns 
as the A, B, C of his profession. These rules so clearly 
prove that the basis of sleight-of-hand performances is 
psychological and not technical, that I cannot refrain 
from giving an outline of, and explaining, them. 

" Do not perform the same trick twice in the same 
evening." In the first place, the most perfect trick 
loses its charm by repetition : the observer being no 
longer surprised at it. In the second place, the au- 
dience know what is coming, and strain all their powers 
to find out the point that originally deceived them. 
With a little tact and presence of mind one can always 
avoid an oicorr ; and if it comes to the worst, some- 
thing may be substituted which in its initial features 
resembles the first trick, but has a different culmina- 
tion. On the other hand, the skilled performer usually 
has at his command two or more methods of doing a 
trick. The disappearance of a pair of gloves, for in- 
stance, is effected in two totally different ways. A 
very pretty little trick is that called "the ambitious 
card " ; it consists in a certain card, no matter in what 
position it is placed in the pack, being always found 
on top. If one should here always employ the same 
niinliis operandi, say the voile, or toss, an attentive 
audience would readity detect the trick ; consequently, 
the I'olte, Voisin's movement, the passe, and filiation 
are alternately used. Each new method renders the 
detection of the others more difficult. A last resource 
is the use of false cards, although no artist who places 
any value on his reputation will ever resort to such 
expedients. Naturally all illusion is destroyed by such 
means. If used, they should be secretly substituted 
for a real pack, or borrowed, by previous arrange- 
ment, from a spectator ; borrowed articles always being 
accepted by the public in good faith. 

" Never tell beforehand what you are'going to do. " 
The audience, informed at an early stage as to the 
outcome of the trick, have an excellent opportunity of 
concentrating their attention on the right point, and 
of detecting the ruse. Here is an example. A hand- 
kerchief is borrowed and given to a person to hold. 
When it is reclaimed, it is found to be cut up into 
small bits. It is rolled up again and handed back to 
the same person with the directions to rub it in a cer- 
tain way that the damage may be repaired. When 
unfolded, it is seen to be changed into a long strip. 
These effects are accomplished by skilful substitutions, 
immediately following one another, and the whole art 
of the trick consists in concealing at the right moment 
the necessary exchange. Had the performer previ- 
ously told his audience that the handkerchief would 

now appear in pieces and now in strips, they would at 
once guess that the trick was to be accomplished by 
substitution, and successfully await the moment of ex- 
change. But when the actor simply rolls up the hand- 
kerchief and entrusts it to the care of some person, no 
one guesses that a substitute is given, and after the 
exchange has been made, the possibility of discovery 
is over. 

"Never give an explanation." The most incorrect 
one does harm ; for it is not so much a matter of im- 
portance that the uninitiated should have a true ex- 
planation, as that he should regard the performance 
as natural and expected. I have experienced this. 
Whenever I see a new experiment, or hear of one, 
after some reflection I always think of a possible way 
of accomplishing the result, and although my conjec- 
tures frequently fail, they nevertheless destroy for me 
the charm of incomprehensibility which forms the very 
kernel .of modern magic. I must admit that I envy 
all who can enjoy such performance without the long- 
ing of explanation. 

"Try to obtain as large an audience as possible." 
It may be thought that it is easier to deceive one than 
a hundred. But just the contrary.* In the presence 
of a small number of observers the prestidigitateur has 
not free play ; he cannot move about at will or per- 
form all the little ruses of diverting attention, which 
we spoke of above. In a small audience he is beset 
with questions and interruptions of a very disagreeable 
character, and he cannot, as is necessary in many 
tricks, pass off the same card in three places as a dif- 
ferent one, or practise similar deceptions. Finally, 
he has not the desired choice of persons. A prestidi- 
gitateur cannot perform every illusion with every per- 
son. Some tricks require a very distrustful subject, 
others an innocent one ; in some, only ladies can be 
used with success, in others, children. An experienced 
player will not ask any one to assist him ; but for the 
most insignificant manipulations, as the drawing, hold- 
ing, or placing of a card, will select certain individ- 
uals. Only a practiced physiognomist and perfect stu- 
dent of human nature can be sure of success in this 

So m.uch for the results of theoretical investigation 
in the actual practice of legerdemain. We now come 
to its relations to scientific psycholog}', which are many 
and varied. 

Let me first recall Robert Houdin's experiments 
on the instantaneous perception and counting of num- 
bers of objects. These experiments deserve consid- 
eration for pointing out a new way of fixing numerically 

* The extent to which the attention of thousands can be diverted, is best 
seen at a circus. Clown A gives Clown B a resounding box on the ear. In 
reality he only touches his cheek. But at the same moment, B claps his hands. 
No one notices this, because all eyes are directed on A's movements, and B's 



the /u'g/n-r faculties of psychical life. Psychophysics 
has hitherto exclusively restricted itself to the lower 
psychical functions of sense perception, including re- 
action in movements and judgments ; only a few years 
ago did Mr. Ebbinghaus begin to put complicated 
processes in figures. 

This investigator endeavored to find how many 
words, or meaxiingless syllables, one could remember 
after the first hearing ; further, how often one must 
repeat a definite number of syllables to be able imme- 
diately to repeat them again, and how often, for the 
same purpose, after a few hours or days, one must do 
the same, and what influence is exerted in this by the 
puzzling factor, practice. A similar idea lies at the 
basis of Houdin's experiments. Here the object of 
inquiry is, the ability (acquired slowly, like meniory) 
of recognising a definite number of objects, by once 
seeing them, i. e. without conscious addition, as this 
or that number ; in other words, the experiments refer 
to a remarkable feature of human development which 
may be designated as unconscious calculation. Ac- 
cording to Houdin's statements, occasional remarks 
of Professor Preyer, and m}' own observations, it ap- 
pears that the limit of instantaneous recognition lies 
between 5 and 6 ; and this agrees in a remarkable 
manner with the limit of retention of monosyllabic 
words after one hearing. At any rate, the new, and 
remarkable possibility is here opened to us of fixing 
in data and numbers the secrets of our inner psychic 
life. Of course, as soon as we demand the description 
as well as the number of the objects seen, the question 
becomes complicated in a manner which renders its 
solution unusuall}' difficult. Then "interest" plays 
an important part. A lady, who can barely catch four 
similar objects at a glance, can 3'et describe in detail 
the toilet of another lady rapidly passing in a carriage. 
Accordingly, with Houdin's second series of experi- 
ment's psychology will for a while, not be able to ac- 
complish much. 

The trick of making an orange disappear in the air 
at first looks like a positive hallucination. We should, 
then, be confronted with the notable fact that in en- 
tirely normal men, images may be produced which 
possess the character of externally awakened sense- 
perceptions, with no corresponding external reality to 
awaken them. But, in the first place, the appearance 
of a uniform and frequently repeated sensory irritation 
is necessary to produce these images ; and this re- 
moves them from the realm of hallucination and places 
them in the category of sensations of repetition. And, 
in the second place, the external suggestion is not en- 
tirely wanting. There is indeed no object in the air 
which may be made the foundation of the false per- 
ception of an orange, but simpl}' a motion and the 
sense-impression of this motion is quite sufficient to 

awaken the repetitive image of the object associated 
with it. We have to do with an illusion, to the extent 
of a subjective falsification of objectively presented 
material of sensation. Illusions are possible with peo- 
ple entirely sound both in body and mind, especially if 
fear or other emotions excite the imagination.* In our 
case, it is intense expectation that induces the favor- 
able state. That the concentration of the mind on a 
certain effect has that effect as its subjective result is 
no new fact to those conversant with hypnotism. 

While, therefore, positive hallucinations may be 
wanting in the realm of illusion, there are plenty of 
negative hallucinations. A positive hallucination con- 
sists in seeing something where nothing exists, a neg- 
ative hallucination in seeing nothing where something 
exists. Who has not hunted for an object that was 
directly before his eyes? The sense-impression exists, 
is taken up, but not elaborated in consciousness, and 
there thus arises a momentary state of mental blind- 
ness, in which negative hallucination may take place. 
The prestidigitateur artificially produces such a state 
of absent-mindedness and uses it systematically for 
his purposes. Mr. Moll,t in speaking of the fact that 
we can prevent h^'pnotised persons, by suggestion, 
from perceiving external objects, very truly says : "If 
we look at the hands of a magician and watch closely 
enough, we can see him conceal objects and exchange 
cards directly before the eyes of his audience. The 
juggler knows the art of diverting the attention of his 
observers by skilful phrases, so that even those who 
are looking at his hands are not in a condition to give 
an account of his doings. The exchange of cards, for 
example, falls within the observer's range of vision, 
the sensory irritation is made, but it does not come to 
consciousness." In pointing out analogies between 
the psychology of hypnotism and that of prestidigita- 
tion, one may go much further than this. 

In conclusion, we may mention a contribution 
which legerdemain has made to the psychological prob- 
lem of the freedom of the will. The well-known trick 
of permitting a card to be drawn at random, and im- 
mediately guessing it, is based on the fact that the ob- 
server only believes he has freely drawn, while in real- 
ity the performer has restricted his will and diverted 
it in a definite direction, either by placing the card to 
be chosen in a convenient position, or by pushing it 
forward at the moment when the selector's fingers 
reach for it. I do not think that anything could offer 
a better illustration of the determinism of all our ac- 
tions. Even in the game of life we do not grasp the 
chosen cards, but those which are presented to us by 
a definite law. [to be concluded] 

* Compare Dessoir. Tiu- Doub:e Ego. Pan I, p. 36, of the publications of 
tlie Society of Experiujuntal PsycholoKy in Berlin. I.eipsic, Ernst Giintlier, 

t Hyfnolisvi. by Dr. A. Moll, p. 65. Berlin, iSSg. 




Since Grover Cleveland ascended the civic throne a month of 
hope has gone, and to hungry petitioners for office the month of 
despondency has come. The promises that bloomed in March, 
begin to droop in April, and in May they will wither in despair. 
The pathcs of it moves our pity, because many of the disappointed 
have betted three or four months of time and much money on 
their importance to a government which foolishly believes that it 
can get along without them, although at the late election each in- 
dividual man of them won for the Democratic ticket a ward, a 
township, a county, or perhaps a state, which, without his oppor- 
tune exertions, must have gone the other way. Has he not certifi- 
cates to prove it, from the chairman of the committee, the sena- 
tors, the congressmen, and even from grateful men who now have 
places in the cabinet ? Was he not confidentially told in the winter 
by persons near the throne that Mr. Cleveland gratefully remem 
bered him for the skilful manner in which he carried Brush Creek 
township for the ticket ? And must he now exclaim with Wolsey, 
"Oh, how wretched is that poor man that hangs on princes' fa- 
vors ! " Where are those trustees of Mr. Cleveland's powers, his 
intimate friends, who could promise and did promise anything and 
everything in his name ? Alas, at the beginning of the new reign 
it was discovered that they had no more influence at court than 
Falstaff had in the reign of Henry the Fifth. On the strength of 
his relations to the Prince of Wales, Falstaff had borrowed money 
of Justice Shallow, whose hospitality he was wasting when the 
news came that Henry the Fourth was dead, and that the Prince 
of Wales was king ; "Away, Bardolph," said Falstaff, "saddlemy 
horse, — Master Robert Shallow, choose what office thou wilt in 
the land, 'tis thine." So, when on the 8th of November in the 
evening, news came that Harrison the Second was defeated, and 
that Grover the First was coming to the throne, the political Fal- 
staffs who pretended to have "the ear of Cleveland," patronised 
the working patriots and shouted ; " Choose what office thou wilt 
in the land, 'tis thine." They chose ; and nov/, weary and heart- 
sick, they find that the Falstaffs have been discarded by the king. 


While I pity the needy expectant of an office who thinks that 
he has earned it and deserves it, and who does not see how he can 
get along without it, having made his calculations upon it, I envy 
his more fortunate neighbor, that miraculous man whose quality 
is higher than any office, who towers above dignities, who can 
have any place he chooses to put his finger on, but who would not 
condescend to accept even a cabinet portfolio if offered him on a 
silver dish. While some worthy patriots are famishing for spoils, 
others are being followed about by offices actually biting them to 
attract their patronage, but without ruflling a hair of their ambi- 
tion. Here, for instance, is a man who has been persecuted in 
that way ever since the election, but whose pride has not relented 
yet. Listen to this, the latest news from Washington : " It is the 
opinion of many of the more prominent Democrats that Mr. Whit- 
ney will yet be induced to accept a high position from Mr. Cleve- 
land." While others are pleading for anything, high, or low, or 
middling, how can we help envying a superior person who cannot 
even be "induced" to accept the highest place upon the list, although 
he knows that without him this country can hardly hobble along. 
Office fascinates most men like a necromantic spell, a truth im- 
pressed upon my mind the other day by an old comrade, who for 
the past twelve years has been "holding down," as he expressed 
it, a lucrative position in that ancient ruin, the Chicago Custom- 
house, Pointing affectionately at the deformity, he said: "It 
hurts my feelings to have that building slandered. I have seen it 
every day for twelve years, and every day I see new beauties in 
its graceful curves and its harmonious proportions. The vaunted 
architecture of Greece and Rome cannot hold a candle to it. 

Michael Angelo himself could never have designed it. Its venti- 
lation is perfect, for it is always cool in summer and warm in win- 
ter. Notice the air upon the street ; you can cut it with a knife, 
but this murky atmosphere never enters there. In my office up 
there in the third story the air is ever salubrious and the zephyrs 
pure. They say the noble structure is liable to tumble down at 
any moment, and perhaps It is ; but let me hold office there until 
it falls, and then bury me in its ruins." 

* * 

So many false reports have gone into circulation about the 
imaginary "extortion" to be practised at the World's Fair that 
Mr. Higlnbotham, the president, has made a proclamation con- 
tradicting the sensational stories, and declaring that there will not 
be any extra charges made for necessary accommodations This 
proclamation, so far as it is definite, is enough to set the "malicious 
reports " at rest, but when obscure, it helps to strengthen them, as 
in that part of it, where, answering the accusation that visitors 
will be charged a fee for sitting down, Mr. Higlnbotham says, 
"Ample provisions for seating will be made without charge." 
Standing alone, that statement ought to be satisfactory, but imme- 
diately under the proclamation the newspaper printing it says ; 
"At the same time, camp-chairs, of light construction, will be of- 
fered to those who would rather pay a small fee for them than 
take seats among the multitude." If this is true, then part of the 
seating privilege has been farmed out, and the management has 
laid upon itself the burthen of contradictory obligations. It can- 
not be just and liberal to the public in the matter of seats and also 
to the persons who have bought the privilege of charging for sit- 
ting on the camp-chairs. The "small fee" may be trifling as the 
bite of a mosquito, but it will cause irritation and annoyance, be- 
cause the tired victim will not know anything about it, until he 
has planted himself in the chair. A few years ago I was taking a 
stroll through Hyde Park, London, where "ample provisions for 
sitting are made without charge," but I incautiously sat down on 
a camp-chair in the shade of a tree. Hardly had I made myself 
comfortable, when a man came up and demanded a penny. The 
authorities had sold him the privilege of setting camp-chair traps 
for unwary foreigners like me. The charge was very small, but 
the imposition was very large, and I resented it, because there 
was no Indication anywhere that the seats were private property. 
Better sit on a tack, than on one of those camp-chairs ; and when 
the weather is very hot, Mr. Higlnbotham will be surprised at the 
vast quantity of profanity that may be provoked by a "small fee." 

These remarks will apply also to the extra toilet-rooms, "of 
a costly and handsome character," for the use of which a charge 
of five cents will be made. There ought not to be any serious ob- 
jection to that extra charge, provided the visiter knows before he 
enters a toilet-room that he must pay for the use of it. To make 
the "costly and handsome" rooms profitable, the free toilet-rooms 
must be either numerically insufficient or objectionable. When a 
visitor, after going in, is charged five cents which he knew noth- 
ing about, he becomes angry and spiteful, not that he cares for the 
five cents, but because he thinks he has been played for a simple- 
ton. The positive expression, "five cents," is, at least, open, 
frank, and honest, but the defect In the character of the "small 
fee " is its want of candor ; it fears to say how much it is, and this 
defect attaches to that part of the proclamation which declares 
that "fifty cents will entitle the visitor to see everything within 
the Exposition grounds, except the Eskimo village and the repro- 
duction of the Colorado cliff dwellings. For these, as well as for 
the special attractions on midway plaisance, a small fee will be 
charged." That is ambiguous, if not equivocal. What is the exact 
amount of that "small fee," expressed in terms of money ? Men 
who have attended shows, entertainments, fairs, and the like, 
know how much extortion is concealed In the professional jargon 



"small fee," "trifling extra charge," " usual slight advance." and 
phrases of that kind. They are catchpenny cries, altogether be- 
low the dignity of the Columbian Exposition. I shall never forget 
the first time that Barnum's great circus visited Marbletown. 
Everybody within a fifty-mile radius came to the show, and the 
crowd was like a rush of mighty waters, but Mr. Barnum was 
equal to the occasion, and he issued a proclamation to the effect 
that " persons wishing to avoid the crush at the ticket wagon can 
obtain seats at Kelly's book-store for the usual slight advance." 
The price of a ticket was fifty cents, but when I went into Kelly's 
and bought five tickets for myself and the folks, I found that the 
"slight advance" was twenty-five cents a ticket, which I paid 
"under protest," a protest which never gave Mr. Barnum one 
moment's remorse down to the day of his death. Let everything 
be candid, and there will be no grumbling. 


* * 

As I do not like to use a word so harsh as treachery I will 
compliment the Chicago politicians on their genius for diplomacy, 
and their skill in balancing themselves between opposing forces so 
as to win with either side. It is not easy to perform this feat, be- 
cause in the game of double dealing the player himself is liable to 
be betrayed, as in the case of the crafty gentlemen who have been 
detected in the legerdemain of signing the petition of one man for 
the office of postmaster, and then recommending his rival for the 
same place. Since the well known case of that ' ' Heathen Chinee " 
there has not appeared such a pathetic story of guile as this which 
appears in the Washington dispatches of .\pril 5th. 

" The Record correspondent secured access to-day to the records of the 
file-room in the postofiice department, wherein are kept under the closest 
privacy the applications and indorsements for postmasters. It disclosed the 
fact that quite a number of Chicago gentlemen had tiled their applications for 
the postmastership. It also disclosed some of the peculiar methods of prac- 
tical politics, as the names of quite a number of men were on file as earnestly 
urging the appointment of two diiierent candidates." 

Such duplicity is very shocking to the virtuous mind, and our 
pain is increased by the revelation that official documents which 
are " kept under the closest privacy" in the "file-room" of the 
Postmaster General were shown to the inquisitive correspondent of 
a newspaper. How did that happen ? There must have been ad 
ditional treachery there. Who gave up the secrets of the "file- 
room " ? When a statesman ostentatiously telegraphs to Senator 
Palmer urging him to support one candidate, and then writes a 
' ' personal and prisate " letter to the Postmaster General in behalf 
of the rival candidate, he elevates political chicanery to the rank 
of the fine arts, and he may confidently aspire to any office in the 
catalogue of spoils. I am not surprised to learn that when Senator 
Palmer found it out, he felt that he had been " trifled with," and 
very likely the Postmaster General felt the same way. I suspect 
that out of dignified contempt for the double dealing, or else to 
make a comic scene of it, Mr Bissell himself gave the correspon- 
dent " access to the records of the file-room." I once knew a lucky 
statesman who signed the opposing petitions of two rival candidates 
for the office of gauger, and then wrote a " personal and private" 
letter to the appointing power in behalf of a third man. He told 
me that he found it necessary sometimes in the trade of politics to 
assume a double or triple character, but he did not like it very well 
because it was not agreeable to hear his own two selves continually 
calling each other false and treacherous. 

* * 

At the annual conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
held in Jersey City, April 5th, the Rev. H. C. Payne made the 
following announcement, "Brethren, the devil is celebrating a 
great victory in Chicago. Hell is having a jubilee to-day in honor 
of the election of a mayor who will turn the Sabbath into a day 
of amusement." That bit of demonology is not extravagant ; it is 
in logical harmony with the tactics adopted by the opponents of 

the successful candidate in the campaign at Chicago, and the re- 
sult is a marvellous illustration of the manner in which a candi- 
date may be carried on the shoulders of his enemies to victory. 
When he was nominated the chances were all against him. There 
was a schism in his own party, and a formidable revolt of the 
Germans led by the editor of the most influential German paper 
in Chicago. The so-called "business interests" appeared 10 be 
almost unanimously against him. The papers of both parties pro- 
tested passionately that his election would be a calamity. They 
declared that he was in sympathy and confederation with all the 
criminal classes, the director and protector of the "gang." The 
pulpits thundered against him, and some of the newspapers pillo- 
ried him in caricature day after day. Every misfortune, from the 
anarchist riots to a hole in the sidewalk was charged against him, 
until at last the opposition looked like persecution, and thousands 
of his enemies drawn to him by sympathy became his friends, for 
this occasion only. The censure was overdone, and the reaction 
against it elected him by a majority of twenty thousand votes. But 
his punishment was quick and terrible. Two days after the elec- 
tion he had fled, far from the city of his home, and from the state 
where he had lived so long ; fled from the swarming office-hunters 
to Fortress Monroe, where protected by the guns of that strong 
citadel he might find sanctuary from the importunities of his 
friends. The defeated candidate has a happier lot, he has no oc- 
casion to run away from the spoilsmen into self-exile, he can rest 
in the tranquillity of home, a little poorer than he was a month 
ago, but opulent still, and serenely doing business as before. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



The Monos or God of our Monism (the Monism of The Open 
Court and of Tlie Monisl) is, if I understand it well, "the univer- 
sal synthesis" — using, of course, the word "synthesis" in its 
largest meaning, the one used at least by French scientists. This 
meaning is that of essential unity, of unity in itself, instead of a 
mere reconstruction by our minds of various quantities into a 
unity. It is, in the words of Dr. Cams a unity which "is, has 
been, and will be, an indivisible one " By "a chemical synthesis," 
French scientists mean the esseii/iu/ unity of a thing, that which 
constitutes its being, of which e;ch of its primary chemical ele- 
ments are merely the subordinate and incomplete components, 
such as are the little pieces of marble that enter into the artistic 
mosaic, as said Dr. Cams in the last number of T/ie Moi2is/. 
There is in St. Peter's basilic at Rome the most admirable mosaic 
known ; it is a copy of St. Petronilla, a masterly painting by II 
Guercino, which is in the old Roman baths of Titus that are used to- 
day as the church of Sta. Maria de Angelis. The mosaic is reputed 
to be fully as good and powerful as the original masterpiece itself. 
Now, I should say that the "synthesis" is the same in both the 
mosaic and the painting, although the material — the materia circa 
qiiam, as said the scholastics — is entirely different. The idea or 
the ideal, the form is the same. The Monos of our Monism. God, 
is, according to Dr. Cams, the order or moral law of the Universe. 
It is, then, the Universe itself, including, but independently of, or 
rather "super," the mere materia circa quaiii of the Universe, ex- 
actly as the painting and the mosaic are the St. Petronilla, includ- 
ing, but independently of, or above, their respective iiiaterias circa 
,]nas, either the pigments or the chips of colored marbles. Once, 
conversing with a scientist about the lost arts of antiquity, I asked 
him how, in spite of our modern science and the wonders of our 
chemistry, we can remain unable to reproduce that wonderful 
bronze, harder than the hardest steel, with which the Eg) pilars 
used to cut so easily their adamantine granite into statues smooth 
as a plate glass and with such a perfection that their curved sur- 



faces are mathematically correct. He answered: "Yes, we have 
no difficulty in chemically analysing that ancient bronze, but we are 
unable to discover its synthesis. The analysis is nothing at all as 
long as we do not know the synthesis, for the synthesis is the thing 
in its unity, in its reality, in fact, it is the thing itself. Each reality, 
each thing, either animate or inanimate, concrete or abstract, is a 
synthesis. As soon as its synthesis vanishes the thing is dead and 
it necessarily disappears. Without knowing its synthesis, we can- 
not reproduce that Egyptian bronze, any more than a chvf can make 
a dish without knowing its recipe. The recipe is the synthesis of 
the dish ; it is the dish itself, although, I concede, an abstract 
recipe would not be a very satisfactory dish." 

So the essential reality of the Universe is its synthesis, not 
merely its abstract but its concrete synthesis. The Universal Syn- 
thesis is the ens of true ontology; it is the God of true religion. 
For, borrowing again the words of Dr. Cams. God "is both ob- 
jectivity and subjectivity combined," or " the reality that surrounds 
us and of which our very being consists." 

Is it not more opportune to define God as "the Universal 
Synthesis," than to merely proclaim his universality, when we see 
that already, believing that " God is everywhere as a spirit," an- 
thropotheists will readily accept ' ' the universality of God " ? They, 
as well as the Atheists and the Agnostics, would fail to grasp the 
positive character of our monistic idea of God. But to tell them 
that "God is the Universal Synthesis " may instantly awaken their 
mind to our posilivist, truer, and grander understanding of what 
God really is. 

Earl Grey on Reciprocity and Civil Service Reform. With 
Comments by (7f«. i1/. il/. Trumbull. Chicago: The Open 
Court Publishing Co. 1893. 

Just before the presidential election, the venerable statesman, 
Earl Grey, formerly Secretary of State fcr the British colonies, 
wrote to General Trumbull two very interesting letters on "Reci- 
procity" and "Civil Service Reform " Those letters were pub- 
lished in The Open Courts and they have attracted great attention 
both in England and in this country. They have now been printed 
in pamphlet form by The Open Court Publishing Company, with 
General Trumbull's comments. Some of our readers may wish to 
preserve the letters and the comments in convenient form, and for 
that purpose they have been printed altogether in this neat and 
elegant pamphlet. The comments are in General Trumbull's most 
fascinating and convincing style, and replete with similes adapted 
to bring forcibly home to the mind the true conditions of this com- 
plicated question. 

The political expedient known as " Reciprocity " has been very 
much discussed in the United States of late, and it has even been 
adopted into the platform of one of the great political parties. It 
is a subject greatly talked about, but little understood. The re- 
marks of Lord Grey upon it, wherein he shows the manner of its 
overthrow in England, are very instructive and worthy of atten- 
tive study. 

In the Cenluiy ior March is an article on " Napoleon's De- 
portation to Elba," written by the captain of the ship that carried 
him to that island. He describes the conversations he had with 
Napoleon on the way, and the Emperor's account of the manner 
in which he compelled the American government to come to terms 
of "reciprocity " with him is very amusing when read by the light 
of wiser economic science. 

At this moment, when the president of the United States and 
his cabinet ministers are literally besieged night and day by legions 
of office-hunters, demanding a speedy redistribution of the spoils, 
and when they demand that all public business be suspended until 
they are satisfied, the advice and opinions of Earl Grey on thst 
subject will commend themselves to every thoughtful mind. 



Afloat on a summer sea, 

Where the sun shines bright. 

And the heart is light, 
And the ripples come and go. 
There the breezes softly blow 

From the green-clad land, 

'Cross the hazy strand. 
With scent from the orange tree. 

O'er the silvery sheen 

We lazily lean. 
And our shimmering faces greet 
In the waters 'neath our feet. 

Bright visions gleam. 

So we drift, we dream. 
In our boat on the summer sea. 

The soul on the drifting years 

With the tide floats on. 

While the heavens don 
All the roseate hues of youth. 
To the soul the type of truth. 

And the breeze is light, 

And fame's image bright. 
No phantom of griefs or fears. 

Without heed or care 

We merrily fare 
To the music of the dream. 
Where the ending of the stream ? 

Ah, the bubbles break ; 

We start, we wake, 
And the reaping — regrets and tears. 




CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


TRINE. G. Koerner 3623 


Max Dessoir 3626 

CURRENT TOPICS : Choose What Office Thou Wilt in 
the Land. A Man Who Refuses 6ffice. The Small 
Fee at the World's Fair. Mr. Barnum's Slight Ad- 
vance. The Duplicity of Politicians. How to Elect a 
Man by Reviling Him. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3628 




Afloat. Hiram H. Bice 3630 

The Open Court. 


No. 295. (Vol. VII.— 16.) 

CHICAGO, APRIL 20, 1893. 

( Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Most of our schools and colleges seem to be planned 
on the supposition, that the early history of mankind 
was substantially this. Adam and Eve were created 
on the sixth day of the week, and taught to read and 
write on the seventh. They were told that they must 
do nothing in the Garden of Eden, except study ; but 
they ran away from school, in order to climb trees and 
steal apples. They were more studious after they had 
been turned out : and the first murder was due to the 
jealousy of Cain, at being outstripped by Abel in the 
junior class. It was fondness for improper books which 
brought down the deluge to drown them as well as 
their readers ; the ark was built in order that the de- 
cent part of antediluvian literature might be preserved ; 
and the first public library was the tower of Babel. 
The credit of inventing the printing press may be di- 
vided between Noah and Prometheus ; but it is certain 
that Nimrod was a mighty hunter after mistakes made 
by other authors, and probable that the cause of the 
Trojan war was a quarrel about international copy- 
right. All this must be believed devoutly, in order to 
justify the old-fashioned system of education ; and it 
must also be taken for granted, that King Arthur and 
his knights were merely a band of daring young critics 
who conducted a quarterly review at Camelot, that 
Charlemagne published a daily newspaper, that Wil- 
liam the Conqueror flooded England with pamphlets 
in support of his title, before he crossed the Channel, 
and that the main purpose of the crusaders was to 
distribute tracts. 

Not one of these suppositions is so absurd, as it 
would be to pretend that the course of study, in most 
of the schools and colleges, is either a liberal or a prac- 
tical one, according to the great principle long ago an- 
nounced by Pestalozzi, and stated by Herbert Spencer 
in his book on " Education " as follows : "Alike in 
its order and its methods, education must conform to 
the natural process of mental evolution." " Of course 
this fundamental principle of tuition, that the arrange- 
ment of matter and method must correspond with the 
order of evolution and mode of activity of the facul- 
ties, — a principle so obviously true that when once 

stated it seems almost self-evident — has never been 
wholly disregarded. Teachers have unavoidably made 
their school-courses coincide with it in some degree, 
for the simple reason that education is possible only 
on that condition. Boys were never taught the rule- 
of three, until after they had learned addition." (Pp. 
no. III.) No good teacher, I may add, would set 
children who could barely read words of one syllable 
to study Browning's "Sordello," or even Spencer's 
" First Principles." The rule of letting the easiest 
books come first is so well established, that no teacher 
would disregard it deliberately ; and a proposal to re- 
verse it, and begin with the most difficult books, would 
be universally condemned as preposterous. This word 
literally means, putting that first which ought to be 
last ; and it might properly be applied to the idea that 
education has to begin with using any book. 

In order to get rid of all that has been preposterous 
in our methods of education, we ought to give more 
attention to some of the plainest facts in the early his- 
tory of mankind. The first men knew as little about 
books and newspapers, as the animals from whom they 
had been developed. It is doubtful whether they could 
even speak in the earliest ages ; and it is certain that 
they could not read or write. The period which has 
elapsed since the invention of any alphabet is in all 
probabilit}' very short, compared with the untold ages 
of absolute illiteracy. The skulls of the men of even 
that primitive period, however, show that the human 
brain had already become much larger than that of 
any lower animal, in proportion to the size of the 
bod}'. The brain power of these primitive illiterates 
seems to differ but little from our own, in comparison 
with its vast superiority to that possessed by the lowest 
vertebrates. Long before there was any reading or 
writing, there was an immense period during which 
men developed a great deal of mental power by using 
tools and weapons, as well as by coming in contact in 
other direct ways with the external world of realities 
in which they lived. At the same time, they acquired 
a large amount of useful knowledge, as must be ad- 
mitted by all who consider how well trained many 
illiterate savages are in the best way to hunt, fish, 
cook, and in other ways adapt themselves to the cir- 



cumstances, which have been their principal teachers. 
Of course, what was learned before the invention of 
the alphabet, was worth very little compared with what 
has been learned since ; but there has never been a 
time when all knowledge came solely through books. 
What literary life there was before the present century 
has been, for the most part, among people who were 
few in numbers, compared with the rest of the popu- 
lation, and who did so much riding, hunting, dancing, 
and fencing as to keep their muscles in much better 
training than most scholars do at the present day. 
This could not, of course, be said of the Catholic clergy, 
who had almost a monopoly of learning during the 
Middle Ages ; but they did not materially aid the trans- 
mission of brain-power by inheritance. It is true that 
the literary class was very large and not very athletic 
during the latter days of the Roman empire ; but it is 
also true that these scholars did not display much men- 
tal power in their contests against the illiterate bar- 
barians who overthrew the empire, and who substi- 
tuted governments which were in some respects more 
advanced, for instance in recognising the. advantages 
of local self-government, and in introducing trial by 
jury. It should also be remembered that we, citizens 
of the United States, are much more largely descended 
from these men of the North than from the compara- 
tively scholarly men of the South. In short, our 
brains are the results of two factors, a muscular train- 
ing, which has been enjoyed by all our ancestors for 
untold ages, and a literary training, which has been 
possessed during recent times by a few of the ances- 
tors of a small part of our population. To try to edu- 
cate the brain of every child as if it had been entirely 
produced by a small force which has but lately come 
into play, is simply preposterous. 

This position is further justified by those recent 
investigations into the functions and structure of the 
brain, which show that its various parts correspond 
closely, and perhaps exclusively, to the activity of the 
different muscles and the impressions made upon each 
of the senses. Every muscle has its own special cen- 
tre in the brain, as may be seen at length in works 
like "The Soul of Man," by Dr. Carus, and "The 
Principles of Psychology," by Professor James. The 
brain has plainly been developed mainly under the in- 
fluence of muscular activity, and scarcely at all under 
that of literary culture. Its structure confirms what 
Maudsley says of the muscles, namely, that "Their ac- 
tions are essential elements in our mental operations. 
The superiority of the human over the animal mind 
seems to be essentially connected with the great vari- 
ety of muscular action of which man is capable." How 
much can be done for the brain by training the mus- 
cles was shown by an experiment in the Elmira Re- 
formatory, where this agency alone was found suffi- 

cient to enable convicts who had become stationary in 
the lowest grade of school-work, and who seemed "in- 
capable of prolonged mental efforts," to rise to the 
first grade in the school. We are told that their faces 
became much brighter and more intelligent than be- 
fore, and that "The stride in mental and moral devel- 
opment was almost beyond belief." (See "Annual 
Report of Managers," January, 1887, and Popular Sci- 
ence Alonthly, for July, i88g, Vol. XXXV, pp. 338-340.) 

The method of education originally followed by 
our race, and still recorded in the structure of our 
brains, is precisely that which is found sufficient to 
develop the mind of the child before he goes to school. 
He goes there because he needs further development 
of mind and brain. To try to give them solely through 
literary culture, is no wiser than it would be to try to 
make a tree grow rapidly and symmetrically by water- 
ing and manuring the roots in only one little spot. 

Our present system of education is not to be con- 
demned as a failure ; but many of the successful pu- 
pils get a great deal of muscular training outside of 
the school-room ; those who get none are apt to fall 
into narrowly introspective or retrospective habits of 
thought; and the thinkers who have done most to 
mould public opinion in recent j'ears, have brains 
which have presided for many years over the delicate 
manipulations necessary for scientific investigation. 
A muscular movement which is made consciously and 
deliberately is much more beneficial intellectually than 
one which takes place automatically. The latter can 
make a good workman, but the thinker is best devel- 
oped by those efforts which require most thought. A 
painter who was asked how he mixed his colors, an- 
swered, "with brains"; and pupils who are taught 
sewing, cooking, wood-carving, Swedish gymnastics, 
or modelling in clay by an instructor who takes care 
to keep their minds as active as their muscles, are do- 
ing at least as much to develop their brains as if they 
were committing spelling-lessons to memory, or even 
translating Greek. Emerson was right in urging "the 
claims of manual labor as a part of the education of 
every young man," and declaring that "We must have 
a basis for our higher accomplishments in the work of 
our hands. " 

I am not recommending that this trade or that be 
taught in our public schools and colleges, but only 
that their course be made broad enough to develop 
the brain to the greatest possible fitness for any kind 
of work. A liberal education does not consist in 
preparation merely for mechanical work, or merely for 
literary life either. That education is most liberal 
which is developing the brain for the widest range of 
work by using the widest range of agencies ; and 
muscular training ought not to be left out. 




by max dessoir. 


Spiritualism is jugglery ! This is a statement we 
often hear from uninformed people, and some enthusi- 
asts give themselves great trouble to prove the fact 
by " antispiritualistic demonstrations." But the in- 
aptness of the comparison is evident from the fact that 
the number of believers in the new teachings is con- 
stantly increasing, and also that in spite of exposures 
and explanations, many eminent scholars still espouse 
the cause of mediumistic facts. The chief reason of 
this seems to be the following. In our scientific age 
neither science nor religion offers to the masses a suffi- 
ciently clear explanation of the problem of existence, 
while a metaphysical necessity still prohibits thought- 
ful minds from entering the barren waste of material- 
ism. Now spiritualism enters the lists and says : I 
will show you that there /s a life after death. Is it 
surprising that such an experimental ethics should find 
a loud echo in inquiring hearts, or that a social move- 
ment should arise whose germs have existed in all 
ages and among all people ? 

Yet against such tendencies science is entirely 
powerless. No argument of reason will convince one 
who has taken spiritualism to heart, as our judgment 
is always subordinate to our feelings and desires. It 
is therefore a vain task to pour a few drops of water 
on the glowing coals of a psychical epidemic. 

But beside the fanatics of spiritualism are many 
who regard it their duty to test with unbiassed minds 
the remarkable reports and to investigate the phe- 
nomena of spiritualism, or at least take a certain ex- 
ternal interest in the matter. For these and these 
only, are the following remarks intended, as a kind of 
application of our former observations. 

Our knowledge of mediumistic performances has 
been obtained almost without exception, from written 
reports. In other words : we have never learned what 
has occurred at any time, but only what other persons 
believe has occurred. Between these two, as we have 
seen, there is a great difference. A person sees an 
orange vanish in the air without being able to explain 
the miracle, he imagines he has tested eight rings 
when he has really had only two in his hand, he thinks 
he has drawn a card at will when it was thrust into his 
fingers, he believes he is holding fast an object which 
is really somewhere else, — and if he afterwards de- 
scribes to a third person these tricks, they are naturally 
pronounced incredible. It must therefore be regarded 
as a piece of rare naivete if a reporter asserts that in 
the description of his subjective conclusions he is giving 
the exact objective processes. Davey's experiments 
furnish a striking proof of this. This gentleman, a 

member of the London Society for I'sychical Research, 
and an amateur prestidigitateur, attained by continu- 
ous practice, such great facility in the so-called " slate 
writing," that he could give exhibitions before num- 
bers of persons with success. He never told his guests 
that his performances were accomplished by the aid 
of spirits, or by sleight-of-hand, but each was left to 
think as he saw fit. At the close of the scaiiee, to which 
no admission fee was charged, Mr. Davey requested 
all present to communicate to him on the following 
day in writing what they had observed. He then pub- 
lished the letters received, and their character is so 
exuberant that one might really believe superior pow- 
ers were involved. " Writing upon slates locked and 
carefully guarded by witnesses — writing upon slates 
held by the witnesses firmly against the under surface 
of the table — writing upon slates held by the witnesses 
above the table — answers to questions written secretly 
in locked slates — correct quotations appearing on 
guarded slates from books chosen by the witnesses at 
random, and sometimes mentally, the books not touched 
by the ' medium ' ; messages in languages unknown 
to the 'medium,' including a message in German, for 
which only a mental request had been made, and a 
letter in Japanese in a double slate locked and sealed 
by the witness, etc. And yet, though 'autographic' 
fragments of pencil were ' heard ' weaving mysterious 
messages between and under and over slates, and frag- 
ments of chalk were seen moving about under a tum- 
bler placed above the table in full view, none of the 
sitters witnessed that best phenomenon, Mr. Davey 
luriting. " 

The sources of error through which such strange 
reports arise, maybe arranged in four groups. First, 
the observer interpolates a fact which did not happen, 
but which he is led to believe has happened ; thus, he 
imagines he has examined the slate when as a fact he 
never has. Second, he confuses two similar ideas ; he 
thinks he has carefully examined the slate, when in 
reality he has only done so hastily, or in ignorance of 
the point at issue. Third, the witness changes the order 
of events a little in consequence of a very natural de- 
ception of memory ; he believes he tested the slate 
later than he actually did. Fourth and last, he passes 
over certain details which were purposely described to 
him as insignificant ; he does not notice that the " me- 
dium " asks him to close a window, and that the trick 
is thus rendered possible. Everything cannot be re- 
tained, much less written. How difficult it is to put 
in writing in a form admitting of no criticism even an 
every-day occurrence ! And how much more difficult 
is it to describe an event which partakes of the char- 
acter of the inexplicable, and which by reason of in- 
terruptions and incidents, renders continuous observa- 
tion almost impossible. 



Add to this that most people visit a spiritualistic 
seance, expecting something marvellous. Mr. Davey 
has experimentally shown that of equally capable ob- 
servers, those who know that sleight-of-hand is con- 
cerned, are in a much better condition to understand 
the modus operandi than others. It is evident that in- 
tense expectation, the charm of mystery, the rude 
playing upon the holiest affairs of the heart (through 
messages from departed relatives) must greatly excite 
the nerves and dull the vision. Moreover, the medium 
makes a special point of leaving in doubt the interpre- 
tation of what is seen and heard, and this psychic state 
of the spectator accounts for many otherwise inex- 
plicable occurrences. The slightest noise becomes a 
loud knock, every light-reflection a ghost, and every 
accidental touch a manifestation from a higher sphere. 
The observer overlooks, on the one hand, the natural, 
physical explanation, and, on the other hand, creates a 
miracle out of nothing ; he imparts his excitement to 
others, and is in turn influenced by them. The form 
in which a disinterested spectator sees the concealed 
figure of the medium, is regarded by others as the true 
image of persons entirely unlike when living. An Amer- 
ican naturalist declares that he has heard the same 
puppet successively addressed as "grandmother," 
"my sweet little Betty," " Papa," and "little Rob." 
Every one sees what he expects to see, and what most 
closely touches his interest. Create a belief and the 
facts will create themselves. 

If an object suddenly disappears or changes its 
place, the spiritualist sees in it an evidence of super- 
human power, just like the Papuan, who, knowing 
nothing of powder, imagines a spirit behind every 
cannon-ball ; he lacks a certain knowledge, without 
which it is impossible to form a true judgment. A 
sound mind alone does not render one competent to 
judge of the safety of fastenings ; only a man practised 
in the mechanism of knots and familiar with the vari- 
ous modes of tying can claim any competency on this 
point. To decide whether a conclusion is true, a cer- 
tain technical knowledge is necessary. Most people 
imagine that a person entirely unprepared can step 
into a spiritualistic seance and form a conclusive opin- 
ion as to the presence or lack of prestidigitation ; but 
such an idea is as childish as to suppose that a lay- 
man could decide the genuineness of a seal of the 
Middle Ages, or the nature of a nerve-affection. I 
will illustrate. The juggler often employs the artifice 
of making a process prominent by referring it to a 
foreign cause. In the trick of causing a watch to 
strike at will, a little instrument concealed in the vest- 
pocket makes the sound, and the manipulation of the 
watch is only for show. One who does not know this 
would hardly guess that Monck and Home's harmonica, 
played by invisible hands, was to be explained in the 

same manner. A performance of Dr. Monck was to 
place a musical clock on a table, cover it with a cigar- 
box, and cause it to play or be silent at will. General 
explanation, "spirits." In reality the sound came 
from a small music-box, concealed in the performer's 
wide trousers, above the knee, and put in motion by 
pressing against the table. Here again the old psycho- 
logical rule is verified : the simpler the trick, the more 
difficult it is to discover. 

One great advantage a deceiving medium has is 
the fact that he is allowed to fix his own conditions of 
success, and, if it comes to the worst, can put the 
blame of failure upon the spectators, or the spirits. 
Semi-darkness is also advantageous, because it is 
"positive," that is, one can never see where something 
is in process of development, or what else is effected 
there. Mrs. Sidgwick, the wife of the well-known 
Cambridge professor of philosophy, and president 
of the Society for Psychical Research, has set forth 
five grounds for suspicion against Slade's perform- 
ances : his efforts to divert attention ; his position, 
which enabled him always to operate with his right 
hand upon the table ; the vague character of the com- 
munications ; the limiting of the number of spectators 
to two or three ; and their arrangement, which pre- 
cluded every possibility of looking under the table. 
She might have added, that according to the observa- 
tions of the Seybert commission, Slade and other me- 
diums, with true sleight-of-hand cunning, executed 
their tricks without announcing beforehand what was 
to be done. 

But we must admit that a feto tricks, such as those 
of Professor Crookes with Home, concerning the pos- 
sibility of setting inanimate objects in motion without 
touching them, appear to lie entirely outside the sphere 
of jugglery. And so, personally, I must close with 
this confession, doubtless unexpected to many read- 
ers, that I feel unable to explain a certain small por- 
tion of spiritualistic manifestations by means of the 
psychology of jugglery. I do not mean that these cannot 
be traced back to deceptive manipulation, or at least 
to the employment of known means ; I only frankly 
and honestly admit, that up to the present time such 
a method of explanation has not been found. 



We are born into the world as living, feeling, and 
thinking beings. We live for a while and then we die. 

And what is our life ? We toil, we suffer, we hope, 
we aspire, we work. Our joys are fleeting and many 
of them leave behind them the lees of regret and disap- 
pointment. Only a few hopes are realised, only some 
aspirations are fulfilled, and only a part of our efforts 
is crowned with success. 



Thus our life appears as a transient phenomenon, 
narrow in its field, short in its span of years, and lim- 
ited in its power of achievement. 

What shall be our aim and purpose? 

Shall we look for satisfaction in the little gratifica- 
tions that come from the pleasures of life? And is 
there no higher object than to live and be merry and 
pass away as though we had never been. 

We an.xiously look for support in tribulations, for 
comfort in afflictions, and for guidance in the vicissi- 
tudes of life. And the assistance that we find is our 

How can we acquire information concerning our- 
selves and the world in which we live ? How shall we 
find a religion ? 

Information can be had only through inquiry. We 
have to prove all things and hold fast that which is 
good. Saj's Jesus of Nazareth : "Seek and ye shall 

The methods b}' which we try to find a religion to 
support and guide us must be the same as those that 
we employ in other fields of life and which are com- 
prehended under the name of science. In this sense 
we say, the religion we seek is the religion of science. 


What is religion ? 

Every religion is, or should be, a conviction that 
regulates man's conduct, affords comfort in affliction, 
and consecrates all the purposes of life. 

What is science ? 

Science is the methodical search for truth ; and 
truth is a correct, complete, invariable, and compre- 
hensive statement of facts. 

What is the religion of science ? 

The religion of science is that religion wherein 
man aspires to find the truth by the most reliable and 
truly scientific methods. 

The religion of science recognises the authority of 
truth, scientifically proved, as ultimate. It does not 
rely on human authority, even though that authority 
pretends to have special revelations from some super- 
natural source. 

The religion of science accepts no special revela- 
tions, yet it recognises certain principles. It has no 
creed or dogma, 5et it has a clearly defined faith. It 
does not prescribe peculiar ceremonies or rituals, yet 
it propounds definite doctrines and insists on a rigor- 
ous ethical code. 

What are the principles of the religion of science? 
First, to inquire after truth. 
Second, to accept the truth. 
Third, to reject what is untrue. 

Fourth, to trust in truth. 
And fifth, to live the truth. 

Is there a difference in principle between religious 
and scientific truth ? 

No, there is none ! 

There is a holiness about science which is rarely 
appreciated either by priests or by scientists. Scien- 
tific truth is not profane, it is sacred. 

There are not two antagonistic truths, one religious 
the other scientific. There is but one truth, which is 
to be discovered by scientific methods and applied in 
our religious life. 

Truth is one, and the recognition of truth is the 
basis of all genuine religion. 

What are creeds and dogmas ? 

Creeds and dogmas are such religious doctrines as 
are propounded without proof, and the acceptance of 
which is demanded even though they may appear ab- 
surd before the tribunal of science. 

The principles of the religion of science admit of 
no creeds, yet the religion of science has a faith. 

What is the faith of the religion of science? 

The faith of the religion of science is its trust in 

The difference between faith and creed is this : 
creed is a mere belief, faith is a moral attitude. Faith in 
creeds is the determination to be satisfied with unwar- 
ranted or unproved statements. The faith of the re- 
ligion of science is the conviction that truth can be 
found, and that truth is the sole redeemer. 

There are religious teachers who expressly forbid 
any investigation of their religious dogmas, and in- 
sist that rational inquiry shall not be tolerated in mat- 
ters of faith. Their faith is called blind faith. 

The religion of science rejects blind faith as irre- 
ligious and immoral, and preaches that it is our duty 
to inquire into all the questions that arise in life. 

The religion of science is not a religion of indiffer- 
ence ; it does not proclaim that kind of toleration which 
allows every man to believe and act as he pleases. On 
the contrary, it proclaims most positive and stern doc- 

Religious indifference, as fashionable now as it has 
ever been in certain circles, is detestable to any one 
who is serious about truth. 

Let us have honest belief or honest unbelief, and 
abandon that unconcerned apathy of a half-hearted re- 

He that is the first and is the last has said : 

"I know thy works that thou art neither cold nor 
hot. I would that thou wert cold or hot. So then, 
because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, 
I will spue thee out of my mouth." 



What the Roman church claims to be, the religion 
of science is. The religion of science is the catholic 
and orthodox religion. 

We do not say that the truth as we know it now, 
is perfect and complete. Not at all. We know com- 
paratively little, and the world is inexhaustible in prob- 
lems. But we do know that truth can be attained step 
by step. Inquiry into truth is not only a scientific 
necessity, it is also a religious duty, and no pious de- 
votion is of the right kind unless it be accompanied by 
the spirit of research. 

While the religion of science rejects dogmas it is 
not without doctrines ; its faith is not without sub- 

What is the source of the doctrines of its faith? 

The doctrines of the religion of science are the re- 
sult of experience, not of one man only, but of the 
whole race. 

They have to be proved and are always liable to 
critical revision. 

What does the religion of science teach regarding 
rituals and ceremonies? 

The religious life of the established religions con- 
sists to a great extent in the use of sacraments, cere- 
monies, and rituals, symbols instituted to convey in 
allegorical form religious doctrines, and to express by 
visible signs and outward forms the invisible spiritual 
relations between men and God. Baptism, confession, 
the holy communion, matrimony, are such rituals. 
The religion of science does not deny that appropriate 
forms are needed to express in a worthy and adequate 
way those transactions which are of a religious nature. 
Ceremonies areone way of consecrating life and the most 
important events of life. Yet the symbols must ade- 
quately express the ideas, and the ideas must be true. 

The religion of science attaches no intrinsic value 
to symbols themselves, but only to their meanings. 
The symbols must not be conceived as the Indian con- 
ceives the spell of the medicine-man. They are mean- 
ingless and inefficient aside from the meaning that 
men put into them. There is' no magic power in them. 
The religion of science has no objection to ceremonies, 
but it does not prescribe special and peculiar forms as 
essential to religion, or as indispensable conditions of 

What are the doctrines of the religion of science ? 

(i) The religion of science propounds as one of its 
main doctrines that every act has its unavoidable con- 
sequences, good or evil, according to the nature of the 
act. (2) The religion of science teaches that the moral 
commandments in which almost all the established 
religions agree are sound. (3) That which is good and 
that which is evil must be found out by scientific in- 

vestigation. (4) The religion of science accepts the 
verdicts of science. 

This does not mean that the opinion of every scien- 
tist is to be accepted as science, but only those state- 
ments which are proved by rational arguments and can 
be verified by experience, or, if possible, also by ex- 

What is the place of scientists in the religion of 

Scientists, as seekers of truth, are prophets of the 
religion of science. 

Prophets and priests have authority in the measure 
in which they represent the authority of moral conduct. 
They have no authority of themselves. Thus, to the 
faithful believer no amount of error or fraud in prophets 
and priests will overthrow their trust in religion. 

The same is true of Science. 

Scientists have authority in such measure as they 
have investigated, found, and proved the truth. They 
have no authority of themselves. 

Scientists are subject to error, yet no amount of error 
can overthrow science and the authority of science. 

The religion of science is based upon the authority 
of science, not of scientists, and science is not only 
physics or the so-called natural sciences, but it in- 
cludes also sociology and ethics. Scientists as prophets 
of truth are indispensable helpmates of the preachers 
of morality. Yet scientists and preachers are mortal 
like other human beings, and both of them are liable 
to error. 

As priests are frequently found wanting in religious 
virtues, so scientific professors are often lacking in the 
ethics of science. 

Scientists object to popes ; but how many of them 
revere their own persons as infallible vicars of truth ! 
And how arrogant as a rule, how obstinate and per- 
vicacious is the tenor of their disputes ! What stub- 
born sticklers are they for trifles ! How great is their 
vanity! Happily, there are exceptions. Yet even if 
there were no exceptions, the authority of science 
would stand in spite of all the shortcomings of scien- 

It is to be conceded that scientific men are always 
at variance among themselves concerning truths to be 
discovered. This, however, does not contradict the 
fact that the truth can be found and clearly stated. 
Some questions have been settled for good, others are 
still open. The former are to be regarded as scientific 
truths. There are such as will be agreed upon by all 
those who take the trouble to study the subject care- 
fully. The open questions only are the objects of con- 
tention among the searchers for truth, and their very 
disagreement is a most important means for the dis- 
covery of truth. 



What is our relation to truth ? 

Truth is a correct statement of facts and the laws 
of its being ; it describes a power independent of us. 

Whether or not truth will be such as we desire it 
to be, is not the question. We cannot fashion or alter 
it. Being unalterable, we can only accept it and regu- 
late our life accordingly. There is no choice left 
for us. 

There is no reason, however, to be timid when 
finding ourselves at the mercy of a power beyond 
our control. We have developed into thinking, feel- 
ing, and aspiring beings, and our rational nature, 
which appears in its fullest efflorescence in science, 
enables us to make firm and certain steps. We can 
combat the evils of life, and better conquer them, 
the deeper and greater our insight is into truth. 
The ver}' fact of our existence, such as it is, and the 
practical importance of truth, inspires us with confi- 
dence in that All-being, in which and through which 
we have originated, and the laws of whose nature are 
beyond our control. We have no choice left but to 

trust in truth, and we have also good reasons to do so. 

* * 

It is true that we are surrounded by mysteries, 
temptations, and aftlictions. Yet these conditions of 
our life urge us the more seriously to search for the 
truth, lest we go astray and become the victims of our 
errors. There is certainly no other choice left for us 
than to take reality as it is, to understand it, and to 
act in concord with its laws. We cannot make the 
truth; we cannot fashion it at our pleasure; we can 
only accept it. But blessed is he who trusts in the 
truth, who hearkens to its behests, and leads a life in 
which obedience to truth is exemplified. 


I DO NOT know whether there is any truth in it or not ; I have 
nothing but the newspapers for it, but the story is that the Mo- 
hammedan Arabs at the World's Fair have adopted Christian ways 
already, and made themselves conspicuous by getting drunk. The 
report appears to be clear and circumstantial enough, but yet I 
doubt the truth of it although it specifically describes " a crowd of 
swarthy Egyptians imbibing Chicago fire-water and wearing misfit 
turbans to excess on down town streets." Further, it says that 
" in this hilarious party were several Mustafas, Mohammeds, and 
Ahmeds, and they went up against copper bottomed whisky with 
oriental assiduity and munificence." Still, I do not believe the 
story ; I prefer to think that the " hilarious party " was composed 
of counterfeit Mohammedans, turbaned Englishmen, browned 
and dressed up to represent the natural and legitimate population 
of a " street in Cairo, " which will be on exhibition at Midway 
Plaisance during the coming summer, and to which World's Fair 
visitors can obtain admittance by the payment of a small fee. At 
the Paris Exposition I saw a lot of Egyptians exhibiting a "street 
in Cairo " or some other Egyptian scene, and I was told that they 
were discharged British soldiers. Englishmen, Irishmen, and 
Scotchmen who had picked up some knowledge of oriental speech 
and customs together with a little sunburn during their army ser- 
vice in India and elsewhere. I wonder if these Mustafas, Mo- 

hammeds, and Ahmeds are the same fellows. Their friendship for 
"copper bottomed whisky" is very suspicious as it gives them 
the appearance of mercenary impostors, and I fear they are no 
true sons of the prophet. 

* * 

Any man with a heart in him, and a soul sensitive to pain, 
will sympathise with Governor Altgeld in his protest against the 
"appropriate ceremonies" appointed for the dedication of the 
Illinois building at the great World's Fair. The Governor prob- 
ably thinks that there is no more sense in having the edifice " ded- 
icated " than in having it consecrated, but he says nothing about 
that, and merely complains of the "weak, washy, everlasting 
flood " of talk provided for the occasion. First on the programme 
is " Prayer," which can hardly be less than fifteen minutes long 
considering the importance of the festival ; and then comes "the 
formal turning over of the building " to the Governor by the proper 
officer, with a speech from north to south about the length of Illi- 
nois. The stately pavilion having been " turned over," the Gov- 
ernor makes a speech and " hands the building over to the board, I 
after which comes the "Dedicatory Address" by an orator from 
Springfield. This gentleman coming a long distance will make a 
long speech, as also will the orator from Bloomington who is ap- 
pointed to deliver a comprehensive lecture on "Illinois." This 
intellectual treat is to be followed by another address by somebody 
on that new and interesting subject " The Columbian Exposition,' 
and then, to make the torment unendurable they have actually put 
in the prospectus a speech on " Chicago " by Carter Harrison. It 
is that last bit of elocution that has driven the Governor into re- 
bellion, and he hurls defiance at the committee in these words : 

" I will approve almost any programme that your board may see proper to 
arrange for that occasion, but it seems to me that the programme has too fright- 
fully much oratory on it. It maybe the right thing to have a lot of useless 
oratory on such an occasion, but as it is usually found to be tiresome to most 
everybody I would suggest getting along with as little of it as possible, and if 
there must be so many speeches as I notice on the programme, then I would 
suggest that the board limit the time of each and make it very short." 

There is a good deal of self-interest in Governor Altgeld's ob- 
jection to the oratory prepared for dedication day, and he is to be 
excused for that, because the rest of the congregation can slip out 
when they have had enough of it, but he must remain until the 
end. As an honored guest of the occasion, he will have a seat on 
the platform, and there he is a prisoner. He cannot escape with- 
out making a scene inconsistent with his dignity. For the general 
audience the anticipated oratory will be " tiresome " only, but for 
him it will be "too frightfully much"; and the alternative by 
which he seeks to "limit the time " of the speakers is an impossi- 
ble relief. For instance, how is a man to give a ten-minutes lec- 
ture on "Illinois," and describe its aptitudes and resources, its 
history, geography, geology, mineralogy, and botany, its prairies 
and its timber, its railroads, lakes, and rivers, its agriculture, and 
its commerce, to say nothing of its infinite possibilities ? Who is to 
limit the time of Mr. Harrison, when that grandiloquent magis- 
trate mounts his favorite hobby, "Chicago"? Suppose the limit is 
fixed at one hour, and Mr. Harrison "raises the limit," what can 
the governor do ? Mr. Harrison, being mayor of the city, is master 
of the situation, because if the chairman should call upon the po- 
lice to suppress the orator, they would obey the mayor and sup- 
press the chairman. More than that, Mr. Harrison can station 
policemen at all the doors and windows, with orders to arrest any 
unfortunate visitor who may try to ma'Ke his escape from the 
building. There is only one resource remaining to "His Excel- 
lency," and that is to order out the militia beforehand, and have a 
couple of regiments ready to call time on the speakers whenever 
their "tiresome" oratory becomes "too frightfully much." 

v.- * 

The naval review at New York and the lawsuit between Great 
Britain and the United States now being tried at Paris, present a 



moral contrast, clear and distinct, as the difference between good 
and evil, for the points of comparison are the visible symbols of 
war on the one hand and peace on the other. The lesson of it 
will be the most religious and benevolent that humanity has 
learned in a hundred years. At the very moment when the guns 
of England and the guns of our own country have reached their 
maximum capacity for mischief, they become useless to those two 
nations as against each other, and their awful thunders are over- 
powered by the feeble speech of men, mere lawyers pleading on 
opposite sides the merits of an international dispute before an im- 
partial tribunal selected by the litigants themselves, and hearing 
the cause not in Washington or London, but in the neutral city of 
Paris. A few lawyers and judges are quietly doing the work of a 
hundred ships and a thousand guns. Between two of the most 
warlike nations in the world war ceases to be an argument, and 
their admirals and captains, when they meet in the harbor of New 
York to salute each other with' obsolete cannon, may say : 

" Farewell ! 
The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing life, 
The royal banner ; and all quality. 
Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war ! 
And O, you mortal engines, whose rude throats 
The immortal Jove's dread clamors counterfeit. 
Farewell ! Othello's occupation's gone ! " 

I see by the programme that every ship in the congregated 
fleets at New York will salute the flag of every other according to 
the number of guns that etiquette prescribes, " gun for gun "; then 
all of them together will salute the President of the United States, 
and the various admirals and commodores will salute themselves, 
until a cloud of sulphurous incense rises to the sky, a dread re- 
hearsal of what the reality might be if war were in the wind. To 
the participants and the multitudes of spectators, th'e "rude 
throats" of the artillery will roar mere compliments to the digni- 
taries and the flags, but I translate the speech of cannon accord- 
ing to my own judgment of its latent meaning, and above all their 
mutual flatteries I can hear from the unwilling lips of every gun a 
salute national and international to the court of peace and arbitra- 
tion over there in Paris. That calm and rational tribunal will 
settle the Behring Sea dispute without the aid of any artillery 
whatever, except what shots may happen to come from the "rude 
throats" of the lawyers on either side. M. M. Trumbull. 


Hume's Treatise of Morals ; and Selections from the Trea- 
tise OF the Passions. With an Introduction by James H. 
//)'j/('/, Ph.D. Boston : Ginn & Co. 1893. Pp.275. 
The ethical series which the Messrs. Ginn & Co., are now 
publishing is to consist of a number of small volumes demoted to 
the presentation of the leading systems of modern ethics, in selec- 
tions or extracts from modern works. The editor is Mr, E. Hershey 
Sneath of Y'ale University. Six volumes are already projected ; 
" Hobbes," by Prof. G. M. Duncan of Yale University; " Clarke," 
by President F. L. Patton of Princeton University ; " Locke," by 
the Editor; "Hume," the present volume; "Kant," by Prof. 
John Watson, Queens University. Canada ; and ' ' Hegel, " by Prof. 
J. Macbride Sterrett of Columbian University. The idea of the 
series, which is to supplement instruction in the history of ethics 
by the reading of such selections from the original works of the 
authors as give the basis of their systems, is an excellent one and 
should be imitated in all departments of science. The present 
volume by Dr. Hyslop is made up of the whole of Hume's original 
" Treatise of Morals," and of selections from his work on the pas- 
sions. It is supplied with a bibliography on Hume's works, bio- 
graphical, critical, and other references, a biographical sketch, 
and an introduction of moderate length ; it is to be hoped that the 
introductions to the other volumes of the series will not exceed the 

length of the present one ; long introductions are bad and interfere 
with the main object of such works as this. We are also glad to 
see that the book is not overloaded with editor's notes. Dr. Hyslop 
has done his work well, and readers should be glad that the essen- 
tial parts of Hume's ethical system can be obtained in this con- 
venient form. jiK-pn. 

Leitfaden der Botanik. By Dr. liic/iarj von Weiistein. Vienna: 
F. Tempsky. Leipsic : G. Freytag. 1891. Pp. 202. Price 
fl. 1.60. 

This little work is another in the series of text-books for high 
schools which we mentioned in The Monist, Vol. II. 617 and Vol. 
III. 322, in the review of Professor Mach's work on Physics, and 
Professor Graber's work on Zoology. 

This work is intended for European readers, and its descrip- 
tive or systematic parts would be of little value to the American 
student. As the fundamental types here studied are in minor re- 
gards different from those in Europe, its chief interest to American 
students and readers will lie in the conception and plan of the 
work, aich is founded on the most modern state of scientific 
botar Tho anatomy, morphology, and physiology of plants are 
treati,J in chapters distinct from the systematic part of the work. 
These parts are especially well handled. The last section of the 
book is on applied botany where domestic plants are treated. This 
is a new and very valuable feature of text-books, and gives the 
work in question a very practical direction. Two very pretty 
colored plates are added ti. the book, respectively reproducing, on 
a scale of one-half, edible and non-edible mushrooms. The cuts 
are excellently executed and the work a cheap one. fiKpK. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 

terms throughout the postal UNION: 

$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



WH.\T IS A LIBERAL EDUCATION ? F. M, Holland 3631 

Max Dessoir 3633 

CURRENT TOPICS : Degenerate Sons of the Prophet. 

Too Frightfully Much Oratory. Calling Time on the 

Speakers. Arbitration Instead of Guns. Gen. M, M. 

Trumbull 3G37 


The Open Court. 



No. 296. (Vol. VII.— 17.) 

CHICAGO, APRIL 27, 189^ 

J Two Dollars per Year. 
/ Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



In The Open Court for April 13th, Max Dessoir, 
writing on "The Ps3'chology of Legerdemain " shows 
that in the performance of certain tricks the conjurer 
by exciting intense expectation in the eager observers 
makes them psychological!}' see the results that they 
expect to see, although the supposed reality is merely 
an illusion imposed on them by the performer ; and 
thus the audience itself is compelled to assist in its 
own deception. Dr. Dessoir says, "That the concen- 
tration of the mind on a certain effect has that effect 
as its subjective result is no new fact to those conver- 
sant with hypnotism." In other words, a person by 
some voluntary or involuntary mental processes, hav- 
ing become familiar with certain causes sees purely 
imaginary consequences as logical realities, and they 
appear to him as bodily visible as a wagon or a ship. 

The hypnotic trick described by Dr. Dessoir is very 
often practised by crafty lawyers as a part of their pro- 
fessional business. The eye-witness of a certain action 
is brought by that process of mental concentration to 
falsely believe that he saw some of its collateral inci- 
dents, and at last with a confidence artificially made 
for him he swears to them without any scruple, doubt, 
or hesitation. I have seen this trick successfully per- 
formed a thousand times, and the following example 
will do for an illustration. 

Six or eight men being engaged in a rough-and- 
tumble saloon fight, Peter Fox was cut with a knife 
by somebody, and after the fight was over he said that 
Michael Ryan stabbed him. He could hardly have 
known who did it for the fighters were all huddled up 
together when the stabbing was done, but the next day 
a bloody knife was found behind a log not far from the 
saloon, and this knife was clearly shown to be the 
property of Ryan. He was thereupon indicted for the 
stabbing, but the prosecuting attorney wanted a wit- 
ness who saw Ryan hide the knife behind the log, and 
here is the way he got him. 

Among the spectators of the fight, although he did 
not know who did the stabbing, was a flighty and ex- 
citable fellow named Jemmy Shaw, and between the 

time of the indictment and the trial, the prosecuting 
attorney in frequent interviews with Jemmy, drilled 
him in the rehearsal of his testimony. In these inter- 
views the lawyer artfully concentrated the mind of 
Shaw on the missing link in the chain of evidence, the 
needed fact that Ryan hid the knife behind the log. 
Accordingly, pretending to be very anxious about the 
exact and genuine truth of the matter, he put a great 
many questions to Jemmy concerning what that wit- 
ness actually saw, and in every question he assumed 
as a fact what the witness did not see, the hiding of 
the knife by Ryan. For instance, Jemmy having told 
something that actually took place, a friendly cross- 
examination like this would follow : " Was that before 
or after Ryan hid the knife behind the log ? " " How 
long was it after the fight that Ryan went out and hid 
the knife behind the log?" " How long was it after 
Ryan hid the knife behind the log before he came liack 
into the saloon?" and forty similar questions all as- 
suming that Ryan hid the knife behind the log. At 
last this ingenious concentration of Jemmy's mind on 
a certain effect had that effect as its subjective result, 
and at the trial he swore that he saw Ryan put some- 
thing behind the log. 

Great causes, even trials involving life and death, 
have.- been determined by psychological tricks like 
those above described, and great battles have been 
won and lost by hallucinations equally metaphysical. 
Grant lost the battle of Shiloh on Sunday because 
being under the hypnotic delusion that his enemy would 
not attack him he was unprepared for battle. Beaure- 
gard failed to win the battle because he was metaphys- 
ically certain that the Union troops on Sunday after- 
noon had merely fallen back to their intrenchments 
and fortifications which it would be dangerous to at- 
tack, defences which had no existence except in his 
own imagination. He had concentrated his mind so 
long on those imaginary ramparts that as the "sub- 
jective result " he actually conjured into being the 
walls and trenches and guns. He saw them bodily ; 
in his nervous excitement they were sensible to "feel- 
ing as to sight," for in his official report of the battle 
he explains that he halted victory on Sunday afternoon 
and ordered his army to fall back because he dared 



not follow the enemy into his "works." And thus it 
is that imagination fools the intellect, and we see wea- 
sels and whales and camels in the clouds. 



Last evening a memorial service was held in Music 
Hall by the city of Boston, to honor the late Phillips 
Brooks. Since the death of Mr. Brooks I have read 
but one questioning criticism of him, and heard but 
one other. His picture is in many Boston homes and 
store-windows, and the articles and sermons about 
him have been numerous. With deference to this vol- 
ume of admiration let us consider what he was not. 

After Beecher died, Phillips Brooks possessed the 
attention of the American upper-class world and the 
admiration of the semi-cultivated, to the exclusion of 
any competitor. Talmage was heard by more mil- 
lions, but these millions read Bill Nye with kindred 
devotion and spiritual profit. Mr. Brooks really had 
the hearts of his following, they believed in and loved 
him, what he said signified deeply. 

His life-achievement consisted in obtaining this 
potent veneration. His life-failure consisted in doing 
so little with it when he had it, and the failure was far 
beyond the success. The period in which he was su- 
preme as preacher was one of the most critical of the 
century ; the class to which he spoke, the well-to-do, 
the ruling class, were decaying ; they needed to be 
led literally out of that intellectual wilderness in which 
they were, to a new moral country of fresh and fruitful 

To have tried this was worthy of a very great brain 
and character, the man who could have done it would 
have ranked with Washington, Wendell Phillips, and 
Lincoln. To have used the power he owned over the 
convictions of the sinning class to attempt this, was 
Phillips Brooks's regal opportunity. 

We cannot think that he failed to feel the claims 
of this course, his brain was too clear for that ; but it 
required a courage and size of soul which he did not 
possess. He must have sacrificed many friends by it, 
must have exchanged the serene life of an aristocratic 
prophet for the pick and blouse of the militant pioneer. 
He must have walked along the slippery brink of fail- 
ure and camped there cold nights, perhaps to the end 
of his life. He preferred not to. A more delicious 
thing was to stir the ecstatic eddyings of religious con- 
sciousness, to awaken the miniature whirlwinds of hu- 
mane emotion, vortices of charitable intention, to dis- 
course to sacred and satined admiration, rather than 
face frowns and doubt and defiance. 

He was the Daniel Webster of the pulpit. Ines- 
timable personal service he rendered to many — if life 
is to go on as it is, slavery unabolished. But he did 

not grapple with primary problems, did not side with 
the weak against the strong, temporised and broke no 

Hence I question if those whom he has influenced 
are not worse instead of better for him. They perhaps 
reason that if this "wise and good man" saw and felt 
no deeper and sterner duties than he beautifully ten- 
dered to them, there are no greater duties than these ; 
and their conversion to light and action may be long 
postponed by this loving, fallacious reverence. 

Let us grant that Phillips Brooks was a sweet and 
kindly force in his plane of life, amid the fellowship of 
the successful ; but let us not depart from truth nor 
anchor ourselves to average ideals, by calling him he- 
roic, original, or grand. 



What am I? Whence do I come, whither do I go, 
and what is the substance that constitutes my being? 

M3' fellow-beings appear to me, like all other ob- 
jects of my surroundings, as material bodies, which 
are in motion ; and so I appear to them and to myself. 
But the nature of my own self is different. I am a liv- 
ing and feeling being. My own self manifests itself in 
consciousness. I am aware of my own existence ; and 
the whole range of my existence in so far as I am di- 
rectly aware of it, is called the soul. 

What is the nature of our soul? 
Our soul consists of impulses, dispositions, and 
ideas. I am a living, willing, and thinking being. 

Impulses are tendencies to act, naturally called 
forth in irritable substance by all kinds of stimuli. 
Habits are acquired by the frequent repetition of im- 
pulses. Impulses grown strong by inveterate habits 
are called passions. 

Inherited habits constitute dispositions or propen- 
sities which awake to activity on the slightest provoca- 
tion. They form the foundation of the various func- 
tions of the organs of the organism, and also of the 
tenor of conscious soul-life. The latter is generally 
called temperament. 

Ideas are representations of things, or of qualities 
of things, or of relations among things. When ideas 
enter into the causation of action as the determinant 
element, they are called motor ideas or motives. 

The elementary impulses of our soul are not clearly 
and distinctly perceived. They mingle into one com- 
mon sensation, which is quite general and vague. 
Sometimes only by special disturbances do some of 
the elementary impulses rise into prominence, appear- 
ing as hunger or thirst or pain of some kind. 

The realm of the activity of our elementary im- 
pulses constitutes what we feel as our life. 



Every impulse is a tendency to move ; and in so 
far as impulses are called forth by stimuli which act 
upon the living substance, they are called " reactions." 

As soon as impulses become clearly conscious they 
are called will. Will, accordingly, is a very complex 
kind of impulse. Will is an impulse in which a clear 
conception of the result of the motion constitutes the 
main factor of the tendency to move. In other words, 
will is an impulse which has developed into a motor- 

How do ideas originate? , 

Ideas develop out of feelings. 

That which characterises the soul of thinking beings, 
is the significance which its feelings possess. Certain 
sensations are produced by certain stimuli, the same 
sensations always by the same stimuli ; and these pe- 
culiar forms of various feelings become indicators of the 
presence of the various conditions that cause them. 
Thus they acquire meaning, and meaning produces 
clearness. Meaning changes dim feelings into con- 

The origin of meaning in feelings is the birth of 

Sensations which take place inside the organism 
are, through habits and inherited dispositions, pro- 
jected to the outside, where experience has taught us 
to expect them. Sensations are signs, indicating ob- 
jective realities, and when through the mechanism of 
language sentient beings develop word-symbols, which 
are signs of signs, representing whole classes of reali- 
ties, they rise into the sphere of human existence. 

What is thought? What is rational thought ? What 
is reason ? 

The interaction which takes place between ideas 
is called thought. 

All sensations enter into relations with the mem- 
ories of former sensations ; and thus sentient beings 
naturally develop into thinking beings. Human thought 
which discovers and utilises the presence of universal 
features in reality is called rational thought; reason 
being the norm of correct thinking. 

The soul consists of many various impulses, but it 
possesses at the same time a peculiar unity. How 
are we to account for the unity of the soul ? 

A man can think incompatible ideas, but he cannot 
act according to them, at least not at the same time. 
He can, to be sure, successively obey motives that are 
self-contradictory, but he will have to stand the con- 
sequences ; so that a man will have to regret his ac- 
tions as soon as wiser and better ideas become dom- 
inant in his soul. 

The necessity of action imperatively imposes upon 
the soul a unity which would otherwise scarcely origi- 
nate. The whole organism has to act as a unity ; con- 

flicting impulses and contradictory ideas must come to 
an agreement. And thus the necessity of harmonious 
action exercises a wholesome and educating influence. 
It tests ideas in practical issues; it matures them by 
bringing incompatible motor-ideas into conflict, thus 
establishing consistency in the soul. 

If situations arise in which several various im- 
pulses and conflicting motor-ideas tend to be realised 
in action, a struggle will begin among them and con- 
tinue until the strongest one gains the upper hand. 
This strongest motive, then, is executed by the organ- 

The power of passions is all but irresistible in the 
savage, while rational ideas gradually gain in strength 
with the advance of civilisation. Long experience, 
inherited habits, and to a great extent, also, repeated 
regret for rash actions, accustom man to act only after 
sufficient and careful deliberation. 

The habit of suppressing passions until all conflict- 
ing motor-ideas have measured their forces against 
each other becomes easier and easier, and its exercise 
is called self-control. 

The character of a soul depends upon the impulses 
and motor-ideas that are dominant in it. They are 
the decisive elements which determine the actions of 
a man. 

The decision which is the final outcome of delib- 
eration is comparable to a motion carried in a legisla- 
tive body. It is like the majority vote adopting a plan 
upon the execution of which the whole body of voters 
is now resolved, and these resolutions of the soul are 
called the will of man. 

What is the name of the unity of man's soul? 

The idea which represents the organism as a whole 
is called the "I " or ego, and it is a matter of course 
that the I or ego always regards the final outcome of 
deliberations as its own resolutions. 

The ego, by itself, is an empty symbol. Its con- 
tents are those which the ego stands for, viz., the 
qualities of the whole soul; that is, of the impulses 
and motor-ideas of the personality which the ego rep- 

We say, "I have ideas"; but we ought to say, "I 
consist of ideas." My ideas are real parts of myself. 

The phrase, "I have an idea, "can only mean that 
this idea stands in connection with the ego-idea, rep- 
resenting the whole personality of myself. It is at the 
moment present in the focus of consciousness. 

The contents of the ego of a man, viz. , the constitu- 
ents of his personality, are changeable. He wills now 
this, now that, and his actions at different times are 
often very incompatible with each other. But there is 
a continuity in his acts which is recorded in a chain of 
memories called recollections, in all of which the act- 



ing person regards himself as a constant factor and is 
called by the same pronoun "I." The expression "I" 
being for a continuous series of acts the same in spite 
of many changes, produces the illusion that the acting 
person himself remains the same throughout. 

However, we know for certain that the acting per- 
son, our organism, and the ideas of which we consist, 
do by no means remain unchanged. In the same way 
that our surroundings change, so we ourselves, our 
thoughts and desires, our organism, and our very souls 
change. We call the rose-bush which blooms in June, 
and is a dry, thorny stick in December, the same rose- 
bush. We call our body the same body, although the 
materials of which it consists are comparable to a com- 
plex whirl of atoms, the unity of which consists in the 
preservation of its form, for new materials are con- 
stantly pouring in, while part of the old ones pass out. 
And finally, we call our spiritual self bj' the same name 
"I," viewing it as a unity so long as the continuit}' of 
its existence is preserved, although our ideas do not 
remain the same, either in strength or in their con- 
tents. The changes in our character at an advanced 
age may be comparatively slight, but there are, never- 
theless, changes, which are not less real because they 
remain unheeded. Our self being the measure of 
things, they appear to change when we change, and we 
seem to remain the same ; yet this unalterable same- 
ness of our self is a fiction. 

There is an error very prevalent that the ego-idea 
is the real soul. The existence of an ego-soul, how- 
ever, has been abandoned by science. Need we add 
that all those whose views and sentiments are closely 
intertwined with the conception of an ego-soul, look 
upon its surrender as a destruction of the very root 
of religion and of all religious hopes? 

What is the effect upon religion of surrendering the 
conception of an ego-soul ? 

Our conception of tlie nature of the human soul 
has been as thoroughly altered through the results of 
modern scientific research as our view of the universe 
since the times of Copernicus. Copernicus abandoned 
the geocentric, and psychology the egocentric stand- 
point; and future religious development will be in- 
fluenced in no less a degree by the latter than it has 
been by the former. 

New truths appear at first sight always appalling. 
They come to destroy the errors which we have ac- 
customed ourselves to cherish as truths. Thus the 
truth naturally appears to be destructive. But look at 
the truth closer, and you will find that it is after all 
better and greater and nobler than the most beautiful 
fiction woven of errors. 

Appalling, and destructive of the very foundations 
of our religious conceptions, as the surrender of the 

ego may seem at first sight, a closer acquaintance with 
the subject will show that the scientific solution of the 
problem of soul-life does not annihilate but elevates 
and purifies religion. It dispels the mystery of religious 
doctrines and preserves their ethical kernel. 

There is no metaphysical ego-soul, yet there is the 
real soul of our ideas and ideal aspirations, and the 
value of the latter is not less because the former has 
proved to be an error. 

All the religious enthusiasm which men have pro- 
fessed to have for their ego-souls, and of which they 
have proved the earnestness in deeds, expresses the 
natural sentiments for their real souls. 

Facts are often misinterpreted, and misinterpreted 
facts are rejected by many. We must reject the mis- 
interpretation and accept the facts. 

The welfare of our souls is the mission, or rather 
the ultimate object of life ; for what shall it profit a 
man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul ? 

How shall we value souls? 

The worth of a man does not consist in his titles, 
not in the honors he receives from his fellow-men, not 
in his possessions, not in his knowledge nor in his tal- 
ents, not in any of the externalities of his life, but in 
his soul ; and the soul of the poorest servant is not less 
than the soul of the wealthiest man, the most learned 
savant, or the most powerful monarch. Indeed, the 
soul in the bosom of the serf that is of the sterling 
quality of an Epictetus is, without qualification, supe- 
rior to the soul of a Nero, in spite of the dazzling 
talents, which made this imperial monster, in the be- 
ginning of his reign, appear as a genius on the throne. 

We do not say that worldly posses-ions are worth- 
less, nor do we consider knowledge and talents as an 
indifferent adjunct ; on the contrary, all the gifts and 
blessings of life possess their values, for they are in- 
strumental, and almost all of them are, in a greater 
or less degree, indispensable for the furthering and 
quickening of the life of the soul. 

Yet the worth of a soul depends first of all upon 
the moral stamina of a man's cliaracter, and the no- 
bility of the sentiments that dominate his being. 


Is there any authority for conduct? How do we 
know of it, and what is its nature? 

Truth is a correct statement of facts ; not of single 
facts, but of facts in their connection with the totality 
of other facts, and, finally, with all facts, so that we 
can see the regularities that obtain as well in one as in 
other cases ; or, popularly speaking, that we can under- 
stand their why and wherefore. 

Truth, accordingly, is a description of existence un- 
der the aspect of eternity {sufi specie le/ernita/is). We 
have to view facts so as to discover in them that which 



is permanent. We must dig down to that which is 
immutable and everlasting, to that which will be the 
same in the present instance as in any other instance, 
so as to behold in facts the law of their being. We 
can make or mar almost all objects with which in our 
experience we come in contact ; but that peculiar fea- 
ture of facts which we describe in laws, the everlasting, 
the immutable and eternal, that which will be the same 
in the same conditions, is beyond our control. We 
cannot alter or fashion it. It is as it is, and we have 
to mind it in all things which we do or aspire for. 

These wonderful features of facts, which we call 
laws, have shaped the world and man, and the moral 
ideals of man. They are shaping the fate of the uni- 
verse still, and will continue to shape it for all time to 
come. They are the everlasting in nature, and if, in 
a figurative sense, we personify nature, we can speak 
of nature's laws as that which constitutes her char- 

When reflecting on this peculiar character of real- 
ity, we are overawed by its grandeur, but the most 
wonderful thing about it is that the laws of nature are 
ultimately not mystical, but easily intelligible. 

Science teaches us, step by step, that all laws form 
a harmonious system of laws. They are all corollaries 
of an all-pervading regularity. We have to regard all 
s]')ecial laws as applications of general laws and learn 
thus why they must be such as they are and cannot be 

If science were, or could be perfected to omnis- 
cience, the laws of being, we have no reason to doubt, 
would be pellucid as glass, and even in their most 
complicated instances as obviously self-evident as 2 x 
2^4, and the all pervading plan would appear strik- 
ingly simple. 

Yet how prodigious and portentous are the results 
of this intrinsic harmony ! What strict uniformity and 
what astonishing variety ! What rigidity of law, and 
yet what a free play for all possible variations ! A 
stringent and irrefragable order in constantly changing 
conditions ! 

The everlasting in existence is the ultimate author- 
ity for our conduct, and, as such, it has, in the lan- 
guage of religion, been called by the name of God. 

The evolution of social beings takes place as all 
otlier events of nature according to law, and this law 
is briefly called the moral law of nature. The moral 
law is as stern, implacable, and irrefragable as any 
other law. Wherever it is heeded it will bring bless- 
ings ; wherever it is disobeyed it will be followed by 

All religious commands are human formulas de- 
signed to inform people how to live in accord with 
the moral law. Not the authority of religious com- 
mands, but that of the moral law, is ultimate. Reli- 

gious commands derive their justification from the 
moral law of nature. They are right if they are in 
agreement with it, otherwise they are wrong. 

The authority for conduct is a reality, the existence 
of which can be established by scientific investigation. 
The moral law of nature is as undeniable as the exist- 
ence of gravitation and as the reliabilt)' of mathematics. 

What has science to say of God ? 

* * 

Science does not speak of God, and need not speak 
of God, because it employs another terminology than 
religion. Moreover, it does not search for the eternal 
of nature in its totality, but in its various and particu- 
lar manifestations only, and expresses abstractly the 
results ofGits investigations in formulas called natural 

While science does not speak of God, it teaches 
God ; for every law of nature is a part of God's being. 
Every law of nature is in its sphere an authority for 
conduct ; it is a power which can be adapted to our 
wants only when we adapt ourselves to it. It is inde- 
pendent of our wishes and cannot be infringed upon 
with impunit}'. 

All the great religions of the world which (with the 

sole exception of Buddhism) have called the ultimate 

authority for conduct "God," have represented him in 

the image of man. Religious Theism is almost without 

exception anthropomorphic. 


The various views of God are briefly denoted by 
the following terms : 

Theism, or the belief, without any qualification, that 
God, whatever be his nature, exists. 

Atheism, or the view that rejects any conception 
of God. 

Polytheism, or the belief in many gods. 

Monotheism, or the belief that there is but one God. 

Anthropotheism, or the belief that God is a personal 
being like man. 

Pantheism, or the belief that identifies the All with 

Deism, or the view adopted by the Freethinkers of 
the eighteenth century, who rejected miracles, but held 
that God is a personal being, the Creator and legislator 
of the universe. 

Entheism, or the view that regards God as insepar- 
able from the world. He is the eternal in nature. 

Which conception of God is adopted by the religion 
of science ? 

The religion of science is not Atheistic, but The- 

Monotheism, as it is commonly held, is the belief 
in a single God. In this sense monotheism is actually 
a polytheism that has reduced its gods to one in num- 
ber. Yet God is neither one single individual God no 



many Gods. Number does not apply to him. God is 
one not in the sense that there is one kind of Godhood. 
There is not one God-being ; but there is divinity. 
God is one in the same sense that there is but one rea- 
son and but one truth. 

Tlie rehgion of science rejects Anthropotheism and 
also Deism, which is only a peculiar kind of Anthropo- 

The God of the religion of science is not a person. 
However, he is not less than a person, but infinitely more 
than a person. The authority for conduct which the 
rehgion of science teaches is divine and holy. We 
should neither call God personal nor impersonal, but 

The religion of science does not accept Pantheism. 
It does not regard nature and all parts of nature or 
all aspects of nature as identical with God. The eter- 
nal of nature only is God. Those features alone are 
divine which serve us as authority for conduct. We 
do not look up with reverence to the forces of nature 
which we utilise, but only to that power which moulds 
worlds, which fashions our being, and which moves 
onward in the progress of evolution. 

This view we call Entheism. 


"The old flag is down. The stars and stripes no longer wave 
over the Sandwich Islands. Flag of the monarchy goes up as 
' Old Glory ' is hauled to the ground." That burst of bathos is 
copied from the headlines of a pirtisan journal, announcing to its 
readers with affected grief that the President of the United States 
bad ordered the American flag to be lowered from the government 
building at Honolulu, where for two months it had exercised a 
filibuster sort of authority, which nobjdy pretends was legal either 
in morals or in politics. The raising of it was the blunder of our 
own ministers, which could only be corrected by lowering the flag 
ourselves. It was in a false position, from which nobody but the 
President could release it. He has courageously done so, and yet 
this rescue of the banner is deplored as a national catastrophe and 
a sin to be expiated in a flood of theatrical tears. An achievement 
intended to be heroic, became ludicrous through the perversity of 
actors who balked their parts and stubbornly refused to go on to 
the stage at all. England and Germany were to "protest" and 
"demand," and move their war-ships up to Honolulu, but they 
did not. Had they kindly played the parts assigned them, they 
would have given dignity to our flag, because it would then be 
floating over the Sandwich Islands in defiance of those powerful 
and warlike nations; but when they most ungenerously cared 
nothing about it and paid no attention to it, the flag had nobody to 
swagger over but a few Kanakas, Coolies, and Japanese. It soon 
became ashamed of that and anxious to be lowered from a very 
uncomfortable and almost ignominious eminence. In lowering it, 
the President restored it to its historic place of honor without 
subjecting it to the least humiliation. 

* " -* 
When President Harrison and his Minister of State repudiated 
the act of Mr. Stevens in raising the American flag over the gov- 
ernment house at Honolulu, they should have ordered him at once 
to haul it down ; but under the belief that the dc facto title it gave 
us might help the annexation treaty through the senate, they al- 

lowed it to remain. They left an awkward international puzzle 
to be solved by Mr. Cleveland, according to luck or statesmanship, 
as the case might be, well satisfied that the solution either way 
could be made liable to censure, and that it could be stored away 
in the cellar as political capital for the next camf aign. Without 
waiting to see whether the road they were taking was a thorough- 
fare or not, they drove our diplomatic wagon into a blind alley 
and left it there, and there Mr. Cleveland found it when he came 
into power. As there was no passage through, and no room to 
turn round, he was compelled to back the wagon out of the blind 
alley and into the national highway. He first lightened the wagon, 
by withdrawing the Hawaiian treaty from the senate, and then 
backed it on to solid ground by restoring the flag to its legitimate 
province, where it can give us no unfair advantage over the people 
of Hawaii in any negotiation we may enter into with them, con- 
cerning annexation, commercial treaties, or any other business. 

-X- * 

That no quality of melodrama may be wanting to the Ha- 
waiian incident, the tearful critics of Mr. Cleveland affectionately 
patronise the national flag with a pet name, as though it were a 
favorite poodle or a domesticated parrot, and they wail in counter- 
felt hysterics over "Old Glory," their tawdry nickname for the 
flag They have not spiritual vision strong enough to see the po- 
etic and descriptive beauty of " Star-Spangled Banner," and so in 
maudlin gush they weep for poor "Old Glory. " The title is puerile 
and meaningless, because it specifies no quality, and any people 
who have sufficient self-conceit may use it for any flag. I have a 
special objection to it, because it is a second-hand bit of clap- trap, 
borrowed from the dilapidated stock in trade of an English poli- 
tician who was member of parliament for Westminster when I was 
a boy. Sir Francis Burdett was a rich aristocrat, who early in 
the present century chose the radical revolutionary side, and I 
think he was the last political prisoner confined in the Tower of 
London. He represented Westminster for nearly thirty years, 
and his pet name was " Old Glory." I can remember hearing the 
title sung about the streets in doggerel poetry at election times, 
when Sir Francis was a candidate. Cobbett converted the flattery 
into a nickname, by making a prophetic pun upon it, saying, ' ' Old 
Glory will turn Tory," a prediction which came true. I can under- 
stand how an Englishman, writing for an American paper and re- 
membering the history of Sir Francis Burdett, might, in a morbid 
moment, borrow the pet name of that theatrical politician and be- 
stow it patronisingly upon the American flag, but that American 
editors by the hundred should catch on to it as if it were the 
measles is a phenomenon I cannot understand. 

-:f X- 


While grieving over the destruction of many towns by cyclones 
and tornadoes, it is comforting to read about the spiritual redemp- 
tion of a city ; a feat rarely done in modern times, although fre- 
quently performed by the prophets in the olden day. Dispatches 
from Bowling Green, Kentucky, dated April iSth, proclaim the 
glad tidings that "A religious wave has swept over Bowling Green 
and has carried everything before it. The most hardened sinners 
have become converts, and the most interesting results have fol- 
lowed." Considering the former character of Bowling Green, this 
news is very gratifying, and the most encouraging part of it is that 
the miracle was performed by contract, just like the cleaning of 
the streets, as appears by the following description of the work : 
"Sam Jones was hired by some of his admirers to come to Bowl- 
ing Green and rescue it from its depths of sin. For $2,300 he 
undertook the job and seems to have earned his money. He 
preached ten days, and during that time more than 2,400 people 
made professions of religion." This included nearly all the in- 
habitants of Bowling Green who were in " the depths of sin," and 
considering the difficult nature of the contract, nobody will deny 
that Mr. Jones hones'.ly "earned his money." Ninety six cents a 



head for the conversion of " hardened sinners" is cheap enough, 
and if Mr. Jones will agree to redeem Chicago at the same rates, 
he can have the job in a minute. We thought that the election of 
Mr. Allerton for mayor would convert the cily and sweep it with 
a "religious wave," but having been disappointed in that by the 
election of Mr. Harrison, there appears to be no salvation remain- 
ing for Chicago, except in the evangelistic energy of Sam Jones. 

* * 


A New York potentate by the name of McAllister, a high 
authority on fashion and fad, is having a good deal of imbecile 
amusement at the expense of Mr. and Mrs. Velvet and Miss Velve- 
teen Velvet of Ormolu Avenue, Chicago, for the awkard manner in 
which those recently rich people try to imitate the ways of gocd 
society. In fact Mr. McAllister in a tone of supercilious pity in- 
timates that none of us here in Chicago knows how to behave in 
company. He pretends that we do not yet perceive the artistic 
difference between the Apollo Belvedere and a wooden Indian ; 
that we estimate the value of books by the bindings, and of pic- 
tures by the square yard. He enviously says that we have not re- 
finement enough to frappe our wine as it ought to be frapped, and 
that we know no more about the etiquette of dining than a mock 
turtle. Fortunately for us, we are now in a position to return the 
sneers of Mr. McAllister, for our artistic judgment has recently 
been tried in the Custom House crucible, and has come out of the 
fiery furnace as reliable as it went in. The critical test was made 
by thirteen pictures received at the Chicago Custom House from 
Paris, and the question was whether or not they vjere liable to 
tariff duties under the McKinley law. If they were modern pic- 
tures they were liable, but if painted by the "Old masters" they 
were free. The appraiser and the collector being in doubt about 
it, they called for the opinion of "several Chicago gentlemen of 
recognised competence," and they promptly decided to the satis- 
faction of those officers that the pictures were ancient classics, 
painted by Rembrandt, Rubens, Teniers, and Van Dyke. Chicago 
people have devoted so much of their lives to the cultivation of the 
fine arts that they can classify an invoice of pictures just as easily 
as they grade a cargo of wheat, or bacon, or tea. They can in- 
stantly tell a Rubens from a colored photograph, and Mr. Prang 
himself would not be able to persuade them that one of his most 
brilliant chromos was a genuine oil painting by Teniers or Van 
Dyke. We are proud to say that our appreciation of high art is 
of that western kind so finely illustrated by my old friend Governor 
Kirkwood of Iowa, who, when a member of the United States 
Senate, oliered the following amendment to a bill admitting classic 
sculptures and paintings duty free: — "and also all salt used in the 
curing of meat." 

In addition to their pay and material emoluments, admirals, 
generals, commodores, cabinet ministers, ambassadors, senators, 
governors, and a multitude of other dignitaries, to say nothing of 
presidents and kings, are entitled on special occasions to a certain 
allowance of noise and sulphurous incense according to their great- 
ness, lank, and quality, so many explosions for this exalted per- 
sonage, and so many for that one, while national flags, as repre- 
senting sovereignties, are entitled to the same salute as the sover- 
eigns themselves, the clamor of twenty-one guns. This thundering 
comedy of compliments has been played so elaborately in Chesa- 
peake Bay for the past ten days that the terrified fish have all fled 
away to the outside ocean, and the ■American people are beginning 
to laugh at this mutual admiration-spectacle as the boy's play of 
little tin sailors in a carnival of buttons and cocked hats. There 
was enough of it last week to excite the emulation of an earthquake 
but this week excels the other both in saltpetre and in sound. On 
Monday the English cruiser ' ' Blake" came in, followed on Tuesday 
by the German warship ' 'Kaiserin Augusta, " and on Wednesday the 
French frigate ' ' Arethuse " marched proudly in to its assigned posi- 

tion in the congregated fleet. The reception of the Frenchman 
describes the welcome given to all the others ; here it is. "The 
Arethuse began to fire the national salute when opposite the fort 
and continued the firing under way. Then the fort came back with 
its twenty-one guns, and the Arethuse followed with its fifteen' 
guns for the Vice-Admiral on the Blake, the big Britisher arousing 
all Hampton roads with its mighty return. The Philadelphia 
joined in to answer the salute of thirteen paid Rear Admiral Ghe- 
rardi's pennant. The Jean Bart let loose thirteen explosives for 
its rear admiral, and then the Giovanni Bausan and the Van Speyk 
opened fire until the whole fleet was drenched in smoke." There 
was more of it, but the sentiment of the occasion, stunned by the 
clamor, grew stupid, and the refined exhilaration of a joyful meet- 
ing became by repeated stimulants the very drunkenness of ships. 

* * 

If nations must have guns and gunpowdei they cannot employ 
them better than in paying high-sounding compliments to the flags 
of one another; and ceremonial salutes become ludicrous only 
when they are overdone in an interchange of exactly equal flatteries 
between men, for every man of the same rank the same number of 
guns. To the average common sense mind this firing of blank 
cartridges in salutation of men is a silly and vain glorious piece of 
hero worship, but the men who laugh at it know nothing of the 
pleasure it gives to the man who gets the homage, the thrill of 
pride, the rapture of intoxicated self-conceit. Once, I had occa- 
sion to visit a military post that happened to be within the limits 
of my own command, and as I rede into the town the artillery fired 
a salute of eleven guns, the full ration allowed me by the regula- 
tions I could not help laughing away down in my boots, but upon 
my face I wore a look of calm imperial dignity, and as I rode 
slowly along, with a couple of staff officers behind me and a cavalry 
escort behind them, I carried myself in spite of the burlesque with 
an air that said plainer than words to the soldiers and the gaping 
citizens, " I was born to this ; such honors were common in my 
family ; and really, instead of eleven guns I deserve a salute of 
twenty-one." Speaking from experience, I think that nothing will 
so effectually make a brevet fool of a man as a salute of eleven 
guns, unless it may be a salute of thirteen, fifteen, or a larger 
score. "Too much honor, Cromwell; too much honor, for a man 

that hopes for heaven." 

M. M. Trumbull. 



y<7 //n- Edit.n- of The Open Coiiit : 

I do not know that attention has been called to the swinging 
arms in walking as a survival of quadrupedal motion, but some 
evidence for this view is that young children, I believe, are, as a 
rule, more vigorous than adults in these movements, which are 
instinctive ; and further, the nature of the action is quadrupedal, 
the arm on one side being thrown forward as the leg on the same 
side is thro%vn backward, and z'icc versn, alternately. 

As has been remarked to me by a friend, the visitor looking 
down from the thirteenth story of the Chamber of Commerce, 
Chicago, sees the movements of the crowd walking below thus 
projected upon a flat surface, and the "reptilian stride " is most 
suggestive. Four legs propel faster than two, and it seems not 
unlikely that swinging the arms for the acceleration of pace is an 
instinctive tendency towards quadrupedism, and thus this motion 
is rightly recognised by cultivated society as undignified and vul- 
gar. It seems to me that the graphic registering for comparative 
study of the self-propulsion by quadrupeds, by young children, by 
adults, also of the movements of professional pedestrians, might 
lead to results of considerable interest and importance. 

Hiram M. Stanley. 




The Oriental Re%deu\ edited by Merwin-Marie Snell, under the 
advisory board of Dr. W. T. Harris, Prof. William Dwight Whit- 
.ney, Prof. C. P. Tiele, Prof. Jean Reville, and Prof. John S. 
Stuart-Glennie, is a popular magazine of Oriental science and com- 
parative religion, which is to appear every second month. The 
first number is very promising, and the announcements for the 
March-April number promise to be even an improvement upon 
the first number. 

" 'ihe Oriental Rtvieiv is intended to be a medium for the general diffusion 
ainons the culiured leadintj public of the results of the labors of specialists 
in the lield of Oriental science and of comparative religion." 

The prospectus declares : 

" In the first place, it is not a " theosophical " magazine, any more than it 
is a Jewish or Catholic or Protestant or pagan one ; neither is its editor an 
adherent of the theosophical system. It does not represent that school of 
thought to which its editor belongs, or any other; and it has no religious or 
irreligious complexion, its interest in religion being purely scientific, and in 
no wise either a practical or speculative one. 

" Secondly, it is not intended primarily for specialists, but rather as a 
medium of popular instruction. 

"Thirdly, it does not concern itself with the truth or falsity of the re- 
ligious or moral notions, or the excellence or tvil of any of the ceremonial or 
other religious practices with which it deals ; it treats them purely as scien- 
tific facts, to be recorded, classified, and exploited, with perfect impartiality. 

" Fourthly, it does not include within its scope anything of the nature of 
occult science or psychical research, as such, though of course it does not ex- 
clude descriptions and r^'planations of magical ceremonies and feats, consid- 
ered as elero<;nts of certain religions. 

" Fiftlilv, all matter of a distinctly polemic character, whether directed 
for or against any particular religion, or religion in general, is expressly ex 
eluded, as utterly contrary to the spirit and aims of the publication." 

" It will open to the dilettante the wonderful fairy-land of Oriental poetry, 
and drama, and art, and philosophy, and quaint fascinating customs; it will 
introduce the student of philosophy to the most ancient and abstruse of meta- 
physical systems, the ethnologist to the deepest and most significant strata of 
ethnic remains, the arch£Eologist to the most interesting problems and solu- 
tions of his science, the historian to the only really venerable historical rec- 
ords, the sociologist to the social usages and adjustments which have stood 
the severest test and cemented the most solid and persistent of social struc- 
tures, the biblical student to the enduring records which confirm and illustrate 
the sacred texts, the theologian to the doctrines and history of the relitiions 
which he must refute and explain, and the theosophist to the very fountains 
of his creed." 

The first number opens with an article by the editor on "The 
Nature of the Science of Comparative Religion," which is part of 
a lecture delivered before the theological students of Howard Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C, setting forth in brief outlines its ma- 
terials, aims, and methods. Mr. Isaac Myer contributes selections 
from the Qabbalistic writings. The subject is of special interest 
to Christian readers, in so far as Mr. Myer discusses the quota- 
tions concerning the creation of the world by the word, which are 
of interest as being a parallel passage with the Logos idea of Philo 
and St. John. 

Another article by Mr. Merwin-Marie Snell presents us with 
an account of the seven poets of Persia, containing translations 
from Firdusi, Nizami, Hafiz, and others. We quote the following 
passage, as of special interest to New Testament scholars, be- 
cause it may throw light upon the much-mooted interpretation of 
a camel going through a needle's eye. 

"A camel was feeding in the field, with a cord fastened to his foot. Acci- 
dent brought a mouse to the same spot, who saw the camel was without any 
keeper. A thought occurred to the mouse, which was to take the cord and 
drag it to his hole. The camel followed the mouse without any reluctance, in 
conformity to his disposition, which is perfectly free from any kind of stub- 
bornness, never resisting or opposing anything. When lie came to the hole of 
the mouse and saw so narrow an entrance, he exclaimed, ' Well, indeed ! you 
foolish little creature ! What have you been about ? The hump on my back 
cannot be diminished, and neither can your den be enlarged What society or 
friendship do you imagine can subsist between us ? ' 

" Strophe. By whatever plan you set out on the journey towards eternity, 
or in whatever manner you attempt to gain that point, if I see you loaded with 
the burden of desires, 1 must consider you in the same light as I did the camel 
loaded with the burden of his hump. Throw oft this load, for the entrance will 
not admit, and the narrow tenement of the grave will not contain it." 

The concluding article is a little romance, "The Kismet of 
Leyla, " by Minnie Andrew Snell. 

The translations of two interesting original documents, " The 
Precepts of Ptah-Hotep," and "The Dhamma-kakka-ppavattana 
Sutta," are appended to this number. 

The editor promises for the next number an article on " The 
True Method of the Study of Folk-Lore," by Prof. John Stuart- 
Glennie ; " Notes on Contemporary Chinese Literature," by Mr. 
Weston Flint; an editorial on "The Theoretical Value of the 
Science of Hierology "; another romance, " The Rose of Shiraz," 
by Mrs. Snell; and as original documents, translations of "The 
Gathas of the Zend Avesta," and "The Descent of Ishtar Into 

The price of TIu- Oriental Review is $2.50 a year, and fifty cents 
a copy, each number containing sixty-four pages. 

We sincerely hope that the editor will find sufficient response 
to continue the publication of his valuable magazine. [Washing- 
ton, D. C: Merwin-Marie Snell.] 

We have recently received from Madame Clemence Royer a 
small pamphlet entitled Les variations seculaires ties saisons et leurs 
causes astrononiii/iies. It is a purely technical performance. The 
outcome of Madame Royer's views of the astronomical causes of 
the seasons are opposed to the hypothesis of Laplace which "re- 
moves many difficulties, but on the whole explains none." This 
hypothesis, says the author, is like the turtle of the Hindus which 
supports an elephsnt who supports the world. But what so- 
the turtle ? So if the solar system sprang from a nebula, wut.ui.,1- 
did the nebula spring ? (Brussels: Veuve Monnoiii. 1892.) 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARU3, Editor 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


bull 3639 

son I. Swift 3640 


CURRENT TOPICS : The Flag Lowered. Backing Out. 
National Pet Names. Converting a City by Contract. 
Western Taste for Art. A Carnival of Buttons. Stimu- 
lating Vanity. Gen. M. M. Trumbull 3644 


Swinging the Arms in Walking as Survival. Hiram M. 
Stanley 3645 

NOTES 3646 

The Open Court. 



No. 297. (Vol. VII.— 18.) 

CHICAGO, MAY 4, 1893. 

) Two Dollars per Year. 
I Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



Has "labor" any special reason to desire the ap- 
plication of the principle of justice, of equal freedom? 
That workmen, as citizens, are vitally interested in 
securing the recognition of justice, needs no demon- 
stration. But does justice contain the promise of a 
solution of what is technically described as the " labor 
problem "? A query put in such a form is well worth 
considering and answering. 

At the outset it is important to distinguish between 
the problem of labor and the problem of poverty. The 
solution of the former is not necessarily coextensive 
with the solution of the latter. The existence of pov- 
erty does not necessarily imply the presence of injus- 
tice in social arrangements, whereas the existence of a 
real labor grievance unquestionably does argue injus- 
tice. A respectable percentage of poverty is doubt- 
less due to injustice, but even under justice there 
might be poverty. On the other hand, a "labor" 
problem under justice is an impossibility. We assume, 
then, that labor accepts the principle of justice, not in 
the sense of economic equality or communism, regard- 
less of differences in mental and physical powers, but 
as signifying a social state in which each receives the 
results of his own nature and consequent actions, 
in which equality of liberty and opportunity is rig- 
idly maintained, but in which inequalities in results 
achieved by reason of natural inequality of capacities 
are not arbitrarily eliminated. The only question is, 
Are the wrongs of labor entailed by infractions of the 
principle of justice? 

The complaint of labor is that it does not receive 
its full share of the product — that it is "robbed" of a 
considerable portion of its earnings. But who is the 
"robber"; whom does labor accuse? The workman 
comes in contact with (i) his fellow-workman, (2) his 
employer, and (3) the officers of the law. It is mani- 
fest that the workman can be robbed either by his em- 
ployer, by the government, or by both. Now, govern- 
ment can take the laborer's earnings in but one way : 
by taxation ; and it is true, of course, that the work- 
man pays both direct and indirect taxes. But the 
workmen do not regard taxation as robbery in prin- 

ciple ; and hence it is not by taxation that the govern- 
ment robs them. Moreover, capital, too, pays taxes, 
and is therefore in the same case with labor. Again, 
in countries where the law recognises no castes and 
classes, no rights are denied to labor which are not, 
theoreticallj', equally denied to capital. When a law 
is enacted which involves the breach of equal free- 
dom, no distinction is made between workmen and 
capitalists in the letter of the law, although the officers 
charged with the enforcement of it may exhibit par- 
tiality and introduce practical inequality. A law lim- 
iting the right to motion and locomotion, or the right 
to property, or any other right, would seem to injure 
the capitalist as well as the laborer. We are bound to 
infer, then, that labor accuses the employers, the capi- 
talists, of the robbery in question. It is the employers 
who withhold from the laborers a certain large share 
of their product, and the whole labor question reduces 
itself to this : that, in the judgment of the laborers, 
their own wages are too low, while the share that goes 
to the capitalists is too large. They want more for 
themselves and less for the employers. They must 
admit, however, that a charge such as this, without a 
shred of evidence to sustain it, cannot be seriously 
considered. How do they know that the employers 
get more than their due ? Neither force nor fraud can 
be alleged against them. So far as the hiring of labor 
is concerned, the market may be said to be free, al- 
though, in fact, such laws as that excluding Chinese 
and other able-bodied immigrants restrict the supply 
of labor and thus raise the wages of labor at the ex- 
pense of the employer. If, then, the employer offers 
his terms in a free and open market, and the laborer 
freely accepts them, how does the employer "rob" the 
laborer ? The answer of the laborer is, that, while he 
is not literally forced by the employer to accept ab- 
surdly inadequate remuneration, the conditions of the 
labor market render it impossible for him to decline 
the offer. There being more men in need of employ- 
ment than there are places to be filled, the employer 
is in a position to dictate terms, and the would-be 
employee is obliged, on pain of hunger and other pri- 
vations, to accept the inequitable terms offered. This 
answer is satisfactory, but it suggests another query : 



What makes the conditions of the labor market what 
they are? Unless it can be conclusively shown that the 
employers are responsible for the condition of affairs de- 
scribed, and that but for their conspiracies and manipu- 
lations labor could command better terms, the charge 
of robbery or injustice against the employers must be 

Are the employers responsible for the state of the 
labor market? Upon this question opinions differ 
widely; but there are some — and to these we address 
ourselves — whose talk indicates that they believe the 
employers to be responsible. They denounce the em- 
ployers for corrupting and buying up national, state, 
and municipal lawmakers and getting the latter to vote 
them special privileges, monopolies, and gratuities of 
all kinds, to the detriment of the public at large. We 
cordially agree with this view, but we have two points 
to make at this juncture. In the first place, while the 
conduct of the employers who enrich themselves in 
the way stated is ethically reprehensible, the chief 
offenders are the lawmakers rather than the employers. 
Instead of directing their attacks against the employ- 
ers, the workmen should exercise vigilant control over 
the lawmakers, who are placed in office to promote 
the well-being of the whole body. Secondly, if the 
laborer recognises that he is the victim of a conspiracy 
between employers and lawmakers, the proper and 
only thing for him to do is to insist on the natural con- 
dition of the labor market being preserved intact and 
on the cessation of the attempts to create ^//natural 
conditions favorable to one side. How is it, we ask, 
that even those who boldly and confidently denounce 
the lawmakers as the tools of the monopolists or 
would-be monopolists, and who place the responsi- 
bility of labor's wrongs at the door of legislation, 
never think of freedom, of the restoration of natural 
conditions, in the light of a rerAedy? What is usually 
proposed is more government interference, rather than 

On our workman's own showing, he has no case 
against the employer, except in so far as government 
intervenes to bestow upon him some monopolistic ad- 
vantage or special privilege. It would seem that he 
ought to favor a system which strips the government 
of all other functions and restricts it to the enforcement 
of justice and the maintenance of the natural condition 
of things. That he does not, indicates that he has but 
a vague conception of the extent of the injury caused 
by government meddling with the natural arrange- 
ments of a free market and of the number of ways in 
which government can and does interfere. 

Now, the share of the product which goes to the 
employer is called profits, and political economists 
divide profits into three parts, namely : Compensation 

for risk, wages of superintendence, and return for the 
use of capital or interest. By its interferences the 
government enables the employer to pay himself high 
wages for his superintendence, a high rate of interest, 
and a high rate of insurance ; while under a free in- 
dustrial system the employer would be obliged to con- 
tent himself with smaller profits and hand over a larger 
share to labor. There are those who affirm that un- 
der freedom interest on capital would tend to disap- 
pear entirely, and that the employer would get only 
compensation for risk and wages of superintendence ; 
but this question cannot be discussed here. We are 
concerned here simply with the conflict between the 
laborer's wages and the emploj'er's wages for the 
larger share in the distribution. Since, however, no 
arbitrary limit can be put upon either form of wages, 
it is manifest that free competition, unregulated sup- 
ply-and- demand, must be accepted as the arbiter by 
both parties to the controversy. The laborers are in- 
terested in the competition among the employers, and 
the employers are interested in the competition among 
laborers. In the words of Cobden, when two employ- 
ers are after one laborer, wages [of labor] rise ; when 
two laborers are after one employer, wages fall. Any 
law, therefore, which directly or indirectly abates the 
competition among the employers or diminishes the 
number of labor-purchasers, injures the laborers and 
benefits those employers who survive. This is the 
test which the laborers ought to applj' to all laws, ir- 
respective of their ostensible purpose. Any law which 
obstructs business, impedes industry, decreases com- 
petion among the employers, is fraught with injury to 
labor; and as all laws "regulating" business, indus- 
try, and the relation between capital and labor neces- 
sarily discourage enterprise, the obvious implication 
is that all the laws on our statute books which in any 
way conflict with the principle of free trade or free 
competition are mischievous and detrimental to labor. 
It is impossible to enumerate all these pernicious 
laws. In general, it may be said that two-thirds of 
our legislation, state and national, may safely be in 
this sense described as anti-labor legislation. Specifi- 
cally, we may refer to the tariff laws, which violate 
the fundamental principles of social economy and di- 
vert industry from its normal course; the laws regu- 
lating banking and circulation, which place serious 
obstacles in the way of business and exchange ; the 
inspection laws of all kinds, which harass the small 
employer and drive him out of the field ; and the 
bounties and the gratuities, which legislatures bestow 
on certain lines of business and the benefit of which 
accrues only to the strongest companies. To this may 
be added the "encouragement" by government of 
railroad building, and similar attempts at hastening 
the development of the country, the effect of which 



may be seen in the rapid concentration of wealth and 
the rise of monopoHes. 

If we have analysed the situation correctly, the 
conclusion which forces itself upon us is that labor 
does not receive its due simply because government 
steps in and "protects" a comparatively small num- 
ber of the employers at the cost of the rest of the pub- 
lic. Some of the emploj'er class, and the whole body 
of laborers, are both directly and indirectly injured by 
governmental interference with industry and com- 
merce. The wage-workers and the small business 
man have a common cause, both being vitally inter- 
ested in securing freedom and fair play in production 
and distribution. The violation of the law of equal 
freedom, — the law of justice referred to in the begin- 
ning of the article, — involved in the government's un- 
warrantable restrictions of the right to free exchange 
and free contract, creates a condition of things under 
which employers. are able to obtain higher profits than 
they could obtain under free and full competition. 
The laborer is not robbed directly, either by the gov- 
ernment or the emploj'er; but the direct infringement 
of the right to free contract and free exchange is at- 
tended by the indirect "robbery" of labor. It follows 
that the recognition of this right implies and contains 
the solution of the labor problem. 

Of course, such a solution will be regarded as in- 
complete by reformers who talk about "reparative 
justice" to labor or the poor generally, and who are 
not satisfied with reforms which merely put a period 
to the career of monopoly and legal privilege. These 
insist upon rectification of past inequity, upon the 
clearing away of the effects of the old wrong-doing. 
It is needless to say, however, that no one has yet 
succeeded in pointing out a practicable and efficacious 
way of accomplishing this meritorious purpose. No 
sane and responsible publicist has yet recommended 
confiscation or expropriation of the wealthy in favor 
of the poor, and it is difficult to see how past wrong- 
doing may be rectified by the annoying and petty 
legislative restrictions upon industry, which are fa- 
vored by these reformers. Before the work of rectifi- 
cation can proceed it is necessary to determine who 
are the victims and who the aggressors, — and this is 
not as easy as some people hastily assume. Supposing 
the victims to be identified and confronted with their 
direct aggressors, no way of adjusting their differences 
can be tolerated which is fraught with danger to social 
wellbeing. Haphazard rectification will not satisfy 
the requirements of justice; nor can the door be 
opened wide to fresh blunders and mischief. On the 
whole, it may as well be understood that the altruistic 
hope of rectifying past inequity in the relations be- 
tween labor on the one hand and capital and govern- 
ment on the other, has to be abandoned once for all. 

We must be content, perforce, with terminating the 
career of injustice and looking forward rather than 

An exception, however, must be made in the case 
of the landless against the land-owners. The question 
of rectifying past injustice in this relation cannot be so 
easily dismissed. But the land problem is not strictly 
a branch of the labor problem, and may be more con- 
veniently discussed in a separate article. 



Is the life of our soul limited? 

Every personality consists of a definite idiosyncracy, 
of impulses, dispositions and motor-ideas, the pecu- 
liarity and relative strength of which admit of innume- 
rable variations. Now the question arises. Whence 
do the constituent elements of a man's soul come, what 
is the part they play, and whither do they go ? 

Our soul is partly inherited from our ancestors, 
(viz., its dispositions,) partly planted in us by educa- 
tion, (viz. , mainly our ideas, ) partly acquired by imita- 
tion, (viz., our habits,) partly formed under the impres- 
sion of our own individual experience, (viz., mainly our 
convictions,) and partly worked out through reflection, 
(viz., mainly our theories). Thought, i. e., the inter- 
action that takes place among the elements of the soul, 
enables us to make new thought-combinations out of 
the stock of ideas that live in our mind. Thought 
allows our souls to grow. 

Our soul, accordingly, has a long history, which 
neither begins with our birth, nor ends with our death. 
We existed wherever the ideas of which we consist 
were thought, and shall exist wherever they are thought 
again ; for not only our body is our self, but mainly our 
ideas. Our true self is of a spiritual nature. 

Our life is only a phase in the evolution of a greater 
whole, and the spiritual existence of ourselves, our 
soul, is a precious inheritance of the past, which will 
evolve in future generations to higher and ever higher 
planes of being and to nobler and ever nobler desti- 

* * 

The continuity of our soul-life beyond death has 
been expressed in many various ways. In the myste- 
ries of Eleusis it was allegorically represented by a 
torch which went from hand to hand and by ears of 
wheat which symbolised the reappearance of vegeta- 
tion after its death in winter ; while Christianity ex- 
presses it in the dogma of the resurrection of the body. 

Among Benjamin Franklin's manuscripts was found 
an epitaph which he had written in 1723, when he was 
twenty-three years of age. The many corrections 
found on the page were added, as we may fairly sup- 
pose, in later years, and show that Franklin had pon- 



dered on the subject, and that he had given much 
thought to it. The epitaph* runs as follows : 

' ' The Body 


Benjamin Franklin 


(Like the cover of an old book 

Its contents torn out 

And stript of its lettering and gilding) 

Lies here food for worms. 

But the work shall not be lost 

For it will [as he believed] appear once more 

In a new and more elegant edition 

Revised and corrected 


The Author." 

The allegory that compares man to a book is very 
good, as it sets the nature of the soul in a true light. 
We are inclined to regard the binding, the paper, the 
presswork as the essential things of the book; yet we 
must be aware that they are not the soul of the book. 

The soul of the book is its contents. That All- 
being, in whom we live and move and have our being, 
publishes one edition after the other, and when one 
copy is destroyed, the book itself, i. e., the soul of the 
book, is not lost. If but the contents of the book are 
valuable, if they contain truth, it will reappear in a 
new edition, perhaps in a more elegant binding, but 
certainly revised and corrected and enlarged. 

What are the contents of the soul ? 

The contents of the soul form, in a word, a world- 
picture, the most important part of which, for human 
beings, is the relations that obtain and that ought to 
obtain in human society. 

The world-picture in the soul of man, however, is 
not a mere image of his surroundings painted in the 
glowing feelings of his sensations, but a systematic 
conception of the facts of nature so as to behold the 
laws of their being. 

The world of which we are parts is permeated by 
law. All events are concatenated and interrelated by 
causation, and every act of ours has its definite con- 
sequences. We have come to be such as we are in a 
long process of evolution. Our surroundings have 
impressed themselves upon our sentiency and have 
moulded all the ideas we think and the various mo- 
tives which prompt us to act. Our ideas and motives 
are the quintessence of our being ; they are our veriest 
self, our soul. If and in so far as our ideas are true 

* We may add that Franklin did not make use of this proposed epitaph. 
He directed in his last will to have a simple stone with nothing on it but the 
names of himself and his wife. The passage in the testament reads thus : 

" I wish to be buried by the side of my wife, if it may be, and that a mar- 
ble stone, to be made by Chambers, six feet long, four feet wide, plain, with 
only a small moulding round the upper edge, and this inscription: 

Benjamin ) 

AND y Franklin. 
Deborah j 178- 

to be placed over us both." 

and our motives are right, they are the highest and 
best and most precious part of our existence, they are 
the divinity of our being, they are the incarnation of 
God in us, they are the soul of our soul. 

Is there a prototype of the soul? 

Rational beings might, in many respects, have de- 
veloped otherwise than they did here upon earth. It is 
not impossible that rational creatures on various other 
planets are in possession of different physical constitu- 
tions than we. They may have developed wings; they 
may have tong-like organs for taking hold of and han- 
dling things different from our hands, etc., etc. Yet 
it is certain that they cannot develop another kind of 
reason. Their arithmetic, their mathematics, their 
logic must be the same as ours. Nay, more than this, 
the basic maxims of their ethics can in all its essen- 
tials not be different from those which are the fac- 
tors underlying the growth and evolution of human so- 
ciety upon earth. In other words : The constitution 
of the universe is such that certain features of man's 
soul are necessarily such as they are and cannot be 
different in any other kind of rational beings. There 
are not prototypes of beings, as Plato maintained, but 
there is, nevertheless, something analogous to proto- 
types. The nature of rational beings is foreordained 
and conditioned by the very nature of things, and thus 
the biblical saying appears in a new light, that man 
has been created in the image of God. 

The eternal in nature, the universal in the changes 
of the world, the law that pervades facts, has taken 
its abode in man; briefly, it is the truth which appears 
in his soul, and the truth is a correct representation 
of reality, it is a picture of God. 

Religious truth is not merely a scientific cognition 
of the parts of the world and a comprehension of all 
the details of natural laws ; religious truth is a com- 
prehension of our being in its relation to the whole, to 
God. And this comprehension must not be theoreti- 
cal, it must permeate all our sentiments, it must domi- 
nate our entire being and find expression in all the 
acts of our life. 

Why is the scientific view of the soul not readily 
accepted ? 

There is one great difificulty in this theory of the 
soul, of its divinity and of its immortality, as the re- 
ligion of science propounds it. There is no difficulty 
about its truth. We can readily see that it is undeni- 
able ; it can positively be proved. The facts upon 
which it rests are beyond dispute. 

The difficulty is of another nature. We have great 
trouble, not so much in understanding, but in feeling 
that our soul is not our individual self, but God in us. 

We are so engrossed with materialism that we look 
upon the externalities of life as our real self, and this 



materialism finds expression in the forms of tradi- 
tional religions now. The binding, paper, and general 
appearance of a book is in the sight of most people that 
which constitutes its essential and entire being. Man 
finds it very hard to rise in his emotional life to that 
purity of abstraction which distinguishes between the 
contents or soul, and the present make-up or body, of 
a book, of a man, of ourselves. 

The question of immortality is a moral question. 
It takes a man of moral fibre to see the solution in its 
right light. It is not enough to understand the prob- 
lem ; we must live it. Our natural habits still tend 
to regard the unessential of our bodily existence as 
our real self, and all our emotions, our hopes and 
fears are exclusively attached to this present copy of 
our soul. 

We have not only to change the mode of our think- 
ing, but also the mode of our feeling. We must de- 
velop the higher emotions, which are in sympathy with 
the true essence of our being. We must unlearn to lay 
too much stress upon incidents that have only a mere 
passing value, and must regulate our actions from the 
standpoint of our spiritual nature. We must feel our- 
selves to be not the make-up of the present edition of 
our soul, but the soul itself. 

What is the natural standpoint of the unreflecting 
man ? 

That attitude of a man in which, heedless of his 
soul, he takes his present make-up as his true self is 
called egotism ; and the man with egotistic tendencies 
views the world from a standpoint which does not 
show matters in a correct perspective. 

The whole world and his own self are pictured to 
the egotist in distorted proportions. All his feelings, 
his sympathies, and antipathies, too, become per- 

Why must we abandon the standpoint of egotism? 

It is apparent that all the purposes of a man which 
are designed to serve his egotistic desires only, will be 
vain, and if he were ever so successful in his efforts, 
death will step in, in the end, and annihilate the very 
purpose for which he lived. 

Nature does not want egotism. She suffers it with 
forbearance, leaving a man time to find the narrow 
road to life, but then she cuts him down and selects 
from the harvest which he had gathered in for himself 
that which she can use for the progress of mankind, 
leaving him only the bitterness that the fruits of his 
work are taken from him and that he has sowed what 
others shall reap. 

Unless a man's entire emotional life be centred in 
his soul, his life will be a failure. 

Is the abandonment of the egoistic standpoint a 
resignation ? 

This view of the soul appears to those who still 
cling to the conception of an ego-soul as a resignation ; 
and in a certain sense it is a resignation. W'e have to 
give up the idea that our real self belongs to ourselves. 
Our soul is not our own, but it is mankind's : and man- 
kind in its turn is not its own ; the soul of mankind is 
from God, it develops in God, and all its aspirations 
and yearnings are to God. 

Yet the characterisation of this view of the soul as 
a resignation will produce an erroneous impression. 
There is as little resignation about it as when in a 
fairy-tale a shepherd-lad finds out that he is a prince. 
The resignation consists in resigning an error for truth. 
What we regarded as our self is not our self, but only 
a fleeting shadow, and our true self is much greater 
than we thought it was. The shepherd-boy in the 
fairy-tale might with the same reason say that his very 
existence had been wiped out, as some psychologists 
speak of the annihilation of the soul, when only the 
ego-conception of the soul is surrendered. 

When our sphere of being becomes widened we 
should not speak of annihilation, and when we grow 
beyond that which at first blush we seem to be, we 
should not represent it as a resignation. 

He who regards this view of the soul as a resigna- 
tion only indicates that his sympathies, his hopes and 
fears are still with the externalities of our existence. 
The moment the very consciousness of our selfhood is 
transferred into our soul-existence, we shall cease to 
feel any resignation in this change of view. 

What objection is made to the abandonment of the 
ego-soul ? 

The objection has been raised that there is neither 
satisfaction nor justice in the idea that others shall 
earn the fruits of our labors. But this objection has 
sense only from the standpoint of an ego-conception 
of the soul. The truth is that the future generations 
of mankind are not "others"; they are we ourselves. 
We have inherited in the same way not only the bless- 
ings of former generations, but their very being, their 
souls : we are their continuance. 

It is not an empty phrase to say that the former 
generations of mankind are still alive as a part of our- 
selves. For suppose that the soul-life of the past were 
entirely annihilated and no vestige of it left, would 
not our own existence at once sink to the level of mere 
amoeboid existence ? The thought of this will convince 
us how truly real is the continuance of soul-life after 
death ! The souls of our beloved are always with us 
and will remain among us until the end of the world. 

What does the new conception of the soul imply? 

Our spiritual nature imposes duties upon us ; it 
teaches us to regard our life as a phase only of a 
greater and a more complete evolution, and demands 



us to rise above the narrowness of our transient and 
limited existence. 

As soon as we rise above the pettiness of our indi- 
vidual being, the boundaries of birth and death van- 
ish, and we breathe the air of immortality. But this 
change of standpoint is of great consequence. It af- 
fects our entire existence and brings about a radical 
change of our world-conception. It is like a new birth 
which will above all be felt in our conduct. The higher 
standpoint of immortality introduces a new principle 
which will almost reverse our former habits and intro- 
duce a new criterion of what is to be regarded as right 
or wrong. 

The moral commandments are rules of action which 
appear as a matter of course to him who has been 
born again, who has raised himself to the higher plane 
of soul-life, and whose sentiments and expressions of 
this attitude are what Christianity calls "love." 

The moral commandments are forced upon the 
egotist, and the egotist naturally regards them as im- 
positions. However, he whose attitude is that of love, 
does not feel in this way. He fulfils the command- 
ments of his own free will. 

Our sympathies must be the sympathies of our 
better self, and if they are, our course of action will, 
without any interference of the law, lead us to do an)'- 
thing the law and the rules of equity can demand. 

There is no resignation in truly moral conduct. 
Moral conduct should be the expression of our char- 
acter; it should flow naturally from the nature of our 


Some guilty soul, tormented by remorse, has anonymously 
paid over to the government of the United States twelve cents as 
"conscience money," and the receipt of it has been acknowledged 
by the Secretary of the Treasury. The penitent explained in his 
confession that he had cheated the government in the matter of 
postage stamps to the value of twelve cents ; and in order that he 
might get some sleep at night he had been driven by self-condem- 
nation to take twelve cents out of his own pocket and " cover it 
into the treasury." Please find that amount enclosed herein. Now, 
I do not believe that the size of this anonymous conscience is to be 
measured by the amount restored, but by the motive that prompted 
the restitution, although I once had something to say in a church- 
trial at Marbletown, where the size of a conscience came inciden- 
tally under consideration. The brother on trial had ostentatiously 
insisted on paying into the county treasury three dollars and a 
half, as taxes on some property which had escaped the assessor, 
but he had at the same time stolen a farm by treacherously enter- 
ing at the land-office a forty-acre tract on which a brother in the 
church had not only made a "claim," but also had put improve- 
ments on the land to the value of a hundred and fifty dollars. The 
intruder was on trial for "jumping the claim," and a neighbor 
testifying, said that he knew Brother Noble well, and that he had 
a very sensitive and punctilious conscience, but he held it under 
such admirable discipline that it never exceeded the dimensions of 
a five-dollar gold-piece. I would not lightly esteem even a five- 
dollar conscience, but how much I admire and envy the man who 

for the trifling sum of twelve cents is able to balance the books 
between his conscience and the world. 


* * 

Inspiring to every lover of liberty was the great meeting held 
in Chicago on Sunday, April 23d, to protest against the extradi- 
tion treaty agreed upon between the United States and Russia. 
According to the newspapers, ' ' the protest was splendid, emphatic, 
and patriotic. It was the voice of three thousand American citi- 
zens jealous of their liberties and unwilling to be made the tools 
of a European despot holding arbitrary sway. Incidentally the 
czar and his method of governing came in for a share of vigorous 
and well-rounded denunciation." This gives us all occasion to re- 
joice, because men cannot condemn Russian despotism without 
incidentally sprinkling some of their denunciations upon English 
despotism, and German despotism, and American despotism, and 
despotism of every character and kind. A judge of eminent rank 
was in the chair, and among the speakers were a Jewish rabbi, a 
Protestant bishop, and a Baptist clergyman. Their eloquence was 
animated by the holy passion for liberty, and the chairman pro- 
claimed a chivalrous principle when he said, "A wrong done to 
the humblest Russian peasant because of his efforts in the cause 
of liberty is a wrong done to you and to me and to every lover of 
liberty throughout the world." That is a sentiment from the re- 
ligion of universal brotherhood, and I hope that in a spirit of reci- 
procity it will be re-echoed back to us from great meetings in St. 
Petersburg and Moscow, protesting against the despotism of Illi- 
nois. Tyranny is not a form of government, but any act of politi- 
cal oppression, whether done by an absolute monarchy or by a 
democratic republic. A free charter confers no freedom unless 
the magistrates obey it ; and the man must have a cheek of brass 
who can look a Russian in the eye and tell him that the great 
charter of American liberty is obeyed and respected by the magis- 
trates in Illinois. Liberty is not a phrase, but a fact ; not a piece 
of parchment, but a living soul. 

* * 

Speaking of paper liberties, reminds me of a dispute I once 
heard between a mutinous crew and the captain of a ship, who 
was explaining to them the criminality of their conduct and refer- 
ring to the "articles" they had signed when they shipped for the 
voyage. To me those "articles" appeared upon the face of them 
to be very liberal to the sailors, until the leader of the rebellion 
said, "Ain't molasses in the articles ?" "Yes," the captain said, 
" they are. " "Well," replied the mutineer, "we don't get the 
molasses ! " So it is with some of us in Chicago. A certain ration 
of political freedom or inalienable molasses is allowed us by the 
Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of Illinois, 
but "we don't get the molasses." By way of a text for the orators 
of the meetings at St. Petersburg and Moscow, I will recommend 
this verse from a message delivered three months ago by the gov- 
ernor to the legislature of Illinois : "Practically, there is neither 
Magna Charta nor the Bill of Rights for the poor of our great 
cities." This is not the seditious cry of a labor agitator, nor the 
reckless exaggeration of a political stump-orator ; it is the delibe- 
rate utterance of the governor, in a carefully prepared state paper, 
read by the governor himself to the Senate and the House of Rep- 
resentatives at Springfield. Eighteen hundred years ago, a social 
reformer who was in the habit of speaking on the " lake front " in 
Judea, said : " First cast out the beam out of thine own eye ; and 
then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote that is in thy 
brother's eye." Up to the present moment, neither the judge, 
nor the bishop, nor the rabbi, has called a meeting to demand for 
the protection of our own poor a restoration of Magna Charta and 
the Bill of Rights ; although the judge very certainly knows, even 
if the bishop and the rabbi do not know, that the Bill of Rights is 
a part of the Constitution of the United States and of the Consti- 
tution of Illinois. Liberty, like charity, should begin at home. 




Taking us on the average, I believe that by nature I am not 
more timid than other men, but as I grow older I notice that my 
nerves are not the strong, tough bits of string that they were some 
thirty years ago. I find that I am sensitive now to tocsins and 
alarums that formerly gave me little or no concern. As I sit 
serenely smoking my pipe, comfortable in the belief that the world 
is behaving better and better as time rolls on, it gives me a gal- 
vanic shock to be suddenly told by a prophet of dire omen that I 
am smoking in a powder magazine, and "dancing on a volcano." 
My pipe goes out, and I mechanically obey him when he tells me 
to "put my ear to the ground" and listen to the rumblings of an 
earthquake shaking the social strata into a conglomerate chaos 
that is to leave nothing but a nebular hypothesis behind. Warning 
me to "prepare for the convulsion " he leaves me in a dilapidated 
mental state, and ready to be frightened in a minute by conspira- 
cies like this which has been exposed by dispatches from New 
York dated April i6th. "The Liberty Dawn Association had an- 
other midnight meeting to-night to consider their grievances." 
Reading those tidings of dark portent, in my excited state I saw 
for a moment bands of conspirators with red caps on their heads 
and black masks on their faces, assembled in midnight conclave 
swearing vengeance and flourishing tin daggers as I had seen them 
on the stage ; but reading a little further on, my fears gave way, for 
I found that those dark traitors were harmless hack drivers of New 
York demanding nothing but ' ' the inalienable right of every Ameri- 
can citizen to wear beards, whiskers, or mustaches, or not, as he 
pleases." This is a comical object for a midnight meeting, and 
yet it is not all comedy. There is a strain of melodrama in it that 
is not laughable. Driving a hack for a living is an honest business, 
but marking a man for doing it is not. The demand of " society " 
that hack drivers dispense with beards is additional evidence that 
"society " itself is but the corruption of the body social, an envi- 
ous caste of useless people setting marks of inferiority upon every 
useful man. The hack driver having shaved his chin, will then be 
required by " society " to shave his head. 

* * 

The persevering way in which the office seeks the man is ex- 
hibited free of charge by Mr. Frank Lawler of Chicago. On the 
8th of November about g o'clock in the evening it was known that 
Mr. Cleveland was elected Post Office Distributer General for the 
whole United States, and bright and early the next morning Mr. 
Lawler was out with a petition for his own appointment as post- 
master at Chicago. By patriotic industry he secured sixty-six 
thousand signatures to the document before the 4th of March ; and 
' ' as soon thereafter as counsel could be heard " Mr. Lawler brought 
the Chicago Post Office to the attention of the President ; and so 
close to his attention, that he has never been allowed to forget it 
for a moment since. Figuratively speaking, Mr. Lawler "sat 
down " like an army in front of the White House, and put it in a 
state of siege. Every day he broke himself into platoons and sur- 
rounded the President, and every day under a flag of truce he held 
parley with Mr. Cleveland and demanded his immediate surren- 
der, agreeing to accept the Post Office as a ransom for his prisoner. 
The President is permitted to go to New York and Chicago, but 
only on parole. Mr. Lawler will follow him to both cities, and 
shadow him like a detective. He has maintained the siege in 
Washington for nearly two months, and this morning's paper says 
that " his bills for telegrams alone, covering a short period of his 
stay, amounted to S86.00. This was but one of the many items, 
for he has waged the contest so vigorously, and has watched the 
opposition so unceasingly that it required heavy expenditures." 
Mr. Lawler's maxim is that all the ability a democrat needs for an 
office is the ability to get it ; and having a delicate regard f^r the 
feelings of Mr. Cleveland, he fears that when the chief magistrate 
comes to Chicago, the opposition to Mr. Lawler "will embrace 
the opportunity to pester the President." He does not want to see 

the President pestered, especially by the opposition. Mr. Cleve- 
land may as well surrender first as last, for the office is hunting 
the man, and will very likely get him. 

"Liberty be on guard, thine enemy never sleeps ! " Espe- 
cially is this warning timely when that wakeful enemy by deceitful 
stratagem tries to undermine the common school system of Amer- 
ica. Under the existing order of unequal social opportunities, the 
level floor of the common school is the last refuge of .-Xmerican 
democracy, and that sanctuary is to be invaded now. Pretending 
to reform the scheme of studies adopted for the schools, the ene- 
mies of popular education in Chicago are trying to cripple the 
schools as much as possible by abolishing those modern and more 
enlightened methods of instruction which they classically ridicule 
as "fads." Appealing to the sordid spirit of the rich they seek 
to abridge the educational rights of the poor. Taking advantage 
of their own wrong they plead that the tax payer's money should 
not be thrown away on ' ' special studies, " like the making of " mu J 
pies," while there is actually a scarcity of schools. That is not an 
argument, but an additional reproach. The children are entitled 
to more schools, and the "special studies" too. There is no dan- 
ger that they will receive too much learning, or too much of any 
other useful thing, and the great World's Fair is a colossal sole- 
cism in a city deficient in schools. Build more schools, and let the 
city cease to grow until the schools catch up. Outside the common 
school there is hardly any field of endeavor where the poor man's 
child and the rich man's child can meet on terms of unconditional 
equality ; where brains are the test of merit ; and where the prizes 
are above the reach of bribe, favor, or partiality. It is a grand thing 
to be old, if the memory holds out, and I can remember that nearly 
forty years ago when we were trying to introduce the common 
school system into the western states we were told by the fathers 
of the men who are now so jealous of "special studies" that the 
common school system itself was a " fad." 

M. M. Trumbull. 



To the Editor of The Open Court: 

I should like to call the attention of Dr. Max Dessoir to an 
article by Van Cullen Jones, ".\ Chapter on Mediums," which 
appeared in The Dolgeville ILraU, of .-Vpril 6th. Having become 
interested, through discussion with Herbert Burrows, and a slight 
correspondence with Du Prel, in modern miracles, or perhaps 
rather in some of the modern believers in the " supersensual, " I 
noted the article in question, hoping at some future time, when I 
have leisure for practical investigation of spiritualism and theoso- 
phy, to communicate with Mr. Jones ; since I notice that he hints 
at having discovered an explanation for phenomena for which I 
have never yet seen any explanation — for instance, the lifting of a 
chair containing a heavy occupant, by the apparent mere placing 
of the hands upon (not under) the arms of the chair. Perhaps you 
wall kindly forward this letter to Dr. Dessoir. Yours truly, 

C. M. W. 

To the Editor of The Open Court : 

The writer of the article on "The Psychology of Legerde- 
main" makes, as is usual with thinkers who confine all reason and 
explanation of phenomena to the realm of natural causation, and 
seek, by a certain show of knowledge, to explain everything in 
heaven and on earth by scientific formula;, the exit out of the di- 
lemma by a frank denial of the existence of persons after death, or 
of spirits, who could exercise a power which the old formulas of 
science could not reduce to legerdemain. And yet manifestations 
are occurring everywhere and of such variety of kind which are 



not explained by legerdemain, that it seems to me incomprehensive 
that his rather interesting article should have been marred by the 
omission of an examination of the real phenomena and a recogni- 
tion of the facts in the case. He concedes somewhat to the ideal- 
ists and spiritualists the belief that an atom of probability of a 
genuine basis for certain spirit manifestations might exist — at least, 
he cannot explain some things, yet he adds after all that perhaps 
they are subtler expressions of jugglery. Max Dessoir is perhaps 
another Sir David Brewster, who said that "spirits would be the 
last thing that he would give in to." Yet, is this the scientific 
spirit? Are we, as seekers for truth, to set up our standards of jug- 
lery, etc., and seek to explain what cannot be disposed of by ridicule 
and denial by our preconceived notions of formulae ? Is this the 
way to get at and measure truth ? Does truth not rather destroy 
than make standards of the kind which Max Dessoir sets up ? I 
personally challenge this writer to bring forth one single argument 
of legerdemain that will account for the manifestations of D. D. 
Home (a name he mentions), as testified to by the leading scientific 
men of his day. While I am not a spiritualist, I believe in fair 
play, and I feel that I am correct in saying that, judging from 
these, his published articles, such a man as Max Dessoir has not 
the true scientific spirit, nor is he qualified to pass judgment upon 
things about which his article proves that he has been neither a 
witness nor investigator. For the truth, 

J. C. F. Grumbine. 

[Our correspondents' criticism of Dr. Dessoir's position is not 
justified. Dr. Dessoir is one of the few exceptions among our 
savants* who show an inclination to believe in spiritualistic phe- 
nomena. Dr. Dessoir has a decided leaning towards dualism, traces 
of which appear in his article, "The Magic Mirror, "f and also in 
his " Psychology of Legerdemain." 

He is not as uncritical as fanatic believers usually are, but 
careful readers will find in his articles indications in which he be- 
trays his tendencies. 

We have omitted, with Dr. Dessoir's permission, the following 
footnote, which was attached to the fourth paragraph of the con- 
clusion of his last article on the ' Psychology of Legerdemain," 
and I now gladly take occasion to publish it. 

"Zollner's table is a noteworthy exception. The leg of the 
' ' table, wrought in one piece, is so thick in its upper and lower 
' ' parts that the ring which has been placed in a mysterious way 
" upon the thinner middle cannot have been shoved upon it, either 
' ' from below or from above, because the leg of the table consists 
"of one piece only. Thus there exists an objective and lasting 
" testimony for the phenomena in Slade's seances. But what shall 
" we do with such an isolated fact ? There is also one unquestion- 
" able case of a deflection of a magnet by the human hand ; but 
"science has gained nothing thereby." 

These remarks do not convince me. The fact that Mr. Slade. 
or any other medium, or any prestidigitateur, was once or twice so 
extraordinarily successful as in the instance adduced by Dr. Des- 
soir, proves nothing in favor of spiritualistic phenomena. 

■ I must plead guilty to a lack of confidence in the investiga- 
tions of spiritualism or theosophy. Such investigations will lead to 
no noteworthy results. I have published an article on the subject 
in reply to Mrs. Bodington, in No. 229 of The Open Court, and I 
hope to take up the subject at some future time. As to Dr. Dessoir, 
who is not guilty of this same offense, I expect that he will speak 
for himself. A reply of his may be expected in four or five weeks. 
— p. c.J 

* He is a physician and Privatdoceni at the University of Berlin. 
+ See The Mo-nist, Vol. I, No. i, and also Mr. R. Meade Bache's criticism. 
The Question 0/ Dztality of Mind, Vol. i, No. 3. 


Instead of a Book. By a Man Too Busy to Write One. New 
York : Benjamin R. Tucker, 1893. 
Mr. Benjamin R. Tucker, of Boston, has here collected and 
published in a volume a number of articles from Liberty. He 
states in the preface that being too busy to write a systematic text- 
book of Anarchism, he presents this collection "instead of a book." 
Mr. Tucker defines state socialism as "the doctrine that all the 
affairs of men should be managed by the government, regardless 
of individual choice." According to the socialistic plan "every 
man will be a wage-receiver, and the State the only wage-payer. 
He who will not work for the state must starve, or, more likely, 
go to prison. All freedom of trade must disappear. Competition 
must be utterly wiped out. All industrial and commercial activity 
must be centred in one vast, enormous, all-inclusive monopoly. 
The remedy for monopolies is monopoly." Mr. Tucker does not 
accept the theories of state socialism, but takes the opposite road, 
— "the road of liberty." He proposes Anarchism, which he de- 
fines as "the doctrine that all the affairs of men should be man- 
aged by individuals or voluntary associations, and that the state 
should be abolished." By Anarchism Mr. Tucker understands 
not necessarily absence of order, as is generally supposed, but ab- 
sence of rule. "Nor does the Anarchistic scheme furnish any code 
of morals to be imposed upon the individual. ' Mind your own 
business' is its only moral law. Interference with another's busi- 
ness is a crime and the only crime, and as such may properly be 
resisted. In accordance with this view the Anarchists look upon at- 
tempts to arbitrarily suppress vice as in themselves crimes. They 
believe liberty and the resultant social well-being to be a sure cure 
for all vices. . . . This is an ideal utterly inconsistent with that of 
those Communists who falsely," as says Mr. Tucker, "call them- 
selves Anarchists, while at the same time advocating a regime of An- 
archism fully as despotic as that of the state socialists themselves. " 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E. C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $t.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 


JUSTICE AND LABOR. Victor Yarros 3647 

CURRENT TOPICS : The Measure of a Conscience. The 

Treaty With Russia. Russian Methods in Illinois. The 

Right to Wear Whiskers. The Office Seeks the Man. 

Special Studies in the Schools. Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 3652 

Legerdemain and Spiritualism. C.M.Williams. J.C. 

F. Grumbine. [With Editorial Remarks.] 3653 


The Open Court. 



No. 298. (Vol. VII. — ig.) 

CHICAGO, MAY 11, 1893. 

J Two Dollars per Year. 
( Single " 

;Ie Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co.— Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 



"Thirty years ago, the assertion that psycholog}' 
"was yet in its childhood, and had little prospect of 
"growing out of it, would have been scouted as 
"paradoxical, and a criticism of this kind would have 
"been deemed amply refuted by a reference to the 
"numerous treatises which have appeared since Locke's 
"time on all the various activities of the human mind. 
"But to-day this assertion is not at all paradoxical. 
"Our point of view has become a different one, and al- 
" though we justly acknowledge that the old psycholo- 
" gists have rendered great services in many directions, 
"have definitively settled many mooted points, and 
"have exhibited in their analyses remarkable pene- 
"tration and acumen, yet we can now regard their 
"work as scarcely anything more than attempts. 

"The new spirit of the natural sciences has also 
"penetrated psychology. And the question is asked 
"whether a mass of acute remarks, fine analyses, ele- 
"gantly presented observations on the normal state 
"of the mind, and metaphysical hypotheses presented 
" as truths, form an articulated system, a true science, 
"and whether we should not justly resort to some 
" more exact method. 

" In this manner a separation has been effected be- 
" tween the new and the old psychology which has 
"dail}' grown more distinct, and although to all ap- 
"pearance the old psychology is still vigorous and 
"active, its days are numbered. In the new environ- 
" ment which has arisen about it, its conditions of exist- 
" ence are different ; its methods are not adequate to 
" the constantly increasing difficulties of its problems, 
"and to the constantly growing demands of the scien- 
" tific spirit : it still lives on its past. In vain do its 
"foremost representatives proclaim that we should in- 
"vestigate the facts, and should give due attention to 
"experience; sincere as their concessions are, they 
" produce nothing, and in the actual work are not ful- 
" filled. The moment they put their hands to the task 
"the irresistible desire for pure speculation takes pos- 
" session of them. Furthermore, any condition of 
"things which is radically wrong does not admit of 

• From Die Gegenvjart. 

"reformation, and the old psychology must perish as 
"the consequence of its self-contradictory character. 
"No endeavors to adapt it to the demands of the times 
"can deceive us in this matter ; its fundamental char- 
" acter, as may be shown in very few words, always 
"remains the same. It is permeated with the meta- 
" physical spirit, it is the 'science of the soul'; self- 
" observation, analysis, inference, are its favorite 
" methods ; it mistrusts the biological sciences, accepts 
" their help only unwillingly and when forced to do so, 
"and is ashamed of the help which it receives from 
"them. Peevish and morose like all that is old and 
"weak, it yearns only for seclusion and quiet." 

In these words, Th. Armand Ribot summarised, in 
the year 1879, the situation of the speculative school in 
psychology, and presents in sharp and rigid contrast 
thereto the programme of his own scientific activity. 
The abyss of ph3'sico-philosophical doubt which the 
speculative era opened up had never been bridged by the 
speculative philosophj', and its solutions were wofully 
disproportionate to the comprehensive scope of the 
problems proposed. In company with the band of great 
scientific discoverers who were sent forth from the 
laboratory of Johannes Miiller, Th. Ribot holds that all 
compromise with the nature-philosophy of the past 
decades is impossible, and all struggle with them 
practically purposeless : there can be no discussion 
with representatives of such thought, for neither prin- 
ciples nor methods, neither language nor purposes, are 
the same. But while men like Helmholtz and Du 
Bois-Reymond, whose talents were especially adapted 
to observation and experiment, unceasingly promoted 
the new method by great discoveries, Ribot, who is 
fundamentally a dialectician and who was educated in 
the school of abstract philosophical thought, arrived 
at the new view of things only with great labor and at 
a subsequent period. 

It will not, therefore, be surprising, if early and 
natural habits of thought did not adapt themselves in 
ever}' respect to the changed point of view. Despite 
his great and sincere admiration for the experimental 
method, we cannot find in a single work of Ribot's a 
description of even one experiment which he has in- 
dependently conducted. In the method which is pe- 



culiarly his, of sounding a problem on all sides before 
actually attacking it, he proves himself a master of 
analysis ; the art which he possesses and handles with 
a skill amounting to virtuosity, of revealing and thor- 
oughly illuminating unclear ideas, may be accepted as 
a model of dialectical skill. In a word, he has placed 
the intellectual qualities of a past epoch in the service 
of modern science, and we shall now show by a brief 
discussion of his works how fruitful this union has 

The first works of Th. Ribot are of a critical-his- 
torical character. Mindful of the saying that the his- 
tory of a science is the science itself, he attempts, in 
two detailed monographs on English and German 
experimental psychology, to tell us the brief past of 
this "science of the future." The slow march, the 
devious and winding paths which psychology has fol- 
lowed, appear to him, from a psychological point of 
view, easily intelligible, for he bitterly laments that 
one should really be mathematician, physicist, physi- 
ologist, and pathologist, and should have a perfect 
command of the results and especially of the methods 
of all the experimental sciences in order to take up 
with any prospect of success psychological investiga- 
tions. If, therefore, the results of psychological in- 
quiry have not as yet been very great, this, in his 
opinion, speaks neither against its methods, nor against 
its representatives ; the progress of scientific knowl- 
edge is in a much higher degree than we ordinarily 
imagine, a function of the time. 

In his "English Psychology of To-day," which 
appeared in 1870, Ribot discusses in some detail the 
works of the two Mills, of Herbert Spencer, Alexander 
Bain, and George Lewes, who were at that time al- 
most unknown in France. This book, which within a 
few years was translated into most of the civilised lan- 
guages of Europe, contributed so much to the circula- 
tion of these authors, that it was by this fact almost 
rendered superfluous. In a brilliant and fascinating 
manner it depicts to us the history, method, and aims 
of the English psychology, it emphasises with especial 
force the predilection of the same for general systems, 
its predominantly descriptive character, but it also ex- 
pressly mentions its lack of really experimental foun- 
dations and the hypothetical features of the majority 
of its assumptions. Especially remarkable in our opin- 
ion is the essay on Herbert Spencer, as whose enthu- 
siastic admirer and adherent Ribot confesses himself. 

In contrast to the "organic" psychology of the 
English, which, resting on the general hypothesis of 
evolution, explains the psychical phenomena as the 
highest form of existence and as the most complicated 
of all natural processes, because in point of time the 
last, the German psychology has always set itself a 
different problem. The psychology of Germany has 

adopted the analytical method, and has borrowed its 
points of view, as well as its technical forms, from the 
phj'sical sciences. It exhibits generally a greater en- 
deavor after precision ; especially the employment of 
experiment ; the quantitative determination of facts 
(experiment demanding numbers and measures) ; a 
more restricted field of research ; a preference for 
monographs instead of large compendious treatises. 
This distinction of German and English psychology, 
which at first glance seems strange, is, as we see, per- 
fectly well-founded in the nature of things. As in art 
and in public life, so the national character is ex- 
pressed not less distinctly in science. 

In the period of time between the publication of 
the works on English and German psychology (1870- 
1879) two larger treatises appeared bearing the titles 
"Psychological Heredity" and "The Philosophy of 
Schopenhauer," which are of great importance for an 
understanding of Ribot's development. 

The first is the only sacrifice which Ribot made to 
his speculative tendencies. The second is a complete 
liberation from them. 

Heredity — habit — conservation of force : these are 
the three apparently unrelated phenomena between 
which Ribot in the conclusion of his work on heredity 
endeavors to construct a bridge. " Considered from 
" a philosophical point of view heredity appears to us 
"as a fragment of a much higher and more general 
"law, of a law of the universe, and its cause should 
"be sought in the mechanism of the universe. Any- 
" thing that has been, must always be ; hence, in the 
"individual, habit and memory, and in the race, he- 
" redity. It is simply a case of that ultimate law which 
" phj'sicists call the conservation of energy, and meta- 
" physicians universal causality. " We must see that 
the idea here indicated is capable of a much more con- 
crete expression, and it receives such in fact later from 
Ribot's own hands. In the form in which it is here 
expressed the principle is nothing but a pure specula- 
tive hypothesis and bears on its face all the marks 
which Ribot gives as characteristic of such : it is defi- 
nite, it is clear, circumscribed, distinct, and — unde- 

Undemonstrable ! This is the word which after a 
detailed exposition of Schopenhauer's philosophy he 
utters as his final criticism of it. And how any one in 
seriousness or in conviction could believe and defend 
things which are undemonstrable appears to him in 
the course of his development more and more unin- 
telligible. From now on, metaphysics is to him a kind 
of belief in a second scientific revelation ; its history, 
the history of error. 

In 1 88 1 Ribot began his series of epoch-making 
works on the pathology of psychic phenomena with 
the "Diseases of Memory." These works, despite 



their medical titles, are of an entirely theoretical char- 
acter. The attempt is made in them, in opposition to 
the customary views on this subject, to found the doc- 
trine of the normal functions on the consideration of 
their pathological excesses, to view the phenomena of 
psychical disease as undeveloped and therefore less 
complicated forms of mental activity. 

To the old psychology, memory is a special faculty 
of the soul, a most remarkable and totally mysterious 
mental capacity of preserving, reproducing, and ar- 
ranging, perspectively in the past, images and ideas. 
As Ribot had alread}' suggested in his treatise on he- 
redity, and as it was later more minutely developed 
by Professor Hering in his brilliant address on " Mem- 
ory as a General Function of Organised Matter, " * true 
psychical memory is at bottom only a special case of 
a much more general phenomenon of " organic " mem- 
ory, as it is met with in habit, in heredit}', and in the 
instinct of newborn animals. This organic memory 
is a property of every living cell. Its especial modi- 
fication, as psychic memory, is exclusively the prop- 
erty of the cerebral cell. 

The chief merit of Ribot's work on memory is in 
our judgment this, that it has brought order into the 
numberless and complicated facts of the psycho-path- 
ological literature belonging in this field, in such a 
manner that only things of importance are emphasised, 
yet everything that can throw light on the normal 
mechanism of memory is thoroughly exhausted in the 
concise space of one hundred and sixty octavo pages. 
The results at which Ribot arrived at the conclusion 
of his researches are by no means self-evident truisms, 
but are apparently even paradoxical — veritable Colum- 
bus eggs in science. One example will be enough to 
support this assertion. It is that of the so-called "law 
of regression " which Ribot formulated to express the 
course of the disturbances of memory : 

" In cases of general dissolution the loss of memories follows 
an invariable order : recent facts, then ideas in general, then emo- 
tions, then acts. 

" In cases of partial dissolution, (in the case best known, the 
forgetting of signs.) the loss of memories follows an invariable 
order ; proper names, common names, adjectives and verbs, inter- 
jections, gestures. 

"In the two cases the order is identical. It is a regression 
from the most recent to the oldest, from the comple.\ to the simple, 
from the voluntary to the automatic, from the less organised to 
the better organised. 

"We have brought our law into connection with this physio- 
logical principle, ' Degeneration first strikes that which has been 
last formed,' and with this psychological principle, 'The complex 
disappears before the simple, because it has been less often re- 
peated in experience.' " 

We here see a number of facts, which by them- 
selves are highly remarkable, brought together in a 

* A translation of this memoir was published in Vol. I of The Open Court, 
Nos. 6 and 7, pp. 141 and 169. 

law which is almost self-evident, reduced, so to say, 
to a common denominator — a model of apposite ex- 

Whilst in his work on " Memory," Ribot could re- 
tain and employ points of view which are generally 
familiar, he is, in his "Diseases of the Will" and his 
"Diseases of Personality-," on much more unstable 
ground. Although we speak dail}' of acts of will and 
of individual consciousness, it would 3'et be almost 
impossible to give anything like a description of these 
phenomena, such as any one could easily give for facts 
of memory. In both cases it is difficult — indeed, almost 
impossible — to decide whether we are concerned with 
elementary and especial contents of consciousness, or 
with a secondar}' or derived phenomenon ; in both 
cases, in fact, even Ribot's researches have led to a 
substantially negative result. 

In the mind of the natural inquirer there can be no 
doubt that the processes which take place in the ner- 
vous system like all other known phenomena of the 
universe, are subject to the law of the conservation of 
energy, that they form an uninterrupted non-displace- 
able series whose last member is determined by the 
first. The external stimuli which strike our senses are 
propagated as internal products in our brains, they 
proceed as centrifugal impulses to the motory nerves, 
and are discharged outwardly in the form of motions 
which are infinitely varied. By this mechanical ex- 
planation we must abide, for as yet it is the only one 
which renders a fraction of the phenomena of the 
world, though not all, intelligible. It is our only anchor 
of hope in this apparently lawless chaos of things. 
And agreeably to the words of the immortal author of 
the " Mecanique celeste" there can exist in the law- 
fulness of natural phenomena no contradiction, except 
such as our ignorance imports into it. 

These in outline are the assumptions from which 
Ribot proceeds in his observation of the phenomena 
of will, and which he seeks to carry out, step by step, 
in his work. He shows that in every act of the will 
there are two factors which can be well distinguished : 
the state of consciousness, the "I will," which es- 
tablishes the situation, but in itself is wholly power- 
less : and a highly complicated psycho-physiological 
mechanism which sets free motory and inhibitory im- 
pulses. He shows us that in pathological cases now 
this and now that factor can be lost, that in the first 
instance the irresistible fixed ideas, and in the second, 
the disease aboulia arises. And he closes his exposi- 
tion with this sentence : -'La volontc n' est pas la cause 
de sien." 

It is not to be denied that this conception of psy- 
chological states as mere epiphenomena of certain 
cerebral processes is of great service to the economy 
of science, but it can also not be denied that the "dou- 



ble nervous process" is as 3'et simply an unproved 
hypothesis. The attempt has been made in two ways 
to get beyond this ; first, by the return to the old as- 
sumption of a will, which has the power to act on the 
psychical machine ; and second, in the recent books 
of Janet and Binet, " L'automatisme psychologique " 
and " Les alterations de la personnalit6, " and also in 
the works of others, by the theory of the so-called 
"double ego." Not only certain nervous processes, 
but all such, are accompanied on this hypothesis by 
consciousness, by a consciousness which is distributed, 
as it were, in strata among different egos. We merely 
mention this theory, as we do not see in it any sub- 
stantial promotion of our knowledge. 

In closing this description of Ribot's life-work, we 
must not forget to mention a short treatise on the 
" Psychology of- Attention," * which explains attention 
as a purely motor activity, and, last but not least, we 
must mention his long editorship of the Rcviic philo- 
sophiquc. At present he is engaged, as he informs 
the author of this article, in writing a new book, which 
is to be called "La psychologic de sentiments." 

If we glance again over Th. Ribot's scientific ca- 
reer, we cannot refrain from yielding to it our sincere 
admiration. We see in him one of the most ingenious 
and most brilliant path-finders in one of the most diffi- 
cult provinces of modern science. 



What is the attitude of the religion of science to- 
wards other religions ? 

The religion of science is not hostile to the spirit 
of the traditional religions : on the contrary, being their 
matured product, it regards them as harbingers that 
prepare the way. 

The dogmatic religions are mythologies which at- 
tempt to teach the truth in parable and allegory. They 
are prophecies of the religion of truth. 

Is mythology injurious? 

Mythology in itself is not injurious ; on the con- 
trary, it is a necessary stage in the evolution not only 
of religion, but also of science. Man's mode of con- 
veying thought is essentially mythological. All lan- 
guage is based upon similes and we shall perhaps never 
be able to speak without using figures of speech. 

The religion of science does not come to destroy 
the mythologies of old religion ; it does not come to 
destroy but to fulfil. 

What is the nature of the mythology of science ? 
Science no less than religion had to pass and, in 
many of its fields, is still passing, through a mytholog- 

* The authorised English translation of this work and of The Diseases of 
Personality are published by The Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago. III. 

ical period ; and this mythological period is often 
marked by fantastic notions and extravagant vagaries. 
Astrology preceded astronomy, and alchemy preceded 

It is a great mistake of the chemist to look down 
upon the alchemist, and of the astronomer to speak 
with contempt of the astrologer of former ages. It is 
a sign either of narrowness or of a lack of information 
to revile our ancestors because they knew less than we. 
Baron Liebig was the greatest chemist of his times ; 
yet he speaks with profound respect of the aspirations 
and accomplishments of the alchemists. Those upon 
whose shoulders we stand deserve our thanks not our 
contempt. Let us not despise the anthropoid from 
whose labors man has risen to the height of a human 
existence ! 

The mythology of science still clings to us to-day. 

When does mythology become injurious? 

Mythology becomes injurious as soon as it is taken 
as the truth itself. 

Mythology thus produces that self sufficient spirit 
of dogmatism which prevents further inquiry into truth. 

What is the origin of the mythological religions ? 

The historical religions were founded at a time when 
science and its methods of inquiry did not as yet exist. 
Yet religion was wanted. People cannot live without 
spiritual support and solace and guidance. And as the 
old Egyptians instinctively discovered such tools as 
the lever and other simple instruments helpful to them 
in their work long before they understood the princi- 
ples of these contrivances ; as mankind in general in- 
stinctively invented language as a means of communi- 
cation without having any philological knowledge, and 
even without the least inkling of the laws of grammar 
and logic : so some prophets rose among our ancestors 
preaching to them some simple rules of conduct which 
they had instinctively found when pondering on the 
miseries caused by criminal and ruthless behavior. 

The nobler conduct, preached by prophets and en- 
forced by the evil consequences of sin, raised man- 
kind to a higher ground. Men learned to feel and 
appreciate the truth of the religious authority which 
proclaims the moral commands ; and the religious 
convictions thus established proved even in their im- 
perfect form an invaluable source of solace and help 
in the tribulations of life. 

Does the law of evolution apply to religion also? 

Religion develops according to natural laws. Not 
only the human body and all living creatures, but also 
such intangible and spiritual entities as science, law, 
language, and social institutions are products of evo- 
lution, and religion forms no exception. 



The hypotheses of science are often formulated 
with the help of analogies, and these analogies contain 
figurative expressions. We speak for instance of elec- 
tric currents, as if electricity were a fluid. This method 
of using analogies which is of great service in scientific 
investigations must not be taken as real science : it is 
the mythology of science. 

The mythology of science is no less indispensable 
in the realm of investigation than it is in the province 
of religion ; but we must not forget that it is a means 
only to an end, the ideal of scientific inquiry being and 
remaining a simple statement of facts. 

While we may be able to free ourselves from the 
shackels of mythology in science and philosophy, must 
we, perhaps, still retain them in religion ? 

The progress of religion in this direction will be the 
same as in science and philosophy. 

Progress of science means the formation of new 
ideas, and the purification of our old ideas. The myth- 
ological elements must be separated from the pure 
statement of facts, the latter being the grain, the for- 
mer the chaff ; the latter are the truth, the former our 
mythologies, being the methods of reaching the truth. 

The chaff is the husks, and grain cannot grow with- 
out the wholesome protection of the husks. The truth 
contained in mythological allegories is their all-im- 
portant element, which has to be sifted out and pre- 
served. The rest is to be discarded ; it has served an 
educational purpose and will have to be relegated to 
the history of science. 

Religious progress, no less than scientific progress, 
is a process of growth, it is an increment of truth, and 
also a cleansing from mythology. 

Religion is a world-conception regulating man's 
conduct. Our world-conception grows with every new 
information, and all those new ideas from which we 
derive moral rules of conduct become religious ideas. 

As science began with the crude notions of primi- 
tive animism, so did religion begin with a mythology 
full of superstition. And the ideal of religion is the 
same as that of science, it is an increase of truth as 
well as a liberation from mythological elements. The 
more complete our knowledge is, the less is our need 
of hypotheses, and mythological expressions can be 
replaced by exact statements of fact. Both science and 
religion are to be based upon a concise but exhaustive 
statement of facts, which is to be constantly enlarged 
by a more complete and more accurate experience. 

The ultimate goal of religious development is the 
recognition of the truth with the aspiration to live in 
conformity to the truth. 

Mythology which is conceived to be the truth itself 
is called paganism. 

Paganism is the notion that the parable is the mean- 

ing it involves, that the letter is the spirit, that myth- 
ology is the truth. 

It is certainly no error to believe that virtue, jus- 
tice, beauty, love, and other ideas have a real and true 
existence in reality. They whose spiritual eyes are 
too dim to see and to understand their being, will be 
greatly benefited by the representations of the artist 
and the poet, who present those ideals to us, the former 
in our imagination, the latter visibly in marble as per- 
sonal beings, as gods. There is no wrong in similes, 
there is no fault to be found with parables. But he 
who believes that these gods are personal beings, he 
who takes the mythology to be the actual truth, is 
under the spell of a gross misconception, and this mis- 
conception is paganism. 

Paganism leads to idolatry. He who worships the 
symbol is an idolater. 

The dogmatic religions of to-day are still under the 
spell of paganism ; and even Christianity, the highest, 
the noblest, and most humane of all religions, is not 
yet free of idolatry, — a fact which appears in many 
various customs and ceremonies. Sacrifices have been 
abandoned, but prayer, adoration, and other institu- 
tions still indicate the pagan notion that God is like a 
human being, that he takes delight in receiving honors, 
and that upon special considerations he will change 
his decrees and reverse the order of nature for the sake 
of those whom he loves. 

The religion of science does away with paganism 
and idolatry. 

The religion of science rejects the religion of adora- 
tion, and prescribes only one kind of worship — the 
worship in spirit and in truth which consists in obeying 
the authority of moral conduct. 

The religion of science rejects all the vain repeti- 
tions of such prayers as attempt to change not our will 
but the will of God. Those prayers only are admitted 
by the religion of science which set our souls in har- 
mony with the authority of conduct, which consists in 
self-discipline and teach us to say with jesus of Naza- 
reth " Not our, but Thy will be done ! " 

What are the sources of religious truth? 

The religion of science knows of no special revela- 
tions ; it recognises only the revelation of truth, open 
to all of us; as it appears in our experience, viz., in 
the events of nature surrounding us, and also in the 
emotions of our own heart. 

Religion is not due to a supernatural revelation, 
but to the same natural revelation to which science 
owes its existence. 

The form of the established religions is mytholog- 
ical, for its founders spoke in parables, and the alle- 
gorical form of their teachings was quite adapted to 
the age in which they lived. 



New problems have arisen with the growth of sci- 
ence. The mytholog}' of our religions has become 
palpably untenable, and we are no longer satisfied with 
the dogmas extracted from parables. 

Is there any conflict between religion and science? 

True science and true religion can never come in 
conflict. If there is any conflict between religion and 
science, it is a sign that there is something wrong in 
either our science or our religion, and we shall do well 
to revise them both. 

This is the conflict that at present obtains between 
science and religion. The infidel laughs at the im- 
postures of religion, while the bigot demands an im- 
plicit surrender of reason. 

The infidel as well as the bigot are under the er- 
roneous impression that the mythology of religion is 
religion itself. 

What is to be done? 

The bigot demands that science be muzzled, and 
the infidel proposes to eradicate religion. 

Shall we follow the bigot who wants the errors of 
paganism to continue ? Or shall we follow the infidel ? 
Shall we root out science, because it is not as yet free 
from mythology? Shall we eradicate mankind because 
there are traces of barbarism left in our institutions, 
even to-day? Shall we abandon religion because it 
still retains some of the superstitious notions of pa- 
ganism ? 

We follow neither the bigot nor the infidel, but 
propose confidently to advance on the road of pro- 
gress. It is the course prescribed by nature, which 
willingly or unwillingly we shall have to pursue. 

The ideal towards which every religious evolution 
tends, is to develop a Religion of Truth. And this ideal 
can be reached only through an honest search for the 
truth with the assistance of the scientific methods of 

Christianity possesses an ideal which is called " the 
invisible church." Even the most devout Christians 
are aware of the fact that the present condition of the 
church is not the realisation of its ideal. The ideal of 
the invisible church can find its realisation only in the 
religion of science. 



The first day of May, 1900, should be fixed upon as the time 
for changing the present industrial system. Affairs between Capi- 
tal and Labor are rushing rapidly to a destructive crisis, and some 
definite rational policy must be quickly decided upon, towards 
which all scattered and otherwise dangerous energies can be 

This policy is for the working classes to determine that on 
the first of May, 1900, all owning managers of industry shall be 
changed into managing partners with the workers, the workers be- 

coming joint owners with the managers, and the managers becom- 
ing merely their representatives. 

There are seven years in which to prepare for this change. 
The owners and managers should be invited to meet with the 
workers to organise the details of the new system. Many would 
immediately and gladly respond, and these, in conference with the 
working people, would frame plans to which other managers 
wauld consent upon understanding them. The best of the man- 
agers would not wait until the year 1900 before establishing the 
partnership, and when the movement began, many would be con- 
verted to it, whom paper plans could not convince. In less than 
seven years more than half the industries of the country might be 
partnership industries. 

Only one thing is necessary for this result : the working peo- 
ple must firmly resolve, that after April, 1900, they will not work 
under the present organisation of industry. If they are by that 
time united in this purpose, those selfish capitalists who have not 
voluntarily accepted the partnership plan, will be constrained to 
yield. If they cannot get men to work for them their plants will 

The first step to this end is to form a society embracing as 
many citizens, men and women, of this country, as wish to see the 
inevitable industrial revolution accomplished peaceably. Every 
working man and woman will be of this number. They wish their 
fair share of the product of their industry, they also wish to ob- 
tain it without the shedding of blood. They will therefore join in 
the support of this peaceful method. All intelligent people of 
every class will join it, for they are coming to see that society must 
be reorganised from its base to satisfy the modern sense of justice 
or even to survive. 

Society must be saved from chaos by a strong, sufficient effort. 
Therefore, let meetings be held to organise this movement ; let 
societies be everywhere founded with this clear aim in view, to 
make the working people partners in all industries in the year 

Other and further developments of the industrial revolution 
can be accomplished afterwards or at the same time. This will be 
a tangible beginning, broad enough not only for all progressive 
forces thus far organised to unite upon, but broad enough for those 
unorganised up to this time; sufficiently evolutionary and suffi- 
ciently revolutionary for the next seven years. While working for 
their own specific ends as before, all reformers can cooperate for 
this common end. 

This plan has little machinery. Social leaders can establish 
societies where they are, over the whole country, and these can 
afterwards be federated with some central direction. 

To hold the object clearly in mind is all that is necessary for 
this organisation. But as many circumstances are driving labor 
to frenzy, the time for immediate and universal action has come. 


I HAVE had the privilege of reading in manuscript the plan of 
Mr. Swift, in order that I might make a few comments on its mer- 
its and its defects as a scheme of social change. 

The policy advocated by Mr. Swift is not new. More than 
fifty years ago it was adopted by the English Chartists assembled 
in their National Convention. They solemnly resolved to reverse 
the social order by paralysing business for thirty days ; and this 
thirty days was beatified as the " Sacred Month." On the first day 
of the " Sacred Month " all work of every kind was to cease, and 
it was confidently proclaimed that before the end of it the revolu- 
tion would be accomplished, " without the shedding of blood." 

The impossibility of the scheme became apparent as soon as 
the Chartists attempted to fix a day for the beginning of the " Sa- 
cred Month," They never could agree upon a day, and for want 



of such agreement the "Sacred Month" was perpetually post- 
poned. The plan, long ago abandoned in England is now revived 
in America, and the beginning of the ' ' Sacred Month " is definitely 
appointed for the first day of May, igoo. 

It is very easy for the working classes to determine that on the 
first of May, 1900, "all owning managers of industry shall be 
changed into managing partners with the workers, the workers be- 
coming joint owners with the managers," but suppose the "own- 
ing managers" determine otherwise, what then? In that case, 
"the working people must resolve that after April, 1900, they will 
not work under the present organisation of industry." Thus the 
scheme degenerates into a mere strike. This amounts to a resolu- 
tion that the workingmen will not eat after April, igoo. We might 
as well resolve that after the first of May there shall be no more 

There are two obstacles in the way of the plan ; the "owning 
managers" would not agree to it, neither would the workingmen. 
The workingmen prefer a specific sum as wages to any cooperative 
scheme that involves a risk of loss. They have no confidence in 
their own skill to manage a great industry, and they believe that a 
thousand of them owning and operating a factory would never 
agree among themselves either as to the hours of labor or as to a 
division of profits, and especially as to an apportionment of losses. 

Much has been written about the " profit sharing " policy but 
nothing about the " loss sharing " plan, yet this latter is the more 
important because the fear of loss is the chief obstacle to coopera- 
tive industry. The laborers in a great factory would not accept it 
as a gift on the basis of profit and loss and the surrender of wages. 
They will accept a plant on the "profit sharing" plan, but if they 
are to take the risk of losses also, they will prefer the certainty of 

None of the parties to be reconciled by it would be satisfied 
with it, and we must wait for its realisation until the world is peo- 
pled with wiser and better men. 

Mr. Swift's reform applies only to the finished product, such 
as a New England cotton factory. This being already built and 
furnished with water-power and machinery, the operatives may 
just as well "determine" to have it for themselves as not, but the 
scheme has no application to a prospective industry, such, for in- 
stance, as the building of a new railroad, or, for the matter of that, 
the building and equipping of a new cotton factory, or a ship. 
Here is a grave difficulty, which I commend to the studious con- 
sideration of Mr. Swift. 

Besides, the communism of property must precede the com- 
munism of industry, for what use is it that laborers work in com- 
mon unless they own the land, the buildings, and all the raw ma- 
terials of production ? Here is an obstacle in the way of Mr. Swift ; 
an impediment that cannot be removed in seven years nor in sev- 
enty. More men are property owners in the United States than 
in any other country in the world, and for that reason the right of 
private property has become a sentiment firmly established in the 
American mind. That sentiment will weaken, of course, as prop- 
erty, and especially land, becomes monopolised by a few, but it 
will not be extinguished in our generation, and perhaps never. 

If the change is desirable let us adopt it at once. Why should 
the working-classes wait until the year igoo before becoming 
"joint owners " of the mills and factories, the ships and shops, the 
railroads and the farms ? If I have any share in any social reform 
why should I be deprived of it for seven years ? If I am by right 
a partner in any of the profitable industries of Chicago I want my 
dividends now. 

I am personally interested in the theory of Mr. Swift, be- 
cause according to that theory I am now, and have been for many 
years, a stockholder in a great railroad running from Montreal 
into the New England States. I was one of its original builders. 
I worked for many weeks with a wheelbarrow, pick, and shovel. 

to make the roadbed on which the cars now run, and I shall be 
very glad it the engineers, and firemen, and brakemen, and switch- 
men, and conductors, and clerks "determine" to become joint 
owners of the road, provided that I am admitted into the partner- 
ship as one of its original builders. And will they kindly pay me 
the back dividends long due ? Surely the men who build a plant 
are as much entitled to a share of it as the men who work inside 
of it after it is done. 

Here is another difficulty. What share in the new industrial 
system is to go to bricklayers, carpenters, painters, hod-carriers, 
railroad laborers, builders of ships, and the multitudes of con- 
structive workers who cannot become joint owners with the ' ' own- 
ing managers," because there is nothing for them to own ? And 
one question more : When the operatives have made themselves 
joint owners of a cotton factory, or any other factory, will they 
give work to laborers out of a job, or will they make the factory a 
monopoly of their own ? 

As a mere ideal aspiration the general plan appears to be 
beneficent, because it calls for better conditions of the laboring 
men ; but the scheme is impossible. 

"I can call spirits from the vasty deep," said Owen Glen- 
dower, "Why, so can I," said Hotspur; "or so can any man. 
But will they come when you do call for them ? " Experience 
teaches us that they will not ; neither will revolutions. The decla- 
ration that a new social order shall begin on a certain day is like 
the imperious command that King Canute gave to the sea. We 
can just as effectively appoint a certain day for a cyclone. 

A new social order means a new society, and where is the 
promise that the American people will do in the year 1900 what 
they refuse to do now ? Not on any particular day can we reverse 
the social conditions evolved through the travail of ten thousand 
years. As well might the apple-trees determine to bear nothing 
but oranges on and after the first of May, igoo. The promise of 
a man that seven years hence he will begin to be somebody else is 
ridiculous, but not more so than the promise of society to change 
its character on some future First of May. 



Zounds, what a glorious chance to poetize I 
Not one has missed it, every soul has bowed 
And cut his little caper to the crowd. 

And now they wait to see who'll get the prize. 

Why waits the Judge ? Would not the time suffice 
Wherein to write one name, long called aloud 
By all the birds of spring, one name avowed 

Where'er the sea salutes the approving skies ? 

An heir remaining, does the law bequeath 
Upon condition that his years have run 
With only praise on all the winds that breathe ? 

You seek a star beside the noonday sun ; 
Laurel in hand, you ask which brow to wreathe ; 
Great ears of Midas, man, there is but one ! 


We present in this issue of The Open Court an article by Ed- 
ward Sokal, translated from the German, on " Th. Ribot and 
Modern Psychology." 

It is certainly a good sign of the times that Ribot finds such 
an enthusiastic apostle of his psychological views in the country 
of critics, and I expect that Mr. Sokal's lucid exposition will con- 
tribute much towards making the new conception popular. But I 
cannot refrain from noticing that, in our opinion, Mr. Sokal is 



mistaken when he, says that according to Ribot the psychological 
states which are "mere epi-phf-nomena of certain cerebral pro- 
cesses," have to be regarded as a "double nervous process." Mr. 
Sokal adds, " It cannot be doubted that the double nervous process 
" is as yet an unproved hypothesis." 

We do not recollect any passage in Ribot's works in which he 
speaks of a "double nervous process." He speaks of " !a theorie 
qui considers la ronscience comnu un simple phcnoiiiciit." His concep- 
tion of psychological states as phenomenal or epi-phenomenal, 
means that consciousness is a superadded element which, according 
to conditions, may or may not be connected with the act. The 
motor-nerves act whenever irritated by a proper stimulant. This 
action is conscious if the conditions are present, and unconscious 
if they are absent. It is not known to us that Ribot calls the 
physiology of these conditions a double nervous process. 

A man who is under the influence of some intoxicant may walk 
about and act in the same way as one in full possession of his con- 
sciousness. The conditions of consciousness are disturbed. On 
the other hand, the state of consciousness which accompanies the 
action is in itself of no efficacy. The normal condition of a man 
is such that when he says "I will do this," his muscles obey the 
order, but if the action of his nervous system is impaired by the 
disease known as aboulia he may again and again pronounce the 
words "I will do it" without being able to execute the motions. 
The psychical condition in which a man feels the impulse of willing 
and pronounces the words " I will " is one thing while the execu- 
tion of motions is another. % 

This is not an hypothesis but such are the facts. 
The idea that psychical states are to be considered as epi phe- 
nomenal is not a proposition which is original with M. Ribot. It 
is, so it appears to us, an important and fundamental part of his 
psychical views, but it is not a peculiarity of his theories. Spinoza 
was, perhaps, the first to point out that we know two attributes of 
existence which he calls extension and thought. Later philoso- 
phers (Leibnitz), and in recent times, Clifford, Lewes, Huxley, Ro- 
manes, and others have again and again called attention to the 
fact that feelings are not motions and motions not feelings. Feel- 
ings are not, and cannot be changed into, motions. Feelings may 
be another aspect of motion. What I feel as a feeling may appear 
to a physiologist, supposing that he could look into my brain, as a 
nervous motion. But certainly feelings cannot be regarded as 
somehow interrupting the mechanical action of the brain. The 
mechanism of the brain is mechanical throughout, and if we could 
look into a brain we would see no feelings but only brain-motions. 
We grant that the term epi-phenomenal as a signification of 
the realm of feelings is not very commendable, because it suggests 
the idea that feelings are a mere redundant by-play of nerve-actions, 
and this idea is wrong. Yet Ribot has been careful to forestall 
such misapprehension of the term. He says in his "Diseases of 
Personality" (English translation by The Open Court Publishing 
Co., p. 14 et seqq.): 

"There is one weak point in the hypothesis of consciousness as a [mere] 
phenomenon. Its most convinced partisans have defended it in a form that 
has caused them to be called the theorists of pure automatism. According to 
their favorite comparison, consciousness is like the sparks from a steam-engine, 
lighting it up at intervals, but having no effect upon its speed. Consciousness, 
thus, does not produce action any more than the shadow that accompanies the 
steps of the traveler. We have no objection to these metaphors, viewed purely 
as vivid illustrations of the doctrine in question; but taken in a strict sense 
they are exaggerated and inexact. Consciousness in itself and through itself 
is really a new factor, and in this there is nothing either mystical or supernat- 

"Volition is always a state of consciousness — the affirmation that a thing 
must either be done or prevented ; it is the final and clear result of a great 
number of conscious, sub-conscious, and unconscious states ; hut once af- 
firmed, it becomes a new factor in the life of the individual, and, in the assumed 
position, it marks a series, i. e. the possibility of being recommenced (begun 
over again), modified, prevented. Nothing similar exists in regard to auto- 
matic acts that are not accompanied by consciousness. Novelists and poets. 

who usually are good observers of human nature, have frequently described 
that well-known situation, in which a passion — whether love or hatred— long 
brooded over, unconscious, ignorant of itself, at last bursting forth, recognises, 
affirms itself, becomes conscious. Then its character changes; it either re- 
doubles in intensity or is crossed by antagonistic motives. Here, likewise, 
consciousness is a new factor, which has modified the psychological situation. 
One may by instinct, that is. through unconscious cerebration, solve a prob- 
lem, but it is very possible that some other day, at another moment, one will 
fail in regard to an analogous problem. If. on the contrary, the solution of 
any problem is attained through conscious reasoning, a failure will scarcely 
occur in a second instance ; because every step in advance marks a gained 
position, and from that moment we no longer grope our way blindly. This, 
however, does not in the least diminish the part played by unconscious work 
in all human discoveries. 

"These examples taken at hazard may suffice to show, that the above- 
mentioned metaphors are true of each state of consciousness taken in itself. 
In itself, indeed, it is but a light without efficacy, merely the simple relation 
of an unconscious work ; but in relation to the future development of the in- 
dividual it is a factor of the first order. . . . Consciousness itself is hut a phe- 
nomenon, only an accompaniment. . . . But if the state of consciousness leaves 
a vestige, a registration in the organism, in such case it does not act merely 
as an indicator, but as condenser. The metaphor of an automaton is no longer 
acceptable. This being admitted, many objections to the theory of a con- 
sciousness-phenomenon fall to the ground of themselves. The theory is com- 
pleted, without having been weakened." 

The office of The Open Court has been moved from the Nixon 
Building on La Salle street to " The Monon," 320-326 Dearborn 

Macmillan & Co. have just published a pretty little volume by 
F. Marion Crawford, entitled "The Novel: What It Is." One 
can find in this little book a great many suggestions, which to the 
mind that has never thought on these subjects will be very helpful. 
Mr. Crawford presents some excellent arguments, from the literary 
point of view, against the didactic novel, or Teiuienzromati. He 
discloses the mistakes of the ultra-realistic school, and pleads the 
cause of the " eternally human " idea : the novel must be the ex- 
pression of real phases of the human heart, and ethical rather 
than aesthetic. A picture of Mr. Crawford precedes the book. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, Post Office Drawer F. 

E, C. HEGELER, Publisher. 

DR. PAUL CARUS, Editor. 


$2.00 PER YEAR. $1.00 FOR SIX MONTHS. 

N. B. Binding Cases for single yearly volumes of The Open Court will 
be supplied on order. Price, 75 cents each. 



Edward Sokal 3655 

A SOCIALISTIC SCHEME. [With Remarks by General 

Trumbull] Morrison I. Swift 3660 


The New Laureate. Louis Belrose, Jr 3661 

NOTES 3661 

The Open Court. 


No. 299. (Vol. VII.— 20.) 

CHICAGO, MAY 18, 1893. 

J Two Dollars per Year. 
/ Single Copies, 5 Cents. 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Co. — Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher. 


"And we pass away out of the world as 
grasshoppers, and our life is astonishment 
and fear." 11 Esdras, iv, 24. 

To-night there is a church-fair, for money has to 
be raised to pay the debt contracted a few years ago for 
rebuilding the roof and the spire. The congregation 
is not rich, so they must make use of every occasion 
to collect funds. 

The pastor, the Rev. John Wilby, has just returned 
from the funeral of a prominent citizen, together with 
Mr. and Mrs. Brand. Mr. Brand was the editor of a 
small country paper, and his wife was an old Scotch 
lady, known throughout the county, or at least so far 
as her husband's little sheet was read, as a poetess of 
great renown. 

Entering the parsonage our little company met Mr. 
Harry Brand, Jr., son of the editor, a young Harvard 
student on his vacation, and Mr. Martin, the stage man- 
ager of a travelling theatrical company who, partly from 
business considerations, but mostly, we must say, to 
his honor, from a sincere respect towards the religion 
in which he had been educated, had given advice and 
practical assistance in the little performance that was 
to take place at the fair in the school-room. 

All the people that passed by to pay their dime as 
entrance-fee had jolly faces, for they anticipated a 
joyous evening. The parson's face was still too sober 
for the occasion, and he attempted to adapt his sen- 
timent to the new conditions. Almost automatically 
he repeated the words he had spoken half an hour 
ago at the open grave: "All flesh is grass, and 
the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field." 
Such is life ! There tears and here laughter ; there 
sorrow and here merriment; and religion consecrates 
the one as well as the other to the higher glory of 

"Yes," said Mr. Martin, " 'all the world's a stage, 
and all the men and women merely players.' " 

"What would life be without sentiment?" began 
Mrs. Brand, sweetly. 

She evidently intended to quote some poetical pas- 
sage, but was interrupted by her son Harry, who 
added: "The facts of life are nothing ; the sentiments 

only with which we regard facts, make them what they 
are to us." 

' ' True, as far as it goes, " rejoined the pastor, ' ' but 
not wholly true. There is something more in life than 
our sentiments make of it. Life, to the jolly fool may 
be a comedy ; to the pessimist a tragedy. We must 
look upon life as God wants us to look upon it. If sen- 
timent alone made life, the essence of wisdom might 
be to enjoy it as best we can. But we cannot live as 
we please, and we must not see the world in tlie light 
that suits us best. There is a something in life which 
we call duty, and duty does not depend upon our sen- 

Having entered the schoolroom, which was already 
crowded, Mr. Martin disappeared behind the curtain, 
while all the others took the seats that were reserved 
for them, among the other dignitaries of the township, 
in the front row. 

All of a sudden the lights were turned out and a 
general hallooing and murmuring vented the different 
feelings with which this opening of the performance 
was regarded. Upon the white sheet that served as a 
curtain there appeared in the light of a magic lantern 
a big grasshopper. The school teacher played a few 
chords on the piano, and now the choir began to sing : 

" The grasshopper sat on the sweet-potato vine. 
And the big turkey gobbler came up behind." 

The picture in the magic lantern became cloudy as 
if it were going to dissolve, but rapidly it cleared again, 
and in the meantime the scene changed. A big monster 
appeared in the background, while the grasshopper, 
heedless of any danger, assumed a sedentary position. 
He looked gay and seemed very much pleased with 
his fate. Apparently he was young still ; and if he were 
a human being, we should call him a dude. He seems 
to be the only son and an heir. 

The choir continued : 

" And the big turkey gobbler came up behind, 
And he gobbled him down off the sweet-potato vine." 

"Such is life," said the pastor to himself; "media 
in vita nos in morte siimiis." 

There ! The scene changes again. A reciter behind 
the curtain gives information of how the gobbler rel- 
ishes the poor grasshopper. The eyes of the cruel 



monster show the horrid deHght which he takes in swal- 
lowing his living and feeling fellow-creature. What an 
unnatural banquet. Can any cannibal be less mindful 
of his victim's sentiments? Think of the grief of the 
deceased grasshopper's afflicted family ! 

The barbarous turkey has callous sentiments in- 
deed. Nor does he mind that one of the grasshop- 
per's cousins, upon whom the father's estate, accord- 
ing to the law of the country, will devolve, is not quite 
as mournful as the young grasshopperess, who was 
engaged to the unfortunate youth. 

New scenes appear, showing the bereaved ones, 
and the tunes played indicate their sentiments. 

The gobbler takes another view of the subject. 
With a basso profundo he presents his account of the 
event, triumphantly boasting of his heroic deed in the 
martial strain of an old ballad. It is a boisterous tune ; 
but is he not right from his standpoint? 

'•How much onesidedness ! " thought the pastor 
to himself, well aware of what he had just said to the 
young student, when he was almost shocked at the 
next picture that appeared in the dissolving views. It 
was a picture of himself. A clergyman was introduced 
as the Rev. Bumblebee, who stood there in the atti- 
tude of addressing the meeting on the Vanity Fair of 
grasshopper life ; he spoke with emotion, half singing 
in the style of a hymn : 

" short were his days 

On the sweet-potato vine; 
For all flesh is grass, 

On a sweet-potato vine, 
And many are the birds 

That come up behind. 
To destroy him who sitteth 

On the sweet-potato vine." 

The pastor was very good natured, and nobody ex- 
pected that he would take offence at it, although the 
picture of the clergyman was plainly a humorous sug- 
gestion of his personality. No one was more amiable 
when made the butt of a joke than he, but no one at 
the same time was more dexterous in retorting in a 
kindly spirit, and mostly in such a way as to accom- 
pany the retort with a lesson. The pastor began to 
laugh heartily, and the audience applauded. 

Silence was restored, when the sweet voice of a 
soprano singer began : 

" We twa hae louped amang the grass 

When simmer days were tine. 
when turltey-cocks were a' forgot 

And never brought to mind. 
The gobbler he came down the brae 

And creepit up behind 
And took a right gude willy waught 

For auld lang syne." 

Wasn't that a strain in the style of Mrs. Brand's 
poetry ? Some of these rhymes smacked strongly of 
a few verses that had appeared some time ago in her 
husband's paper. And lo ! Out of the dissolving 
view appeared an old grasshopper-woman bearing a 

marked resemblance to the old lady, and she would 
have been more indignant than she actually was, had 
not the pastor taken the production of his caricature so 

The next shot was aimed at Mr. Brand. He was 
as some of his friends expressed it, a labor crank. The 
world, in his opinion, was like unto a southern planta- 
tion in the worst times of slavery. His idea was that 
every rich man is responsible for the existence of pov- 
erty. Poverty exists because we have wealth ; the 
presence of the millionaire is the cause of the tramp- 
ing tramp. He hailed every breakdown of a great 
business enterprise, every bankruptcy of a rich man 
as one step nearer to the liberation of the enslaved 
and poverty-strick